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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 803: 150087, 2022 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34500276

RESUMO

We reported a new strategy for efficient phosphate removal from wastewaters, it relies on the discarded Artemia Cyst-shell in-situ growth of Al(OH)3 nanocluster, the charged amino-acids components of skeleton make available for the small size of Al(OH)3 formation (< 10 nm) with high activity, and the three-dimensional porous structure of discarded matrix provides fast kinetics and efficient Al(OH)3 nanoparticles utilization. These hybrid adsorbents exhibit ultrahigh capacity (850.5 mg/g) and fast kinetics (~2 min) by recent ten-years (2011-2020) survey, the superior selectivity against various foreign ions, with a distribution coefficient (Kd) as high as 4820 mL/g, the porous structure and fast kinetics also accelerate the phosphate accessibility, yielding a satisfactory capacity of ~3000 L/kg sorbent (Artemia CS-Al) for the application, even varying at high feeding-speeds. The saturated adsorbent can be readily regenerated and reused without decrease in performance, this technology is promising for mitigating the contamination problem of excess phosphate worldwide.


Assuntos
Cistos , Nanopartículas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Adsorção , Animais , Artemia , Fosfatos , Água , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34682526

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical products, as well as insecticides and antimicrobials, have been extensively studied, but knowledge of their effects-especially those caused by their mixtures with microplastics-on aquatic organisms remains limited. However, it should be borne in mind that the state of knowledge on acute and chronic effects in aquatic organisms for pharmaceuticals and pesticides is not similar. In response, this investigation analyzed the presence of microplastics (polyvinyl chloride) and their impacts on the toxicity of chlorpyrifos (an insecticide) and triclosan (an antibacterial) when they coincide in the environment, alongside the two most consumed drugs of their type (hypolipemic and anticonvulsant, respectively), namely simvastatin and carbamazepine, in Artemia salina. LC50 and cholinesterase enzyme activity were calculated to determine the possible neurotoxicity associated with emergent contaminants in the treatments. The LC50 values obtained were 0.006 mg/dm3 for chlorpyrifos, 0.012 mg/dm3 for chlorpyrifos associated with microplastics, 4.979 mg/dm3 for triclosan, 4.957 mg/dm3 for triclosan associated with microplastics, 9.35 mg/dm3 for simvastatin, 10.29 mg/dm3 for simvastatin associated with microplastics, 43.25 mg/dm3 for carbamazepine and 46.50 mg/dm3 for carbamazepine associated with microplastics in acute exposure. These results indicate that the presence of microplastics in the medium reduces toxicity, considering the LC50 values. However, exposure to chlorpyrifos and carbamazepine, both alone and associated with microplastics, showed a decline in cholinesterase activity, confirming their neurotoxic effect. Nevertheless, no significant differences were observed with the biomarker cholinesterase between the toxicant and the toxicant with microplastics.


Assuntos
Clorpirifos , Praguicidas , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Artemia , Clorpirifos/toxicidade , Microplásticos , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Plásticos , Cloreto de Polivinila , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
3.
Molecules ; 26(20)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34684793

RESUMO

Vitis vinifera (grape) contains various compounds with acknowledged phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Among the different parts of the plant, pomace is of particular interest as a winemaking industry by-product. A characterization of the water extract from grape pomace from Montepulciano d'Abruzzo variety (Villamagna doc) was conducted, and the bioactive phenolic compounds were quantified through HPLC-DAD-MS analysis. HypoE22, a hypothalamic cell line, was challenged with an oxidative stimulus and exposed to different concentrations (1 µg/mL-1 mg/mL) of the pomace extract for 24, 48, and 72 h. In the same conditions, cells were exposed to the sole catechin, in a concentration range (5-500 ng/mL) consistent with the catechin level in the extract. Cell proliferation was investigated by MTT assay, dopamine release through HPLC-EC method, PGE2 amount by an ELISA kit, and expressions of neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) by RT-PCR. The extract reverted the cytotoxicity exerted by the oxidative stimulus at all the experimental times in a dose-dependent manner, whereas the catechin was able to revert the oxidative stress-induced depletion of dopamine 48 h and 72 h after the stimulus. The extract and the catechin were also effective in preventing the downregulation of BDNF and the concomitant upregulation of COX-2 gene expression. In accordance, PGE2 release was augmented by the oxidative stress conditions and reverted by the administration of the water extract from grace pomace and catechin, which were equally effective. These results suggest that the neuroprotection induced by the extract could be ascribed, albeit partially, to its catechin content.


