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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 188: 109853, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704318

RESUMO

Nanoplastics (NPs) have become one of the most serious environmental problems nowadays. The environmental issues linked to NPs are attributed to the effects after ingestion in marine organisms. Due to the incipient and controversial information about the effects of PS NPs on the feeding of organisms, the aim of this work is to assess (i) digestion dynamics of Artemia franciscana when exposed to PS NPs as the lowest concentration of PS NPs reported in toxicity test [0 (control), 0.006 and 0.6 mg·L-1] and possible interferences in the ingestion of microalgae and (ii) the accumulation and depuration of PS NPs by A. franciscana. Artemia were subjected to ingestion experiments [24 h and 3.5 h], in which the organisms were exposed to PS NPs or to PS NPs + microalgae. Post-exposure feeding (24 h exposure and 2 h feeding) and depuration (24 h exposure and 24 h of depuration) were also carried out. More than 90% of the PS NPs were ingested by Artemia and bioaccumulated in the mandible, stomach, gut, tail gut and appendages after 24 h. The ingestion of microalgae was not affected by the presence of the PS NPs. Data of post-exposure feeding indicated that Artemia previously exposed to plastic and/or microalgae presented similar microalgal ingestion (around 70%); the highest microalgal consumption (around 90%) was recorded in the treatment in which Artemia were previously starved (no plastic and no microalgae). The presence of PS NPs in the gut after the depuration experiments indicates that 24 h was not enough to eliminate the PS NPs.


Assuntos
Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/fisiologia , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , /toxicidade , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia/metabolismo , Bioacumulação , Microalgas , Testes de Toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
2.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 7809-7822, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576125

RESUMO

Introduction: Nanoparticles (NPs) can be toxic due to their nano-range sizes. Zinc oxide (ZnO) has good biocompatibility and is commercially used in cosmetics. Moreover, ZnO NPs have potential biomedical uses, but their safety remains unclear. Methods: A range of doped ZnO NPs was evaluated for antileishmanial activity and in vitro toxicity in brine shrimp and human macrophages, and N-doped ZnO NPs were evaluated for in vivo toxicity in male BALB/C mice. N-doped ZnO NPs were administered via two routes: intra-peritoneal injection and topically as a paste. The dosages were 10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Results: Topical administration was safe at all dosages, but intra-peritoneal injection displayed toxicity at higher doses, namely, 50 and 100 mg/kg/day. The pathological results for the i.p. dose groups were mild to severe degenerative changes in parenchyma cells, increases in Kupffer cells, disappearance of hepatic plates, increases in cell size, ballooning, cytoplasmic changes, and nuclear pyknosis in the liver. Kidney histology was also altered in the i.p. administration group (dose 100 mg/kg/day), with inflammatory changes in the focal area. We associate pathological abnormalities with the presence of doped ZnO NPs at the diseased site, which was verified by PIXE analysis of the liver and kidney samples of the treated and untreated mice groups. Conclusion: The toxicity of the doped ZnO NPs can serve as an essential determinant for the effects of ZnO NPs on environmental toxicity and can be used for guidelines for safer use of ZnO-based nanomaterials in topical treatment of leishmaniasis and other biomedical applications.


Assuntos
Anti-Helmínticos/farmacologia , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Óxido de Zinco/farmacologia , Óxido de Zinco/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Morte Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Concentração Inibidora 50 , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Leishmania/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/patologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
3.
Environ Pollut ; 255(Pt 3): 113358, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31614246

