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1.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e264425, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722676

RESUMO

The ixodicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Artemisia ludoviciana (Astereceae), Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) and Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae) against two field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from the state of Nuevo Leon (NL) and Veracruz (VER) was evaluated. The extract of L. chinensis in the concentration of 150 mg/ml showed efficacies of 100% and 99% against engorged females and mortalities of 98% and 99% against larvae. C. boissieri in the same concentration showed efficacies of 71% and 37% against engorged adults and mortalities of 33.04% and 10.33% against larvae and A. ludoviciana had efficacies of 94% and 83% in adults and mortalities of 89.39% and 89.21% against larvae in both populations respectively. The enzymatic activity of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CaE), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) was measured in both populations of ticks. As a result, a significant difference between both populations was shown, being the VER population the one that exhibited a higher enzymatic activity (p ≤ 0.05). It can be concluded that the methanolic extract of the seed of L. chinensis shows potential ixodicidal activity and can be used as an alternative source of tick control, however, prior characterization, toxicity and formulation studies are necessary.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Cordia , Ixodidae , Litchi , Rhipicephalus , Feminino , Animais , Acetilcolinesterase , Glutationa Transferase , Larva , Metanol , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia
2.
Plant Signal Behav ; 18(1): 2163349, 2023 Dec 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645912

RESUMO

Planting Elymus nutans artificial grassland to replace degraded Artemisia baimaensis grassland on the Qinghai Tibetan plateau (QTP) can effectively alleviate local grass-livestock imbalance. However, it is unknown whether the allelopathy of natural grassland plant A. baimaensis on E. nutans affects grassland establishment. Accordingly, we examined the effects of varying concentrations of aqueous extracts of A. baimaensis litter on the seed germination and early seedling growth of E. nutans, and the effects of A. baimaensis volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the growth parameters and physiological characteristics of E. nutans. The results indicate that the aqueous extract inhibited the force, percentage, and index of germination of E. nutans and affected early seedling growth, particularly at high concentrations. Further, the VOCs significantly reduced the aboveground and root biomass of E. nutans and increased malondialdehyde concentrations. Additionally, these VOCs altered the antioxidant enzyme activities and increased the superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, ascorbic acid peroxidase, soluble sugar, and proline content but significantly decreased glutathione reductase levels. Our results indicate that the allelopathy of A. baimaensis significantly inhibited the germination and seedling growth of E. nutans . Thus, the leaching of A. baimaensis may produce allelochemicals in the soil that inhibit the germination of E. nutans seeds. Moreover, the VOCs of A. baimaensis may disrupt the growth process, resulting in a decrease in biomass and a disruption of the physiological metabolism of seedlings under field conditions.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Elymus , Elymus/metabolismo , Pradaria , Alelopatia , Plântula , Germinação , Plantas , Sementes , Peroxidases/metabolismo , Peroxidases/farmacologia
3.
J Environ Manage ; 329: 116420, 2023 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639312

RESUMO

Sagebrush ecosystems of the western U.S. support ranching livelihoods and imperiled populations of the Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). Incentive-based conservation such as cost-sharing is the primary tool used by the federal government to support conservation practices on rangelands in the U.S. Financial support for adopting specific prescribed grazing practices on private land has been supported through the U.S. Department of Agriculture Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS)-led Sage-Grouse Initiative (SGI), initiated in 2010 as an unparalleled private and public effort to conserve Greater Sage-grouse habitat. The purpose of this research was to provide an economic assessment of the impact of this conservation program on participating ranches. Representative ranch enterprise budgets and ranch economic models were created for this analysis for eleven NRCS Major Land Resource Areas where critical sage-grouse habitat exist, including parts of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Wyoming. Results of the economic assessment showed that SGI/NRCS financial support alleviated the financial impact of conservation practice adoption, but negative financial impacts were estimated in some locations and more frequently for smaller ranches. Larger ranches were found to do better under these programs on average. Results demonstrate the important role of research and government financial support in removing financial barriers to conservation adoption on rangelands.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Galliformes , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Wyoming
4.
Org Biomol Chem ; 21(4): 823-831, 2023 01 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36601986