Assuntos
Fármacos Neuroprotetores/isolamento & purificação , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fenóis/farmacologia , Vitis/química , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Daphnia/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hipotálamo/citologia , Hipotálamo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipotálamo/metabolismo , Neuroproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenóis/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos
4.
Molecules ; 26(19)2021 Sep 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34641305

RESUMO

Candida albicans is the most commonly implicated agent in invasive human fungal infections. The disease could be presented as minimal symptomatic candidemia or can be fulminant sepsis. Candidemia is associated with a high rate of mortality and high healthcare and hospitalization costs. The surveillance programs have reported the distribution of other Candida species reflecting the trends and antifungal susceptibilities. Previous studies have demonstrated that C. glabrata more frequently presents fluconazole-resistant strains. Extracts from Mexican plants have been reported with activity against pulmonary mycosis, among them Colubrina greggii. In the present study, extracts from the aerial parts (leaves, flowers, and fruits) of this plant were evaluated against clinical isolates of several species of Candida (C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis, C. krusei, and C. tropicalis) by the broth microdilution assay. Through bioassay-guided fractionation, three antifungal glycosylated flavonoids were isolated and characterized. The isolated compounds showed antifungal activity only against C. glabrata resistant to fluconazole, and were non-toxic toward brine shrimp lethality bioassay and in vitro Vero cell line assay. The ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, as well as the fractions containing the mixture of flavonoids, were more active against Candida spp.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Candida glabrata/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Colubrina/química , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Chlorocebus aethiops , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/química , Flavonoides/isolamento & purificação , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Glicosilação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Testes de Toxicidade , Células Vero
5.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 635, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465293

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brine shrimp Artemia have an unequalled ability to endure extreme salinity and complete anoxia. This study aims to elucidate its strategies to cope with these stressors. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Here, we present the genome of an inbred A. franciscana Kellogg, 1906. We identified 21,828 genes of which, under high salinity, 674 genes and under anoxia, 900 genes were differentially expressed (42%, respectively 30% were annotated). Under high salinity, relevant stress genes and pathways included several Heat Shock Protein and Leaf Embryogenesis Abundant genes, as well as the trehalose metabolism. In addition, based on differential gene expression analysis, it can be hypothesized that a high oxidative stress response and endocytosis/exocytosis are potential salt management strategies, in addition to the expression of major facilitator superfamily genes responsible for transmembrane ion transport. Under anoxia, genes involved in mitochondrial function, mTOR signalling and autophagy were differentially expressed. Both high salt and anoxia enhanced degradation of erroneous proteins and protein chaperoning. Compared with other branchiopod genomes, Artemia had 0.03% contracted and 6% expanded orthogroups, in which 14% of the genes were differentially expressed under high salinity or anoxia. One phospholipase D gene family, shown to be important in plant stress response, was uniquely present in both extremophiles Artemia and the tardigrade Hypsibius dujardini, yet not differentially expressed under the described experimental conditions. CONCLUSIONS: A relatively complete genome of Artemia was assembled, annotated and analysed, facilitating research on its extremophile features, and providing a reference sequence for crustacean research.