RESUMO

The genus Artemia sp. has been accepted as a reliable model organism for aquatic toxicity and nanotoxicity experiments, as far as the ISO TS 20787 has recently been published to standardize nanotoxicity test with this organism. Experimental and environmental conditions may affect the toxicity of nanomaterials on aquatic organisms including Artemia sp. nauplii. In this study, acute toxicity effects of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on the nauplii of Artemia salina was investigated under various conditions (e.g. different lights, salinities, temperatures, volume and agitation of exposure media and instar stages of nauplii). The EC values were calculated using Probit program and all data were analyzed statistically by SPSS software. At all test conditions, the immobilization rate of Artemia nauplii increased in a concentration-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The sensitivity of instar stage II to different concentrations of AgNPs was significantly higher than instar I (P < 0.05). The toxicity effect of AgNPs was affected by alteration of environmental conditions, so that the effective concentration (EC) values for instar I of A. salina decreased with increasing water temperature, decreasing water salinity and in continuous darkness condition. The EC50 value of AgNPs was significantly lower in 100 mL beakers (21.35 ±â€¯5.67 mg L-1) than 10 mL well plates (42.44 ±â€¯11.30 mg L-1). Agitation of exposure media did not affect the toxicity of AgNPs. The results indicated that the experimental and environmental conditions influence on the toxicity of AgNPs in the nauplii of A. salina.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanoestruturas , Salinidade , Prata/toxicidade
4.
Planta Med ; 85(16): 1253-1262, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31597166

RESUMO

The development of multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria has vastly depleted our repertoire of effective antibiotic chemotherapies. The development of multi-ß-lactam-resistant strains are particularly concerning due to our previous reliance on this class of antibiotics because of their initial efficacy and broad-spectrum activity. With increases in extended-spectrum ß-lactam-resistance and an expanded resistance to other classes of antibiotics, there is an urgent need for the development of effective new antibiotic therapies. Terminalia ferdinandiana is an endemic Australian plant known for its high antioxidant and tannin contents. T. ferdinandiana fruit and leaf extracts have strong antibacterial activity against a wide variety of bacterial pathogens. However, T. ferdinandiana extracts have not been tested against ESBL and MRSA antibiotic-resistant pathogens. An objective of this study was to screen T. ferdinandiana fruit and leaf extracts for bacterial growth inhibitory activity by disc diffusion assay against ß-lactam-sensitive and -resistant E. coli strains and against methicillin-sensitive and -resistant S. aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was quantified by liquid dilution techniques. The fruit methanolic extract, as well as the methanolic, aqueous, and ethyl acetate leaf extracts strongly inhibited the growth of the MRSA, with MICs as low as 223 µg/mL. In contrast, the extracts were ineffective inhibitors of ESBL growth. Metabolomic fingerprint analysis identified a diversity and relative abundance of tannins, flavonoids, and terpenoids, several of which have been reported to inhibit MRSA growth in isolation. All extracts were nontoxic in the Artemia nauplii and HDF toxicity assays, further indicating their potential for medicinal use.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Terminalia/química , Animais , Frutas/química , Metanol , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/química
5.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110794, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473339

RESUMO

Despite being renowned for its volatiles, the data on the toxicity of the essential oil of lemon balm (Melissa officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is rather limited compared to its solvent/water-soluble extractibles. In this study, the aerial parts essential oil of M. officinalis, with over 130 constituents identified herein, 26 of which detected for the first time, was investigated for acute oral toxicity in BALB/c mice. The oil, composed of predominantly monoterpene aldehydes, citronellal (21.2-21.8%), neral (17.8-18.4%), and geranial (22.9-23.5%), which were assayed in parallel with the oil in some tests, induced significant changes in animal behavior, as well as altered biochemical parameters reflecting liver and kidney functions. Different pathological changes in the stomach, duodenum, liver, and kidneys were detected when the oil was administered in doses higher than 1 g kg-1. A depletion in the liver/kidney antioxidant capacities and an increased rate of lipid peroxidation was noted for animals treated with lemon balm oil. The calculated value of the oral LD50 in BALB/c mice (2.57 g kg-1) infers that the essential oil is only moderately toxic.


Assuntos
Melissa/química , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Administração Oral , Aldeídos/metabolismo , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/efeitos dos fármacos , Sistema Digestório/patologia , Feminino , Glutationa/metabolismo , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Dose Letal Mediana , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Óleos Voláteis/administração & dosagem , Óleos Voláteis/análise , Peroxidase/metabolismo , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Óleos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Óleos Vegetais/análise
6.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110783, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491430