RESUMO

Artemongolides A-E (1-5), an unusual class of diseco-guaianolides featuring a rare fused 7-methylbicyclo[2.2.1]-2-ene-7-heptanol ring system, and artemongolide F (6), the first example of [4 + 2] Diels-Alder type adducts presumably incorporating a chain farnesane sesquiterpene and a guaianolide diene, were isolated from the whole plant of Artemisia mongolica. Their structures were elucidated based on the spectroscopic analyses of UV, IR, MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectra. The absolute configurations of artemongolides A (1) and F (6) were determined by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, and those of artemongolides B-E (2-5) were established by ECD calculations. Cytotoxicity evaluation suggested that compound 1 exhibited activity against HSC-LX2 cells with an IC50 value of 165.0 µM, equivalent to that of the positive control silybin (IC50, 146.4 µM). Preliminary mechanism studies revealed that compound 1 could inhibit the deposition of human collagen type I (Col I), human hyaluronic acid (HA), and human laminin (HL) with IC50 values of 123.8, 160.4, and 139.20 µM.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Sesquiterpenos , Humanos , Artemisia/química , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Estrutura Molecular
5.
Virol J ; 20(1): 8, 2023 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647143

RESUMO

Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a widely disseminated virus that establishes latency in the brain and causes occasional but fatal herpes simplex encephalitis. Currently, acyclovir (ACV) is the main clinical drug used in the treatment of HSV-1 infection, and the failure of therapy in immunocompromised patients caused by ACV-resistant HSV-1 strains necessitates the requirement to develop novel anti-HSV-1 drugs. Artemisia argyi, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, has been historically used to treat inflammation, bacterial infection, and cancer. In this study, we demonstrated the antiviral effect and mechanism of ethanol extract of A. argyi leaves (hereafter referred to as 'AEE'). We showed that AEE at 10 µg/ml exhibits potent antiviral effects on both normal and ACV-resistant HSV-1 strains. AEE also inhibited the infection of HSV-2, rotavirus, and influenza virus. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that AEE destroys the membrane integrity of HSV-1 viral particles, resulting in impaired viral attachment and penetration. Furthermore, mass spectrometry assay identified 12 major components of AEE, among which two new flavones, deoxysappanone B 7,3'-dimethyl ether, and 3,7-dihydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavone, exhibited the highest binding affinity to HSV-1 glycoprotein gB at the surface site critical for gB-gH-gL interaction and gB-mediated membrane fusion, suggesting their involvement in inactivating virions. Therefore, A. argyi is an important source of antiviral drugs, and the AEE may be a potential novel antiviral agent against HSV-1 infection.


Assuntos
Antivirais , Artemisia , Herpesvirus Humano 1 , Extratos Vegetais , Aciclovir/farmacologia , Antivirais/química , Antivirais/farmacologia , Etanol , Herpesvirus Humano 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Envelope Viral , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Artemisia/química , Folhas de Planta/química
6.
Phytochemistry ; 206: 113548, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36481317

RESUMO

Antiosteoclastogenic-guided screening was conducted with 120 extracts of the medicinal plants collected in Egypt that led to the selection of Artemisia judaica L. (Asteraceae). Three undescribed davanone-related terpenoids, arteperoxides A-C, were isolated from the extract with two known derivatives, hydroxydavanone and davana acid. Structural analysis revealed that arteperoxides A-C were tris-normonoterpene-sesquiterpene conjugates with peroxide bridges. Although davanone derivatives with peroxides, such as a hydroperoxyl and peroxyhemiketal groups, have been isolated from Artemisia species, arteperoxides A-C are the first variations observed to contain peroxide bridges between two terpene-derived units. The absolute configurations of arteperoxides A and B were studied based on their spectroscopic data compared with those of the semisynthetic analogs that have ether linkages. The natural and synthetic compounds were tested for the antiosteoclastogenic activity, and arteperoxide C and hydroxydavanone were more potent than other compounds at 20 µM.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Plantas Medicinais , Sesquiterpenos , Artemisia/química , Peróxidos , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Terpenos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e252656, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1345534