Assuntos
Artemia , Extremófilos , Animais , Artemia/genética , Ambientes Extremos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico , Salinidade
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(11): 3901-3912, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522979

RESUMO

The emerging aquaculture industry is in need of non-antibiotic-based disease control approaches to minimize the risk of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Bacterial infections mainly caused by Vibrio spp. have caused mass mortalities of fish especially during the larval stages. The objectives of this study were to verify the potential of symbiotic probiont strains, isolated from microalgae (Amphora, Chlorella, and Spirulina) for suppressing the growth of Vibrio spp. and at the same time ascertain their abilities to enhance microalgal biomass by mutualistic interactions through microalgae-bacteria symbiosis. In addition, in vivo studies on Artemia bioencapsulated with probiont strains (single strain and mix strains) and microalgae were evaluated. The selected potential probionts were identified as Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain A-1 (LFA-1), Bacillus sp. strain A-2 (BA-2), Lysinibacillus fusiformis strain Cl-3 (LFCl-3), and Bacillus pocheonensis strain S-2 (BPS-2) using 16s rRNA. The cell densities of Amphora culture supplemented with BA-2 and Chlorella culture supplemented with LFCl-3 were higher than those of the controls. Artemia bioencapsulated with mix strains (LFA-1 + BA-2 + LFCl-3 + BPS-2) and Amphora demonstrated the highest survival rate compared to the controls, after being challenged with V. harveyi (60 ± 4%) and V. parahaemolyticus (78 ± 2%). Our study postulated that BA-2 and LFCl-3 were found to be good promoting bacteria for microalgal growth and microalgae serve as a vector to transport probiotic into Artemia. Moreover, mixture of potential probionts is beneficial for Artemia supplementation in conferring protection to Artemia nauplii against pathogenic Vibrios.


Assuntos
Chlorella , Vibrio , Animais , Artemia , Bacillaceae , Bacillus , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Simbiose , Vibrio/genética
7.
Acta Trop ; 223: 106102, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34416188

RESUMO

This research investigated the effect of the Croton rudolphianus leaf essential oil (EO) on Biomphalaria glabrata embryos (at different development stages) and adults, Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, and Artemia salina (non-target organism). It was possible to identify 31 compounds in the C. rudolphianus EO through GC-MS analysis. The major compounds from this oil were (E)-caryophyllene (17.33%), an unknown compound (16.87%), bicyclogermacrene (7.1%), δ-cadinene (6.62%) and germacrene D (5.38%). After incubation for 24 h, the EO of C. rudolphianus induced the occurrence of non-viable embryos (dead and malformed), with an LC50 value of 126.54, 133.51, 143.53 and 161.95 µg/mL and an LC90 value of 202.61, 216.48, 232.98 and 271.16 µg/mL to blastula, gastrula, trochophore and veliger embryonic stages, respectively. The EO was more effective against B. glabrata adults (LC50 and LC90 = 47.89 and 78.86 µg/mL, respectively), and S. mansoni cercariae (LC50 and LC90 = 14.81 and 22.15 after 120 mins of exposure, respectively) than against B. glabrata embryos. Concerning the micronucleus assay, the mean frequency of apoptosis, binucleation and micronucleus were 45.33 ± 3.51, 19.33 ± 1.53 and 0.67 ± 0.58 per 1000 cells at 25 µg/mL, which is the highest concentration tested. The oil killed A. salina with LC50 and LC90 values (68.33 and 111.5 µg/mL, respectively) higher than those determined for adult snails and S. mansoni cercariae. In conclusion, C. rudolphianus EO had a toxic effect against B. glabrata adults and embryos, and S. mansoni cercariae. Furthermore, this oil showed to be cytotoxic to hemocytes of B. glabrata. Concerning the non-target organism assay, C. rudolphianus EO was less toxic to A. salina then to adult snails and S. mansoni cercariae. Due to this, the EO from C. rudolphianus leaves is a potential alternative for schistosomiasis control.