RESUMO

Migraine is one of the most common neurological disorder, which has long been related to brain serotonin (5-HT) depletion and neuro-inflammation. Despite many treatment options are available, the frequent occurrence of unacceptable adverse effects further supports the research toward nutraceuticals and herbal preparations, among which Tanacetum parthenium and Salix alba showed promising anti-inflammatory and neuro-modulatory activities. The impact of extract treatment on astrocyte viability, spontaneous migration and apoptosis was evaluated. Anti-inflammatory/anti-oxidant effects were investigated on isolated rat cortexes exposed to a neurotoxic stimulus. The lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, nitrite levels and 5-HT turnover were evaluated, as well. A proteomic analysis was focused on specific neuronal proteins and a fingerprint analysis was carried out on selected phenolic compounds. Both extracts appeared able to exert in vitro anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic effects. S. alba and T. parthenium extracts reduced LDH release, nitrite levels and 5-HT turnover induced by neurotoxic stimulus. The downregulation of selected proteins suggest a neurotoxicity, which could be ascribed to an elevated content of gallic acid in both S. alba and T. parthenium extracts. Concluding, both extracts exert neuroprotective effects, although the downregulation of key proteins involved in neuron physiology suggest caution in their use as food supplements.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Transtornos de Enxaqueca/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Salix/química , Tanacetum parthenium/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Depressão Alastrante da Atividade Elétrica Cortical/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/toxicidade , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Cicatrização/efeitos dos fármacos
7.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110747, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377137

RESUMO

Three autochthonous flavouring herbs from Alentejo (Portugal), Calamintha nepeta (syn. Clinopodium nepeta), Origanun virens and Thymus mastichina, were selected to evaluate toxicological, antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial potential of their essential oils (EOs). C. nepeta and T. mastichina EOs showed a high content of oxygenated monoterpenes (86-91%) while O. virens had similar content of oxygenated and hydrocarbon monoterpenes (45%). Toxicological assessment suggests high activity against A. salina (31.8 < CL50 < 128.4 mg/L) and very low toxicity in Swiss mice (DL50 ≥ 1500 mg/kg). EOs showed high antioxidant ability by DPPH radical scavenging assay (0.1-0.6 mg QE/mL EO), total reducing power method (0.2-1.7 mg QE/mL EO) and ß-carotene/linoleic acid system (11-501 mg QE/mL EO). An important antiproliferative effect against human breast tumour cell line was observed (88.9 < EC50 < 108.5 mg/L). Moreover, EOs presented a large antibacterial spectrum. Results point out the low toxicity and high antioxidant, antiproliferative and antimicrobial activities of EOs of these endemic aromatic plants, suggesting their potential use in biotechnological, food and/or pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/toxicidade , Óleos Vegetais/farmacologia , Óleos Vegetais/toxicidade , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Nepeta/química , Origanum/química , Portugal , Thymus (Planta)/química
8.
Environ Pollut ; 253: 1126-1135, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434190

RESUMO

Food dyes, or color additives, are chemicals added to industrial food products and in domestic cooking to improve the perceived flavor and attractiveness. Of natural and synthetic origin, their safety has been long discussed, and concern for human safety is now clearly manifested by warnings added on products labels. Limited attention, however, has been dedicated to the effects of these compounds on aquatic flora and fauna. For this reason, the toxicity of four different commercially available food dyes (cochineal red E120, Ponceau red E124, tartrazine yellow E102 and blue Patent E131) was assessed on three different model organisms, namely Cucumis sativus, Artemia salina and Danio rerio that occupy diverse positions in the trophic pyramid. The evidence collected indicates that food dyes may target several organs and functions, depending on the species. C. sativus rate of germination was increased by E102, while root/shoot ratio was ∼20% reduced by E102, E120 and E124, seed total chlorophylls and carotenoids were 15-20% increased by E120 and 131, and total antioxidant activity was ∼25% reduced by all dyes. Mortality and low mobility of A. salina nauplii were increased by up to 50% in presence of E124, E102 and E131, while the nauplii phototactic response was significantly altered by E102, E120 and E124. Two to four-fold increases in the hatching percentages at 48 h were induced by E124, E102 and E131 on D. rerio, associated with the occurrence of 20% of embryos showing developmental defects. These results demonstrated that the food dyes examined are far from being safe for the aquatic organisms as well as land organisms exposed during watering with contaminated water. The overall information obtained gives a realistic snapshot of the potential pollution risk exerted by food dyes and of the different organism' ability to overcome the stress induced by contamination.