RESUMO

Abstract The genus Artemisia L. of the family Asteraceae is systematically very complex. The aim of this study was to evaluate taxonomic positions of taxa of the subgenus Artemisia belonging to the genus Artemisia in Turkey using some molecular techniques. In this molecular study, 44 individuals belong to 14 species of the subgenus Artemisia were examined. Analyses were performed on the combined dataset using maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference and Molecular parameters obtained from co-evaluations of sequences of the psbA-trnH, ITS and ETS regions of examined individuals were used in the phylogenetic tree drawing. According to the results of this study, two molecular groups have been formed based on the DNA sequence similarity of the species, but there are no obvious morphological characters corresponding to two molecular groups. There is no also agreement between the two molecular groups and the two morphological groups formed according to the hairiness condition of the receptacle of species. Due to the lack of molecular significance of their receptacles with or without hair, dividing of the subgenus Artemisia species into new subgenera or sections was not considered appropriate. Likewise, it has been found that with or without hair on the corolla lobes of the central hermaphrodite disc flowers have no molecular significance. It was found that there were no gene flow and hybridization between the 14 species of the subgenus Artemisia and these 14 species were found completed their speciation. This study is important as it is the first molecular based study relating with belong to subgenus Artemisia species growing naturally in Turkey. In addition, new haplotypes related to the populations of Turkey belonging to the subgenus Artemisia taxa were reported by us for the first time and added to the GenBank database.


Resumo O gênero Artemisia L. da família Asteraceae é sistematicamente muito complexo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as posições taxonômicas de táxons do subgênero Artemisia pertencentes ao gênero Artemisia na Turquia usando algumas técnicas moleculares. Neste estudo molecular, 44 indivíduos pertencentes a 14 espécies do subgênero Artemisia foram examinados. As análises foram realizadas no conjunto de dados combinado usando máxima parcimônia, máxima verossimilhança e inferência bayesiana e parâmetros moleculares obtidos a partir de coavaliações de sequências das regiões psbA-trnH, ITS e ETS de indivíduos examinados foram usados ​​no desenho da árvore filogenética. De acordo com os resultados deste estudo, dois grupos moleculares foram formados com base na similaridade da sequência de DNA das espécies, mas não há caracteres morfológicos óbvios correspondentes a dois grupos moleculares. Também não há concordância entre os dois grupos moleculares e os dois grupos morfológicos formados de acordo com a condição de pilosidade do receptáculo da espécie. Devido à falta de significado molecular de seus receptáculos com ou sem cabelo, a divisão das espécies do subgênero Artemisia em novos subgêneros ou seções não foi considerada apropriada. Da mesma forma, verificou-se que com ou sem cabelo nos lobos da corola das flores do disco hermafrodita central não tem significado molecular. Constatou-se que não houve fluxo gênico e hibridização entre as 14 espécies do subgênero Artemisia e essas 14 espécies concluíram sua especiação. Este estudo é importante porque é o primeiro estudo de base molecular relacionado com espécies pertencentes ao subgênero Artemisia crescendo naturalmente na Turquia. Além disso, novos haplótipos relacionados às populações da Turquia pertencentes ao subgênero Artemisia taxa foram relatados por nós pela primeira vez e adicionados ao banco de dados do GenBank.


Assuntos
Humanos , Artemisia/genética , Filogenia , Turquia , Teorema de Bayes , Hibridização Genética
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 158: 114119, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36521244

RESUMO

Non-typhoidal invasive Salmonella (NTiS) diseases are one of the most important zoonoses in the world. This study explored the antipathogenic potential of twenty-four plants used in Benin folk medicine against NTiS diseases. The in vitro antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of ethanolic plant extracts were screened against clinical resistant isolates and ATCC reference strains of Salmonella. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium-infected rat model was used to examine the in vivo antibacterial potential of plant extracts. Of the 24 plants, 18 plants exhibited antibacterial activity against Salmonella enterica strains with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 0.156 to 1.25 mg/mL. Anacardium occidentale, Artemisia afra, Detarium microcarpum, Detarium senegalense, and Leucaena leucocephala were the most active plant species. Extracts from A. afra, D. microcarpum, and D. senegalense showed biofilm inhibition greater than 50% against Salmonella clinical isolates. In the rat model of infection, A. afra and D. senegalense extracts were found to have an effective dose of less than 100 mg/kg and to stop the salmonellosis after 10 days of treatment. Additionally, these extracts did not produce any toxic effects in the treated animals. These results indicate clear evidence supporting the anti-Salmonella activity of A. afra and D. senegalense. Further studies are now needed to isolate bioactive compounds and to ensure the safety of these plant species.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Ratos , Animais , Benin , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Salmonella typhimurium , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
9.
J Environ Manage ; 327: 116718, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36565577