Assuntos
Biomphalaria , Óleo de Cróton/farmacologia , Croton , Moluscocidas , Óleos Voláteis , Schistosoma mansoni/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomphalaria/efeitos dos fármacos , Croton/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química
8.
Sci Total Environ ; 800: 149349, 2021 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391156

RESUMO

Hypersaline ecosystems are under increasing threat due to anthropogenic pressures such as environmental pollution and biological invasions. Here we address the ecotoxicological implications of the Artemia franciscana (Crustacea) invasion in saltpans of southern Spain. This North American species is causing the extinction of native Artemia populations in many parts of the globe. The bioaccumulation of trace elements (As, Cd, Cu, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in native populations (A. parthenogenetica) from Cabo de Gata and Odiel saltpans and invasive Artemia from Cádiz saltpan was studied at different salinities. Furthermore, in Odiel, the most polluted study site, we also analysed the bioaccumulation of trace elements by Chironomus salinarius larvae (Diptera) and Ochthebius notabilis adults (Coleoptera). High levels of trace elements were detected in the studied saltpans, many of them exceeding the recommended threshold guidelines for aquatic life. Bioaccumulation of trace elements by Artemia was lowest at the highest salinity. The invasive A. franciscana showed higher potential to bioaccumulate trace elements than its native counterpart (in particular for As, Cd, Ni and Cr). In Odiel, O. notabilis stood out as showing the highest potential to bioaccumulate As and Cu. Results showed that the shift from a native to an alien Artemia species with a higher bioaccumulation capacity may increase the transfer of trace elements in hypersaline food webs, especially for waterbirds that depend on Artemia as food. Thus, our study identifies an indirect impact of the Artemia franciscana invasion that had not previously been recognised.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Oligoelementos , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Artemia , Bioacumulação , Ecossistema , Monitoramento Ambiental , Espécies Introduzidas , Metais Pesados/análise , Oligoelementos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
9.
Molecules ; 26(14)2021 Jul 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299388

RESUMO

In a project designed to investigate the specific and infraspecific taxa of Matthiola endemic to Sicily (Italy) as new potential sources of bioactive compounds in this work, the infraspecific taxa of Matthiola fruticulosa were studied, namely, subsp. fruticulosa and subsp. coronopifolia. HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS and SPME-GC/MS analyses of hydroalcoholic extracts obtained from the aerial parts of the two subspecies led to the detection of 51 phenolics and 61 volatile components, highlighting a quite different qualitative-quantitative profile. The antioxidant properties of the extracts were explored through in vitro methods: 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), reducing power and Fe2+ chelating activity assays. The results of the antioxidant tests showed that the extracts possess a different antioxidant ability: particularly, the extract of M. fruticulosa subsp. fruticulosa exhibited higher radical scavenging activity than that of subsp. coronopifolia (IC50 = 1.25 ± 0.02 mg/mL and 2.86 ± 0.05 mg/mL), which in turn displayed better chelating properties (IC50 = 1.49 ± 0.01 mg/mL and 0.63 ± 0.01 mg/mL). Lastly, Artemia salina lethality bioassay was performed for toxicity assessment. The results of the bioassay showed lack of toxicity against brine shrimp larvae for both extracts. The data presented indicate the infraspecific taxa of M. fruticulosa as new and safe sources of antioxidant compounds.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Brassicaceae/química , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Sicília , Testes de Toxicidade
10.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(9): e2100424, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216094

RESUMO

The present article investigates the chemical composition of volatiles of essential oil (EO) and headspace (HS) fraction, as well as biological activities of EO obtained from needles with twigs of Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii cultivated in Serbia. The major class of compounds was monoterpene hydrocarbons with α-terpinolene, sabinene and ß-pinene (EO), and sabinene, α-terpinolene and ß-pinene (HS) as the dominant volatiles. Tested EO exhibited mostly low antimicrobial potential against investigated strains (ATCC and respiratory isolates), where MICs ranged 1.25-20.00 mg/mL. Nevertheless, based on presented results, where antimicrobial testing was done for the first time on human respiratory system isolates, there is a potential of this EO to be used as an adjuvant in the treatment of human respiratory infections, especially those caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or Candida albicans strains. Regarding toxicological evaluation, EO showed moderate toxicity in Artemia salina toxicity bioassay (LC50 =347.41, after 24 h) as well as week toxicity against Drosophila melanogaster with the ability only to moderately delay larval and pupal development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudotsuga/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida albicans/efeitos dos fármacos , Drosophila melanogaster/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Brotos de Planta/química , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
11.
J Fish Dis ; 44(11): 1689-1696, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34275148