Assuntos
Corantes/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Azo , Cucumis sativus , Alimentos , Naftalenossulfonatos , Testes de Toxicidade , Peixe-Zebra
9.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 133: 110764, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31437471

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of Cornus mas, Sorbus aucuparia and Viburnum opulus fruit extracts on arginase activity and arterial vasodilation. V. opulus fruit extract exerted the highest vasorelaxant activity in phenylephrine precontracted rat aortic rings (EC50 = 6.31 ±â€¯1.61 µg/mL) and a significant inhibition of arginase (IC50 = 71.02 ±â€¯3.06 µg/mL). By contrast, S. aucuparia and C. mas fruit extracts showed no important anti-arginase activity and a significantly weaker activity in the rat aortic rings relaxation assay (EC50 = 100.9 ±â€¯11.63 and 78.52 ±â€¯8.59 µg/mL, respectively). For all extracts, the main mechanism of vasodilation was proven to be endothelium-dependent. HPLC-ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS studies revealed a very complex metabolite profiling in all three extracts with chlorogenic acid accounting for 30.89, 0.72 and 2.03 mg/g in V. opulus, C. mas and S. aucuparia fruit extracts, respectively. All extracts were declared non-toxic in the brine shrimp acute toxicity test. Our study highlights potential benefits of V. opulus fruit extract in diseases associated with endothelial dysfunction and impaired vasodilation.


Assuntos
Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Vasodilatadores/farmacologia , Animais , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cornus/química , Endotélio/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores Enzimáticos/toxicidade , Masculino , Metaboloma , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sorbus/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Vasodilatadores/toxicidade , Viburnum/química
10.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461965

RESUMO

ß-glucans, heterogeneous glucose polymers present in many organisms, have the capability to activate the innate immune system. Efficacy of activation depends on purity of the compound, molecular structure, polymerization degree, and source. One of the purest forms of crystallized ß-(1-3)-glucan present in nature is the paramylon extracted from the WZSL non-chloroplastic mutant of Euglena gracilis, which can be processed to produce linear nanofibers capable of interacting with specific receptors present on cell membranes. The effects of these nanofibers, already investigated on plants, animals, and humans, will be analyzed.


Assuntos
Euglena gracilis/genética , Glucanos/química , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Mutação , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemia/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Secas , Euglena gracilis/química , Glucanos/farmacologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Lycopersicon esculentum/efeitos dos fármacos , Lycopersicon esculentum/imunologia , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Nanofibras , Multimerização Proteica , Proteínas de Protozoários/genética
11.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(26): 27112-27127, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317435

RESUMO

In this study, we screened for the antifouling activity of 15 species plant extracts from Brazilian the Brazilian Caatinga Fabaceae against the initial colonization of natural marine bacterial biofilm. We also investigated the potential toxicity of extracts against planktonic and benthic non-target organisms. Aqueous extracts of plants collected in the Caatinga biome (PE, Brazil) were prepared and tested at different concentration levels (0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, and 8 mg mL-1). Natural marine bacterial consortium was inoculated in multi-well plates and incubated with the different treatments for 48 h. The biofilm and planktonic bacterial density and biomass inhibition were evaluated along with biofilm biomass eradication. The extracts that showed the highest bacterial biofilm inhibition were evaluated for toxicity against microalgae and crustaceans. The biofilm and planktonic bacterial inhibition potential were evaluated through flow cytometry and spectrophotometry. The selected treatments were evaluated for their toxicity using the microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans, the copepod Nitokra sp., and the brine shrimp Artemia salina as bioindicators. Our work demonstrates the biotechnological potential of Fabaceae plant compounds as a safe antifouling alternative. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil fruits and Apuleia leiocarpa leaf extracts showed antibiofilm activity (≥ 80%), while Myroxylon peruiferum and Dioclea grandiflora leaf extracts showed antibiotic activity. These extracts were safe to planktonic and benthic non-target organisms. The results of this study point to potential substitutes to highly toxic antifouling paints and shed light on the prospect of a yet to be explored biome for more sustainable alternatives in biofouling research.