RESUMO

For most of the 20th century and beyond, national wildland fire policies concerning fire suppression and fuels management have primarily focused on forested lands. Using summary statistics and landscape metrics, wildfire spatial patterns and trends for non-forest and forest burned area over the past two decades were examined across the U.S, and federal agency jurisdictions. This study found that wildfires burned more area of non-forest lands than forest lands at the scale of the conterminous and western U.S. and the Department of Interior (DOI). In an agency comparison, 74% of DOI burned area occurred on non-forest lands and 78% of U.S. Forest Service burned area occurred on forested lands. Landscape metrics revealed key differences between forest and non-forest fire patterns and trends in total burned area, burned patch size, distribution, and aggregation over time across the western U.S. Opposite fire patterns emerged between non-forest and forest burns when analyzed at the scale of federal agency jurisdictions. In addition, a fire regime departure analysis comparing current large fire probability with historic fire trends identified certain vegetation types and locations experiencing more fire than historically. These patterns were especially pronounced for cold desert shrublands, such as sagebrush where increases in annual area burned, and fire frequency, size, and juxtaposition have resulted in substantial losses over a twenty-year period. The emerging non-forest fire patterns are primarily due to the rapid expansion of non-native invasive grasses that increase fuel connectivity and fire spread. These invasions promote uncharacteristic frequent fire and loss of native ecosystems at large-scales, accelerating the need to place greater focus on managing invasive species in wildland fire management. Results can be used to inform wildfire management and policy aimed at reducing uncharacteristic wildfire processes and patterns for both non-forest and forest ecosystems as well as identify differing management strategies needed to address the unique wildfire issues each federal agency faces.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Incêndios , Incêndios Florestais , Ecossistema , Probabilidade
10.
Food Chem ; 407: 135198, 2023 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36527947

RESUMO

In this study, flavonoids were successfully extracted from Artemisia argyi stem, and their yield reached 15.3 mg/g dry A. argyi stem. The flavonoid extract from A. argyi stem had a purity of 88.58 % (w/w), meanwhile, which also contained 1.57 % (w/w) carbohydrates, 2.04 % (w/w) proteins and 7.81 % (w/w) polyphenols, respectively. In vitro antioxidant activity analysis showed the increased scavenging effects of flavonoid extract from A. argyi stem on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, 2,2'-azinobis-di-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt, hydroxyl, and superoxide radicals in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the flavonoid extract from A. argyi stem exerted protective effects on lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages via inhibiting the levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-1 beta, and nitric oxide free radicals. Overall, this work will provide guidance and help in the utilization of edible A. argyi as plant-based diet and its bioactive flavonoid extract as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory ingredients to improve the function, nutrition, and healthiness of foods.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Artemisia , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/metabolismo
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 47(22): 6058-6065, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36471930

RESUMO

Artemisia indica is an important medicinal plant in the Asteraceae family, but its molecular genetic information has been rarely reported. In this study, the chloroplast genome of A. indica was sequenced, assembled, and annotated by the high-throughput sequencing technology, and its sequence characteristics, repeat sequences, codon usage bias, and phylogeny were analyzed. The results showed that the length of the chloroplast genome for A. indica was 151 161 bp, which was a typical circular four-segment structure, including two inverted repeat regions(IRs), a large single-copy(LSC) region, and a small single-copy(SSC) region, with a GC content of 37.47%. A total of 132 genes were annotated, and 114 were obtained after de-duplication, including 80 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNA genes, and 4 rRNA genes. Fifty long repeat sequences and 191 SSRs were detected in the chloroplast genome of A. indica, and SSRs were mainly single nucleotides. Codon usage bias analysis showed that leucine was the most frequently used amino acid(10.77%) in the chloroplast genome, and there were 30 codons with relative synonymous codon usage(RSCU)>1 and all ended with A/U. The phylogenetic tree constructed based on the chloroplast genomes of the 19 species from the Asteraceae family showed that A. indica and A. argyi were closest in the genetic relationship, and Artemisia species clustered into separate evolutionary branches. The results of this study are expected to provide a theoretical basis for the genetic diversity and resource conservation of Artemisia medicinal plants.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Plantas Medicinais , Filogenia , Artemisia/genética , Códon/genética , Composição de Bases , Plantas Medicinais/genética
12.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22438, 2022 12 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575205