RESUMO

Targeting in zebrafish fast growth, high survival rates and improved reproductive performance has led over the last years in variable feeding regimes between different facilities. Despite its significance on fish function and welfare, normal skeletal development has rarely been evaluated in establishing the best feeding practices for zebrafish. The aim of this study was to establish a protocol for normal skeletal development, growth and survival of zebrafish larvae through live feed-to-microdiet transition at an appropriate rate. Four feeding regimes including feeding exclusively on Artemia nauplii (A) or dry microdiet (D), and feeding on both Artemia and microdiet at two different transition rates (slow (B) or fast (C)) were applied from 5 to 24 dpf (days post-fertilization). Results demonstrated a significant effect of feeding regimes on the incidence of skeletal abnormalities (gill cover, fins and vertebral column, p < .05) in zebrafish larvae. The A and B experimental groups presented the highest (88 ± 3 and 84 ± 17%, respectively), but the C and D the lowest (18 ± 14 and 11 ± 2%, respectively), rates of normal fish (fish without any abnormality). Similarly, growth rate was comparatively elevated in A and B groups. No significant differences were observed in fish survival between A, B and C groups. However, D group presented a significantly lower survival rate. To our knowledge, this is the first study to show that the live feed-to-microdiet transition rate influences larval growth, survival and abnormality rates in a non-homogenous pattern.


Assuntos
Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Dieta/veterinária , Peixe-Zebra/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ração Animal , Animais , Artemia , Osso e Ossos/patologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13178, 2021 06 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34162964

RESUMO

Among natural products, essential oils from aromatic plants have been reported to possess potent anticancer properties. In this work, we aimed to perform the cytotoxic concentration range screening and antiproliferative activity screening of chemically characterized Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil. In vivo bioassay was conducted using the brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT). In vitro evaluation of antiproliferative activity was carried out on three human tumor cell lines: breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7, lung carcinoma H460 and acute lymphoblastic leukemia MOLT-4 using MTT assay. Essential oil components thymol (36.7%), p-cymene (30.0%), γ-terpinene (9.0%) and carvacrol (3.6%) were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Analyzed essential oil should be considered as toxic/highly toxic with LC50 60.38 µg/mL in BSLT and moderate/weakly cytotoxic with IC50 range 52.65-228.78 µg/mL in vitro, according to evaluated cytotoxic criteria. Essential oil induced a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation in all tested tumor cell lines and showed different sensitivity. Dose dependent toxicity observed in bioassay as well as the in vitro assay confirmed that brine shrimp lethality test is an adequate method for preliminary toxicity testing of Thymus vulgaris L. essential oil in tumor cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Thymus (Planta)/química , Animais , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Artemia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bioensaio , Divisão Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Cimenos/farmacologia , Cimenos/toxicidade , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Óleos Voláteis/química , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/química , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Timol/farmacologia , Timol/toxicidade
13.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 169: 112476, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34062325

RESUMO

Ocean acidification is becoming a potential threat to marine animals. The present study investigated the effect of seawater acidification on Artemia franciscana. A. franciscana cysts were allowed to hatch at different pH levels of pH 8.2 (control), 7.8, and 6.8. After 48 h incubation, the hatching percentage was significantly reduced in acidified seawater compared to that in control. Further, the hatched Artemia nauplii from each pH treatment were transferred to freshly acidified seawater for chronic study for 15 days. At the end of the experiment, survival, growth, and biochemical constituents were significantly decreased in Artemia at pH 7.8 and 6.8 compared to that in control, which indicates the adverse effects of acidified seawater on Artemia. The antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, and metabolic enzymes were significantly elevated in A. franciscana exposed to acidified seawater compared to that in control, which shows oxidative and metabolic stress on A. franciscana under acidified environment.