Assuntos
Incrustação Biológica/prevenção & controle , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Fabaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Animais , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Brasil , Copépodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Diatomáceas/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Ecotoxicologia/métodos , Microalgas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pintura , Plâncton/efeitos dos fármacos , Plâncton/microbiologia , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade
12.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 242: 112046, 2019 Oct 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279070

RESUMO

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: In Colombia, the only authorized treatment to cure snakebite envenomation is with the use of antivenom. The antivenom neutralizes the systemic effects properly, but is not very effective at neutralizing local effects, thus several cases have lead to complications. On the other hand, rural communities turn to the use of plants that are easily accessible and available for basic health care. One of these plants is named Piper auritum (PA), which is traditionally highlighted in some indigenous communities of Antioquia and Chocó. AIM OF THE STUDY: The main objective of this work was to characterize the venom's toxicity by determining the Minimum Edema Dose (MED), the Minimum Coagulant Dose-Plasma (MCD-P), the Minimum Hemorrhagic Dose (MHD) and to determine the neutralizing power of the Total Ethanolic Extract (TEE) from leaves of PA on the localized and systemic effects caused by the Bothrops rhombeatus venom. MATERIALS AND METHODS: To begin, the minimum dose that causes edema-forming, coagulant and hemorrhagic activities was determined. The protocols investigated include coagulant and edematic activities caused by the venom of Bothrops rhombeatus which were neutralized by the TEE of PA. RESULTS: The MCD-P was found to be 0.206 ±â€¯0.026 µg, the MED is the same at 0.768 ±â€¯0.065 µg, and the MHD is 3.553 ±â€¯0.292 µg, which are different from the reports for Bothrops asper and Bothrops ayerbei. Next, a phytochemical screening was done to the TEE where mainly triterpenes, steroids, coumarins, saponins, and lignans were identified. Also present were 43,733 ±â€¯2106 mg AG/g ES of phenols, which are secondary metabolites that are probably responsible for the neutralization of coagulant and edematic activities at rates of 2363.870 µL and 1787.708 µL of extract/mg of venom, respectively. As a comparative parameter, the National Institute Health's (NHI) effective dose of the antivenom was used as a comparative parameter. In addition, we determined the toxicity of the TEE of PA on to Artemia salina, being moderately toxic at 6 and 24 h, while the essential oil of PA at the same observation hours is in the extremely toxic range. CONCLUSIONS: The results reflect that the extract of P. auritum has an anti-inflammatory effect similar to that of the NIH serum. It could be used as a complement of NIH antivenom, using them together so it contributes to effectively reduce inflammation and the socio-economic impact generated by the permanence of a patient victim of snakebite in health centers. CLASSIFICATIONS: Immunological products and vaccines.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Antivenenos/uso terapêutico , Venenos de Crotalídeos/toxicidade , Piper , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anticoagulantes/química , Anticoagulantes/farmacologia , Antivenenos/química , Antivenenos/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Coagulação Sanguínea/efeitos dos fármacos , Bothrops , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Etanol/química , Hemorragia/tratamento farmacológico , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Mordeduras de Serpentes/tratamento farmacológico , Solventes/química
13.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3264846, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31341895

RESUMO

In this study, GC-MS analysis has shown that whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) comprises of 21 compounds which exhibited anticancer (MCF-7) activity having IC50 value of 36.01± 0.26. MTT assay (MCF-7), Oxidative Burst assay using chemiluminescence technique, and B-Hatching techniques were the methods used for anticancer MCF-7, anti-inflammatory, and Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA). GC-MS was used for structural elucidation. Whole plant methanol extract of rheum ribes (WMERR), whole plant n-hexane fraction of rheum ribes (WHFRR), and whole plant aqueous fraction of rheum ribes (WAFRR) were inactive against anticancer (MCF-7) cell line. Whole plant methanol extract of rheum ribes (WMERR), whole plant aqueous fraction of rheum ribes (WAFRR) and whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) showed anti-inflammatory activity on ROS having IC50 value of 23.2±1.9, 24.2±2.7 and 12.0±0.6. Whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) showed Brine Shrimp Lethality with LD50 693.302 while whole plant methanol extract of rheum ribes (WMERR) and whole plant aqueous fraction of rheum ribes (WAFRR) showed high lethality at highest concentration. This study revealed that whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) exhibited significant anticancer (MCF-7) activity. In the near future, the constituent of whole plant butanol fraction of rheum ribes (WBFRR) can be the alternative drug against MCF-7 cell line with least toxicity and side effects.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Rheum/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Butanóis , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
14.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 103: 109789, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31349507