RESUMO

Ecological theory predicts a pulse disturbance results in loss of soil organic carbon and short-term respiration losses that exceed recovery of productivity in many ecosystems. However, fundamental uncertainties remain in our understanding of ecosystem recovery where spatiotemporal variation in structure and function are not adequately represented in conceptual models. Here we show that wildfire in sagebrush shrublands results in multiscale responses that vary with ecosystem properties, landscape position, and their interactions. Consistent with ecological theory, soil pH increased and soil organic carbon (SOC) decreased following fire. In contrast, SOC responses were slope aspect and shrub-microsite dependent, with a larger proportional decrease under previous shrubs on north-facing aspects compared to south-facing ones. In addition, respiratory losses from burned aspects were not significantly different than losses from unburned aspects. We also documented the novel formation of soil inorganic carbon (SIC) with wildfire that differed significantly with aspect and microsite scale. Whereas pH and SIC recovered within 37 months post-fire, SOC stocks remained reduced, especially on north-facing aspects. Spatially, SIC formation was paired with reduced respiration losses, presumably lower partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2), and increased calcium availability, consistent with geochemical models of carbonate formation. Our findings highlight the formation of SIC after fire as a novel short-term sink of carbon in non-forested shrubland ecosystems. Resiliency in sagebrush shrublands may be more complex and integrated across ecosystem to landscape scales than predicted based on current theory.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Incêndios Florestais , Ecossistema , Solo , Carbono
13.
Molecules ; 27(23)2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36500692

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to prepare a series of biochars and activated biocarbons via conventional pyrolysis as well as chemical or physical activation of solid residue after solvent extraction of wild growing plant (popular weed)-mugwort. The influence of the variant of the thermochemical treatment of the precursor on such parameters as elemental composition, textural parameters, acidic-basic character of the surface as well as adsorption abilities of the prepared carbonaceous materials was checked. Moreover, the suitability of the biochars prepared as renewable fuels was also investigated. It has been shown that the products obtained from the mugwort stems differ in many respects from the analogous materials obtained from mugwort leaves. The products were micro/mesoporous materials with surface area reaching 974.4 m2/g and total pore volume-1.190 cm3/g. Surface characterization showed that chemical activation with H3PO4 results in the acidic character of the adsorbents surface, whereas products of pyrolysis and especially physical activation show strongly alkaline surface properties. All the adsorbents were used for methylene blue and iodine adsorption from the aquatic environment. To understand the nature of the sorption process, the Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherm models were employed. The Langmuir model best described the experimental results, and the maximum sorption capacity calculated for this model reached 164.14 mg of methylene blue per gram of adsorbent. In case of iodine removal, the maximum capacity reached 948.00 mg/g. The research carried out for the biochars prepared via conventional pyrolysis showed that the value of their heat of combustion varies in the range from 21.74 to 30.27 MJ/kg, so they can be applied as the renewable fuels.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Iodo , Poluentes Químicos da Água , Azul de Metileno , Carvão Vegetal/química , Pirólise , Adsorção , Plantas , Cinética
14.
Front Biosci (Schol Ed) ; 14(4): 25, 2022 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36575835