Assuntos
Artemia , Água do Mar , Animais , Antioxidantes , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peroxidação de Lipídeos
14.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(7): e2100167, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34145749

RESUMO

As part of a project aimed at investigating the Matthiola taxa endemic to Sicily (Italy), this study focused on Matthiola incana, an edible species used in the traditional medicine of various countries. Herein, the characterization of phenolic and volatile compounds, the antioxidant capacity in vitro (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazil (DPPH), reducing power and Fe2+ chelating activity assays) and the toxicity test (Artemia salina lethality bioassay) of the hydroalcoholic extracts from the aerial parts of M. incana subsp. rupestris from Mt. Pellegrino (Palermo) and Mt. Erice (Trapani), and of M. incana subsp. pulchella are reported. The results are compared with those previously shown for M. incana subsp. incana, to achieve a comprehensive overview of the three subspecies. The HPLC-PDA/ESI-MS and SPME-GC/MS analyses led to the identification of 13 phenolics and 54 volatile compounds. Differences in the qualitative-quantitative profile of these phytochemicals have been highlighted between the M. incana subspecies. The antioxidant tests showed different activity for the extracts, which were found to possess better chelating properties. At last, none of the tested extracts displayed toxicity against brine shrimp larvae. These findings enrich the knowledge on the Matthiola taxa growing wild in Sicily, both from the strictly systematic point of view and for the possible applications as sources bioactive compounds that can be used in the nutraceutical field.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Brassicaceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Artemia , Compostos de Bifenilo/antagonistas & inibidores , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Picratos/antagonistas & inibidores , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Sicília
15.
Lett Appl Microbiol ; 73(3): 336-342, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34089521

RESUMO

The present study aimed to address the capability of the probiotic bacterium Lactobacillus rhamnosus IMC 501® to survive in seawater and the ability of Artemia metanauplii to incorporate it, as well as to analyse the potential effect of the probiotic as a control agent for potentially pathogenic Vibrionaceae bacteria in Artemia. The results demonstrate the ability of L. rhamnosus IMC 501® to survive in seawater for up to 30 h. They also advocate their capability to be efficiently incorporated into Artemia metanauplii at concentrations of 104  CFU per Artemia after 30 min of suspension in probiotic solution, thereby promoting a 1-log reduction in Vibrionaceae levels after 3 h. These low levels of Vibrio bacteria were maintained for about 30 min after transfer into clear seawater, a sufficient time for Artemia to be ingested by aquatic organisms. These results contribute to broaden the knowledge on the suitability of probiotics as sustainable alternatives for the prevention/reduction of diseases in aquaculture facilities.


Assuntos
Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Probióticos , Vibrio , Animais , Aquicultura , Artemia
16.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063685

RESUMO

Multidrug resistant bacteria create a challenging situation for society to treat infections. Multidrug resistance (MDR) is the reason for biofilm bacteria to cause chronic infection. Plant-based nanoparticles could be an alternative solution as potential drug candidates against these MDR bacteria, as many plants are well known for their antimicrobial activity against pathogenic microorganisms. Spondias mombin is a traditional plant which has already been used for medicinal purposes as every part of this plant has been proven to have its own medicinal values. In this research, the S. mombin extract was used to synthesise AgNPs. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized and further tested for their antibacterial, reactive oxygen species and cytotoxicity properties. The characterization results showed the synthesized AgNPs to be between 8 to 50 nm with -11.52 of zeta potential value. The existence of the silver element in the AgNPs was confirmed with the peaks obtained in the EDX spectrometry. Significant antibacterial activity was observed against selected biofilm-forming pathogenic bacteria. The cytotoxicity study with A. salina revealed the LC50 of synthesized AgNPs was at 0.81 mg/mL. Based on the ROS quantification, it was suggested that the ROS production, due to the interaction of AgNP with different bacterial cells, causes structural changes of the cell. This proves that the synthesized AgNPs could be an effective drug against multidrug resistant bacteria.