RESUMO

Enzymatic biodegradation of pharmaceuticals, using enzymes such as laccase, is a green solution for the removal of toxic pollutants that has attracted growing interest over recent years. Moreover, the application of immobilized biocatalysts is relevant for industrial applications, due to the improved stability and reusability of the immobilized enzymes. Thus, in the present study, laccase was immobilized by adsorption and encapsulation using poly(l-lactic acid)-co-poly(ε-caprolactone) (PLCL) electrospun nanofibers as a tailor-made support. The produced biocatalytic systems were applied in the biodegradation of two commonly used anti-inflammatories, naproxen and diclofenac, which are present in wastewaters at environmentally relevant concentrations. The results showed that under optimal process conditions (temperature 25 °C, pH 5 and 3 for naproxen and diclofenac respectively), even from a solution at a concentration of 1 mg L-1, over 90% of both pharmaceuticals was removed by encapsulated laccase in batch mode. Both immobilized enzymes also exhibited high reusability: after five reaction cycles approximately 60% and 40% of naproxen and diclofenac were removed by encapsulated and adsorbed laccase respectively. In addition, a thorough analysis was made of the products of biodegradation of the two studied pollutants. Furthermore, toxicity study of the mixture after biodegradation of the pharmaceuticals showed that the solutions obtained after the process were approximately 65% less toxic than the initial naproxen and diclofenac solutions.


Assuntos
Biodegradação Ambiental , Diclofenaco/metabolismo , Lacase/metabolismo , Nanofibras/química , Naproxeno/metabolismo , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Biocatálise , Diclofenaco/química , Estabilidade Enzimática , Enzimas Imobilizadas/metabolismo , Reutilização de Equipamento , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Naproxeno/química , Poliésteres/química , Temperatura Ambiente , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
15.
Carbohydr Polym ; 222: 115002, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31320044

RESUMO

Chitosan has become promising as a biomaterial because of its biocompatible, biodegradable nature and non-toxic. The biochemical and antioxidant properties of chitosan modified with acetylacetone and ethylenediamine (Cacen) or diethylenetriamine (Cacdien) associated with ceftazidime (F) were investigated. Chitosan was characterized using Elemental Analysis (CHN), Thermal Analysis (TG/DTG/DSC), X-Ray Diffractometry (XRD), and was investigated an in vitro hemolytic cytotoxicity test, Artemia saline larvae for toxicity and in vitro antioxidant activity by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl). The chemical modification was confirmed by CHN, XRD and TG. The Cacen, Cacdien, CacenF and CacdienF derivatives presented high percentages of nitrogen (7.6%, 7.9%, 14.1% and 19.2%, respectively), confirming the modification and drug adsorption. The average molecular weight of chitosan and its derivatives were 132 kDa, with very few variations after modification. This incorporation decreased in the crystallinity index of Cacen (7.1%) and Cacdien (4.3%), as well as the incorporation of the drug (CacenF 0.3% and CacdienF 3.4%). FTIR spectra showed bands at 1580-1654 cm-1 referring to carbonyl and imine group and bands at 3500-3300 and 1462-1264 cm-1 related to vibration and deformation the amine group. 13C NMR spectroscopy was observed new peaks in carbonyl and imine regions (170-200 ppm). The thermal stability of the derivatives without the drug improved according to TG/DTG/DSC analysis, however there were decreased in the derivatives with the drug. The biocompatibility of the derivatives was confirmed by the low hemolytic rate (<5%), non-toxic on Artemia salina (LD50%>3000 ppm), and significant index (1-34%) of antioxidant activity. The results demonstrated that chitosan and its derivatives are promising biomaterials.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Ceftazidima/farmacologia , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/farmacologia , Adsorção , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/toxicidade , Ceftazidima/química , Ceftazidima/toxicidade , Quitosana/toxicidade , Cães , Hemólise/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280242