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Carbohydrate digestive enzymes play a major role in the management of the postprandial hyperglycemia. A chronic hyperglycemia can lead to serious health problems due to excessive production of several reactive oxygen species. Therefore, the inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzyme and the use of antioxidant natural product can be an important strategy to control the glycaemia level and prevent against the complication of diabetes. AIM: The study aims to perform a phytochemical analysis, antioxidant activity, inhibitory effect on α -amylase, α -glucosidase (in vitro and in vivo) and the intestinal glucose absorption in Wistar rats of Artemisia campestris aqueous extract (AcAE) and hydro-ethanolic extract (AcEE). RESULTS: The test of total phenolic content, show that the AcAE has the highest quantity of polyphenol (44.65 ± 0.54 µ g GAE/mg extract) compared to the AcEE (31.7 ± 0.53 µ g GAE/mg extract) significantly. The amount of flavonoid and condensed tannins content in AcAE is 24.41 ± 3.57 µ g QrE/mg extract, 14.31 ± 5.26 µ g CE/mg respectively. The AcAE has also exhibit a great antioxidant activity in DPPH-scavenging and Ferric reducing antioxidant power assay (FRAP) compared to AcEE with an IC 50 = 0.355 ± 0.057 mg/mL and IC 50 = 0.269 ± 0.025 mg/mL. However, in a ß -carotene bleaching assay the AcEE has the highest effect with an IC 50 = 0.319 ± 0.097 mg/mL. The both extract of Artemisia campestris L. (250 mg/kg) decreased postprandial hyperglycemia in the normal and alloxane diabetic rats in a very significant manner after starch or sucrose administration as an α -amylase and α -glucosidase substrate respectively. This result is confirmed in vitro by a remarkable inhibitory effect on α -amylase digestive enzymes by an IC 50 = 1.259 ± 0.128 mg/mL and IC 50 = 0.602 ± 0.072 mg/mL receptively for AcAE and AcEE. For the α -glucosidase enzyme, the both extracts significantly inhibit α -glucosidase activity compared to the control and they are almost similar to each other. Using a jejunum perfusion technique (in situ), Artemisia campestris L. decrease the intestinal D-glucose absorption activity significantly compared to the control and comparable to the Phlorizin used as a positive control by an amount of glucose absorbed equal a 6.53 ± 0.57, 5.34 ± 0.64 and 4.71 ± 0.24 mg/10 cm/h, for AcAE, AcEE and Phlorizin respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results showed that the Artemisia campestris L. has highest phenolic content, antioxidant activity and demonstrated a postprandial anti-hyperglycemic effect via the inhibiting of the carbohydrate digestive enzyme ( α -amylase and α -glucosidase) and the intestinal glucose absorption.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Hiperglicemia , Ratos , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Florizina , Ratos Wistar , alfa-Glucosidases/química , alfa-Amilases , Glucose
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(23)2022 Dec 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36499702

RESUMO

A new terminology "combined allergic rhinitis and asthma syndrome (CARAS)" was introduced to describe patients suffering from both allergic rhinitis (AR) and asthma. The pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation has been well known, with the main contribution of TH1/TH2 imbalance and mast cell degranulation. Artemisia gmelinii has been used as an herbal medicine with its hepaprotective, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant properties. In this study, the effect of A. gmelinii extracts (AGE) on the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced CARAS mouse model was investigated. AGE administration significantly alleviated the nasal rubbing and sneezing, markedly down-regulated both OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and histamine levels, and up-regulated OVA-specific IgG2a in serum. The altered histology of nasal and lung tissues of CARAS mice was effectively ameliorated by AGE. The AGE treatment group showed markedly increased levels of the TH1 cytokine interleukin (IL)-12 and TH1 transcription factor T-bet. In contrast, the levels of the TH2 cytokines, including IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and the TH2 transcription factor GATA-3, were notably suppressed by AGE. Moreover, AGE effectively prevented mast cell degranulation in vitro and mast cell infiltration in lung tissues in vivo. Based on these results, we suggest that AGE could be a potential therapeutic agent in OVA-induced CARAS by virtue of its role in balancing the TH1/TH2 homeostasis and inhibiting the mast cell degranulation.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Asma , Rinite Alérgica , Animais , Camundongos , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Degranulação Celular , Citocinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Imunoglobulina G , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Mastócitos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais , Rinite Alérgica/patologia , Células Th2 , Fatores de Transcrição , Células Th1
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(24)2022 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36555498