Assuntos
Anacardiaceae/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Biofilmes , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Animais , Artemia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Química Verde , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nanomedicina , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Raios Ultravioleta
17.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063701

RESUMO

Agricultural production is influenced by the water content in the soil and availability of fertilizers. Thus, superabsorbent hydrogels, based on polyacrylamide, natural cashew tree gum (CG) and potassium hydrogen phosphate (PHP), as fertilizer and water releaser were developed. The structure, morphology, thermal stability and chemical composition of samples of polyacrylamide and cashew tree gum hydrogels with the presence of fertilizer (HCGP) and without fertilizer (HCG) were investigated, using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA/DTG) and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Swelling/reswelling tests, textural analysis, effect of pH, release of nutrients and kinetics were determined; the ecotoxicity of the hydrogels was investigated by the Artemia salina test. The results showed that PHP incorporation in the hydrogel favored the crosslinking of chains. This increased the thermal stability in HCGP but decreased the hardness and adhesion properties. The HCGP demonstrated good swelling capacity (~15,000 times) and an excellent potential for reuse after fifty-five consecutive cycles. The swelling was favored in an alkaline pH due to the ionization of hydrophilic groups. The sustained release of phosphorus in HCGP was described by the Korsmeyer-Peppas model, and Fickian diffusion is the main fertilizer release mechanism. Finally, the hydrogels do not demonstrate toxicity, and HCGP has potential for application in agriculture.


Assuntos
Resinas Acrílicas/química , Anacardium , Hidrogéis/química , Gomas Vegetais/química , Animais , Artemia , Reagentes para Ligações Cruzadas , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Difusão , Fertilizantes , Hidrogênio/química , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Nutrientes , Fosfatos/química , Fósforo , Polímeros/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Potássio/química , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Árvores , Água , Difração de Raios X
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(38): 53239-53248, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34024032

RESUMO

Studies were conducted to assess the biodegradability and toxicity of the cationic surfactant dodecyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (DTMAC) in sea water samples collected from the Gulf of Cadiz (Spain). Ultimate biodegradation was studied following the guideline proposed by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). Growth inhibition tests on five marine microalgae species and mortality tests on a marine crustacean (Artemia franciscana) were carried out. Biodegradation process was modelled according to a logistic kinetic model. Lag time and half-life were 15.17 and 26.95 days, respectively. Depending on the microalgae, 96-h EC50 values ranged from 0.69 to 6.34 mg L-1 DTMAC, respectively. 48-h and 72-h LC50 to A. franciscana were 46.74 and 34.19 mg L-1 DTMAC, respectively. The results indicate that DTMAC can be mineralised in sea water. Marine crustacean was more resistant than the microalgae. Surfactant tolerance on microalgae followed this order: T. chuii > N. gaditana > C. gracilis ≈ I. galbana ≈ D. salina, being the Green microalgae T. chuii the most tolerant.


Assuntos
Microalgas , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Animais , Artemia , Compostos de Amônio Quaternário , Água do Mar , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
19.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 153: 112268, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015423