RESUMO

Background The aim of this experiment was to evaluate the cytotoxic, thrombolytic, analgesic, sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic activities of the methanolic extract of Ficus cunia leaves. Methods Primary phytochemical screening was accomplished by using established methods. Cytotoxicity was studied by brine shrimp lethality test, and the thrombolytic assay was conducted through clot lysis method with human blood. The in vivo action was done using mice of both sexes. The analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid-induced writhing test and formalin-induced paw licking test. Open field, hole cross and thiopental Na-induced sleeping time test were used to examine the sedative-hypnotic activity, and elevated plus maze (EPM) and hole board test were used to identify the anxiolytic activity. Results The results elicited that the extract contained several phytochemicals such as alkaloid, flavonoid, and tannin. The extract was found to have a median lethal concentration (LC50) value of 55.48 µg/mL in the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. It was also assessed for antithrombotic activity when compared with streptokinase; it has significant (p < 0.001) thrombolytic effect (34.72 ± 1.74%) contrasted with standard streptokinase (67 ± 1.56%). The extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg produced inhibition of 32.58% and 46.63% in acetic acid-induced pain and 45.88 and 61.18% in formalin-induced pain. The sedative and hypnotic activities on the central nervous system of the methanol extract of F. cunia (MEFC) leaves were evaluated. The extract delivered critical sedative impact at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg (by oral route) treated with reference to the substance diazepam, and the hypnotic impact was also observed in the case of mice. MEFC at its maximum dose (400 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.01) increased the time spent in the open arms of the EPM. In the hole board test, there was a dose-dependent (at 200 and 400 mg/kg) and a significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) increase in the number of head pokes in comparison to control. Conclusions The results of the present study gave a helpful baseline in progression for the possible use of MEFC as a cytotoxic, thrombolytic, analgesic, sedative-hypnotic and anxiolytic drug.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/farmacologia , Fibrinolíticos/farmacologia , Ficus/química , Metanol/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Camundongos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Fitoterapia/métodos
17.
Microb Pathog ; 135: 103608, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31229603

RESUMO

This study aimed to determinate the chemical composition and evaluate the antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of the essential oil obtained from leaves of V. gardneriana. The Vitex gardneriana leaves's were hydrodistilled to obtain the essential oil and the chemical composition determined by GC/MS analysis. The antimicrobial activities were determined by microdilution method. The activity of essential oil on biofilm was evaluated by quantification of total biomass and enumeration of biofilm-entrapped viable cells. The antioxidant activity was assessed by DPPH free radical assay, ferrous ion chelating assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power and ß-carotene bleaching assay. Furthermore, the essential oil was tested on viability of health human, animal cells and the microcrustacean Artemia sp. The essential oil showed high content of sesquiterpenes and very low content of monoterpenes. Regarding activity on planktonic cells, the essential oil reduced the growth of the all species tested but showed MIC values only to S. aureus (0.31%). In general, the essential oil reduced significantly the biofilm biomass and the number of viable cells of bacteria and yeasts, mainly on biofilm formation. The essential oil showed a potential antioxidant activity, mainly on ß-carotene oxidation. Moreover, the essential oil reduced the cell viability of murine fibroblasts but not show viability reduction of human keratinocytes. Furthermore, the oil not show toxicity against the microcrustacean. Thus, the essential oil from V. gardneriana leaves may be considered as an important alternative against biofilms formed by bacteria and yeasts related to infections, as well as a natural antioxidant and non-toxic substance on human cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/química , Antioxidantes/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Vitex/química , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Camundongos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus/efeitos dos fármacos , beta Caroteno
18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(2): e20180468, 2019 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31241699