RESUMO

The current investigation assessed the effect of the eudesmanolid, Vulgarin (VGN), obtained from Artemisia judaica (A. judaica), on the antidiabetic potential of glibenclamide (GLB) using streptozotocin (STZ) to induce diabetes. Seven groups of rats were used in the study; the first group received the vehicle and served as normal control. The diabetic rats of the second to the fifth groups were treated with the vehicle (negative control), GLB at 5 mg/kg (positive control), VGN at 10 mg/kg (VGN-10) and VGN at 20 mg/kg (VGN-20), respectively. The diabetic rats of the sixth and seventh groups were administered combinations of GLB plus VGN-10 and GLB plus VGN-20, respectively. The diabetic rats treated with GLB plus VGN-20 combination showed marked improvement in the fasting blood glucose (FBG), insulin and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), as well as the lipid profile, compared with those treated with GLB alone. Further, the pancreatic tissues of the diabetic rats that received the GLB+VGN-20 combination showed superior improvements in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant parameters than those of GLB monotherapy. The insulin content of the ß-cells was restored in all treatments, while the levels of glucagon and somatostatin of the α- and δ-endocrine cells were reduced in the pancreatic islets. In addition, the concurrent administration of GLB+VGN-20 was the most effective in restoring PEPCK and G6Pase mRNA expression in the liver. In conclusion, the results demonstrated that the GLB+VGN-20 combination led to greater glycemic improvement in diabetic rats compared with GLB monotherapy through its antioxidant effect and capability to modulate PEPCK and G6Pase gene expression in their livers.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental , Sesquiterpenos , Ratos , Animais , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Glibureto/farmacologia , Glibureto/uso terapêutico , Estreptozocina , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Insulina , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Fosfoenolpiruvato Carboxilase , Sesquiterpenos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/uso terapêutico , Lactonas , Glicemia
17.
Molecules ; 27(24)2022 Dec 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36558030

RESUMO

As one of the vital shrubs growing in crusted areas in China, Artemisia ordosica (belonging to the Asteraceae family) is abundant in essential oil, and its aerial part's essential oil has been reported to have some biological activities during the flowering and fruit set stage, and has been used in folk medicine. However, little is known about the biological activities of its aerial part's essential oil during the vegetative period. Thus, the purpose of this work was to determine the chemical composition and evaluate the antioxidant and antibacterial potencies of the essential oil extracted from A. ordosica aerial parts during the vegetative stage. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that spathulenol (9.93%) and α-curcumene (9.24%), both sesquiterpenes, were the most abundant of the 74 chemical constituents detected in the essential oil of A. ordosica. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil was found to be relatively moderate against 2,2-diphenylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS), and hydroxyl radical (OH●) radicals. The essential oil exhibited strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella abony and Escherichia coli, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 2.5, 5, and 10 µL/mL, respectively. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. ordosica possesses notable antibacterial properties as well as antioxidant capability and can thus be employed as a natural ingredient which can be used as a substitute for antibiotics in the animal feed industry. However, in vivo toxicological studies are still required to determine the safety level and beneficial outcomes of the A. ordosica essential oil for future utilization.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Óleos Voláteis , Animais , Óleos Voláteis/química , Antioxidantes/química , Artemisia/química , Antibacterianos/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36498118

RESUMO

Mining activities have led to serious environmental (soil erosion, degradation of vegetation, and groundwater contamination) and human health (musculoskeletal problems, diarrheal conditions, and chronic diseases) issues at desert mining areas in northwest China. Native plant species grown naturally in desert regions show a unique tolerance to arid and semiarid conditions and are potential candidates for soil phytoremediation. Here, an ex situ experiment involving pot planting of seedlings of three native plant species (Suaeda glauca, Artemisia desertorum, and Atriplex canescens) was designed to explore their phytoremediation potential and the underlying physiological mechanism. For Zn and Cu, the three plants were all with a biological accumulation coefficient (BAC) greater than 1. For Cd, Ni, and Pb, Atriplex canescens had the highest bioaccumulation concentrations (521.52, 862.23, and 1734.59 mg/kg), with BAC values (1.06, 1.30, 1.25) greater than 1, which indicates that Atriplex canescens could be a broad-spectrum metal extraction plant. Physiological analysis (antioxidation, extracellular secretions, photosynthesis, and hydraulics) showed that the three desert plants exploited their unique strategy to protect against the stress of complex metals in soils. Moreover, the second growing period was the main heavy metal accumulation and extraction stage concomitant with highest water use efficiency (iWUE). Taken together, the three desert plants exhibited the potent heavy metal extraction ability and physiological and ecological adaptability to a harsh polluted environment in arid desert areas, providing potential resources for the bioremediation of metal-contaminated soils in an arid and semiarid desert environment.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Atriplex , Chenopodiaceae , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Humanos , Atriplex/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Biodegradação Ambiental , Metais Pesados/análise , Solo , Plantas/metabolismo
19.
Molecules ; 27(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36364129