RESUMO

The Tanacetum genus is a big treasure with the presence of biologically-active compounds and members of this genus are widely used for the treatment of several diseases in traditional medicine system. Considering this fact, we aimed to analyze the extracts from Tanacetum vulgare L. in case of chemical profiles and biological effects. Chemical characterization was performed by using UHPLC-HRMS technique and showed the presence of several phytochemical groups (107 compounds were identified, including phenolic acids, flavonoids, terpenoids and fatty acids. Biological abilities were examined by using antioxidant (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, metal chelating and phosphomolybdenum assays) and enzyme inhibition (tyrosinase, amylase, glucosidase and cholinesterase) properties. Pharmaco-toxicological investigations were also performed with the aim to identify limits of biocompatibility, anti-oxidant and neuromodulatory effects, in hypothalamic HypoE22 cells. A bioinformatic analysis was also carried to unravel the putative protein-targets for the observed biological effects. Generally, the tested hexane and hydroalcoholic extracts displayed stronger activities in antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory assays, when compared with water. In addition, multivariate analysis was performed to understand the differences in both solvents and plant parts and we clearly observed the separation of these parameters. The extracts (10 µg/mL) also stimulated DAT and inhibited TNFα and BDNF gene expression, in HypoE22 cells. In parallel, the extracts were also able to stimulate norepinephrine release from this cell line. By contrast, in the concentration range 50-100 µg/mL, the extracts reduced the HypoE22 viability, thus demonstrating cytotoxicity at concentrations 5-10 fold higher compared to those effective as neuromodulatory. Our observations manifested that T. vulgare has several beneficial effects and it can be used as a potential natural raw material for designing further health-promoting applications in nutraceutical, cosmeceutical, and pharmaceutical areas.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tanacetum/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/análise , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Inibidores Enzimáticos/análise , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Etanol/química , Flores/química , Hexanos/química , Análise Multivariada , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/toxicidade , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Caules de Planta/química , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas , Ratos , Solventes/química , Água/química
20.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 220: 112302, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34015631

RESUMO

Alkyl-PAHs are the predominant form of PAHs in crude oils which are supposed to demonstrate different toxicities compared to non-alkyl PAHs. Little information is available about the toxicity of alkyl-PAHs on marine Artemia. This study addressed and compared the lethal, behavioral, growth and developmental toxicities of three alkyl-PAHs, namely 3-methyl phenanthrene (3-mPhe), retene (Ret) and 2-methyl anthracene (2-mAnt), to their non-alkyl forms, phenanthrene (Phe) and anthracene (Ant) using Artemia parthenogenetica (nauplii, <24 h) as test organism following a 48 h and a 7 d of exposure, respectively. Benzo-a-pyrene (Bap) was selected as a reference toxicant for the comparison with the above alkyl-PAHs and non-alkyl PAHs. Results showed that for all tested endpoints, A. parthenogenetica nauplii had the highest sensitivity to Bap while Ant had no significant effect on nauplii survival or development within given concentrations. Considering the aqueous freely dissolved PAH concentrations, the 48 h-LC50 (survival), 48 h-EC50 (immobility) and 7 d-LC10 (survival) of Bap were calculated as 0.321, 0.285 and 0.027 µg/L, respectively, which were twofold to fivefold lower than those of Phe, 3-mPhe, Ret, Ant and 2-mAnt. A higher acute toxicity of alkyl-PAHs (3-mPhe and 2-mAnt) than their non-alkyl forms (Phe and Ant) was observed. Not limited to Phe, the common non-polar narcotic mode of action was also observed for Bap, 3-mPhe, Ret and 2-mAnt, which was evident by the inhibited mobility of nauplii. The decreased body lengths were found for all PAH treatments compared to the solvent control, whereas instar retardations were only found in nauplii exposed to Bap, Phe and Ret. Our findings emphasized the sensitivity differences of A. parthenogenetica nauplii to selected alkyl PAHs and non-alkyl PAHs and confirmed the application of lethal, behavioral and growth indicators in the toxicity evaluation of selected PAHs other than Ant. However, the distinct toxicities of these PAHs suggested other toxic modes of action may play more important roles apart from narcotic mode of action and need to be elucidated in future studies. In addition, a strong correlation between the body length and the instar of A. parthenogenetica nauplii was observed for each PAH exposure, suggesting that body length can be representative for both growth and developmental indicators during biological monitoring of PAH pollution in marine environment.


Assuntos
Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antracenos/toxicidade , Artemia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Artemia/fisiologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Fenantrenos/toxicidade
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