RESUMO

This study evaluates the antibacterial, cytotoxic activities, and phytochemical composition, of Callistemon citrinus, Hibiscus rosa-sinensis and Plumbago auriculata leaves and flowers, three ornamental plants in Mexico. However, in other countries offers a range of other uses. Ethanol extracts of C. citrinus leaf and flower presented stronger antibacterial activity than the extracts obtained from the other two plants. C. citrinus leaf showed low cytotoxicity (LC50 <600 µg/mL) on the brine shrimp test, whereas the ethanol extracts of H. rosa-sinensis and P. auriculata leaves showed no cytotoxic activity. Flower extracts obtained from the three plants did no exhibit cytotoxicity. GC-MS analysis revealed that the ethanol extract of P. auriculata leaf contained lupeol triterpene and lupeol acetate, neither of them have been previously reported in this genus. Gamma sitosterol was present in the leaf and flower extracts of P. auriculata. Higher contents of linoleic and linolenic acids were found in extracts of H. rosa-sinensis leaves and flowers. The ability of the ethanol extracts of C. citrinus leaves and flowers to inhibit the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria indicates a potentially broad antimicrobial spectrum. Moreover, the absence of cytotoxicity suggests the potential use of this plant to treat microbial infections.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Bactérias Gram-Negativas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hibiscus/química , Myrtaceae/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plumbaginaceae/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , México , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade
19.
J Diabetes Res ; 2019: 7836820, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31179342

RESUMO

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is considered the epidemic of the 21st century. Traditional medicine uses plants to treat DM; many of these have hypoglycemic effects in both animal models and diabetic patients. Our objective was to evaluate the hypoglycemic activity of Tilia americana, Borago officinalis, Chenopodium nuttalliae, and Piper sanctum on diabetic rats. The methanolic extracts of the plants under study were obtained by Soxhlet extraction. Toxicity was evaluated on Artemia salina; the antioxidant potential was evaluated using the DPPH technique. Hypoglycemic capacity at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg was tested on Wistar rats with diabetes induced by alloxan (120 mg/kg). The toxicity on A. salina was null for the extracts of B. officinalis and P. sanctum, moderate for T. americana, and highly toxic for C. nuttalliae. The relevant extract of T. americana var. mexicana showed antioxidant activity. Three plants of the studied plants showed hypoglycemic activity: Tilia Americana (p = 0.0142), Borago officinalis (p = 0.0112), and Piper sanctum (p = 0.0078); P. sanctum was the one that showed the greatest reduction in glucose levels at a lower dose.


Assuntos
Borago/química , Chenopodium/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Piper/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Tilia/química , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Água do Mar
20.
Chemosphere ; 234: 123-131, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31207418

RESUMO

Microplastics are a ubiquitous contaminant of marine ecosystems that have received considerable global attention. The effects of microplastic ingestion on some marine biota have been evaluated, but the uptake, elimination, and histopathological impacts of microplastics remain under-investigated especially for zooplankton larvae. Here, we show that 10 µm polystyrene microspheres can be ingested and egested by Artemia parthenogenetica larvae, which impact their health. The results indicate that A. parthenogenetica larvae have a varying capacity to consume 10 µm polystyrene microspheres that is dependent on microplastic exposure concentrations, exposure times, and the availability of food. The lowest level of microplastics that was ingested by A. parthenogenetica was 0.15 particles/individual when exposed to 10 particles/mL and 0.05 particles/individual when exposed to 1 particle/mL over 24 h and 14 d, respectively. A. parthenogenetica larvae were able to egest feces with microplastics within 3 h of ingestion. However, ingested microplastics persisted in individuals for up to 14 days. Furthermore, microalgal feeding was significantly reduced by 27.2% in the presence of 102 particles/mL microplastics over 24 h. Histological analyses indicated that a greater abundance of lipid droplets was present among epithelia after 24 h of exposure at a concentration of 10 particles/mL. Moreover, intestinal epithelia were deformed and disorderedly arranged after 14 d of exposure. Overall, these results indicate that marine microplastic pollution could pose a threat to A. parthenogenetica health, especially that of larvae. Consequently, further research is required to evaluate the potential physiological and histopathological effects of microplastics for other marine invertebrate species.


Assuntos
Artemia/metabolismo , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/farmacocinética , Poliestirenos/farmacocinética , Animais , Artemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Ingestão de Alimentos , Ecossistema , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Plásticos/análise , Poliestirenos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/farmacocinética , Zooplâncton/efeitos dos fármacos
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