RESUMO

The goal of this work was to use the GC-MS technique to explore the chemical components of Artemisia giraldii Pamp essential oil (AgEo) and to uncover its antibacterial activity, specifically the antibacterial mechanism of this essential oil. There were a total of 63 chemical constituents in the AgEo, monoterpenes (10.2%) and sesquiterpenes (30.14%) were found to be the most common chemical components, with camphor (15.68%) coming in first, followed by germacrene D. (15.29%). AgEo displayed significant reducing power and good scavenging ability on hydroxyl radicals, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, and 2,2'-Azinobis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonate (ABTS) radicals, according to antioxidant data. The diameter of the inhibition zone (DIZ) of AgEo against S. aureus and E. coli was (14.00 ± 1.00) mm and (16.33 ± 1.53) mm, respectively; the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of AgEo against E. coli and S. aureus was 3 µL/mL and 6 µL/mL, respectively; and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of AgEo against E. coli and S. aureus was 6 µL/mL and 12 µL/mL, respectively. The antibacterial curve revealed that 0.5MIC of AgEo may delay bacterial growth while 2MIC of AgEo could totally suppress bacterial growth. The relative conductivity, alkaline phosphatase (AKP) activity, and protein concentration of the bacterial suspension were all higher after the AgEo treatment than in the control group, and increased as the essential oil concentration was raised. In addition, the cell membrane ruptured and atrophy occurred. The study discovered that AgEo is high in active chemicals and can be used as an antibacterial agent against E. coli and S. aureus, which is critical for AgEo's future research and development.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/química , Artemisia/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Escherichia coli , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Antibacterianos/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química
20.
Planta ; 256(6): 118, 2022 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36376619

RESUMO

MAIN CONCLUSIONS: C. campestris parasitisation increases internal host defences at the expense of environmentally directed ones in the host species A. campestris, thus limiting plant defence against progressive parasitisation. Cuscuta campestris Yunck is a holoparasitic species that parasitises wild species and crops. Among their hosts, Artemisia campestris subsp. variabilis (Ten.) Greuter is significantly affected in natural ecosystems. Limited information is available on the host recognition mechanism and there are no data on the interactions between these species and the effects on the primary and specialised metabolism in response to parasitisation. The research aims at evaluating the effect of host-parasite interactions, through a GC-MS untargeted metabolomic analysis, chlorophyll a fluorescence, ionomic and δ13C measurements, as well as volatile organic compound (VOC) fingerprint in A. campestris leaves collected in natural environment. C. campestris parasitisation altered plant water status, forcing stomatal opening, stimulating plant transpiration, and inducing physical damages to the host antenna complex, thus reducing the efficiency of its photosynthetic machinery. Untargeted-metabolomics analysis highlighted that the parasitisation significantly perturbed the amino acids and sugar metabolism, inducing an increase in the production of osmoprotectants, which generally accumulate in plants as a protective strategy against oxidative stress. Notably, VOCs analysis highlighted a reduction in sesquiterpenoids and an increase in monoterpenoids levels; involved in plant defence and host recognition, respectively. Moreover, C. campestris induced in the host a reduction in 3-hexenyl-acetate, a metabolite with known repellent activity against Cuscuta spp. We offer evidences that C. campestris parasitisation increases internal host defences via primary metabolites at the expense of more effective defensive compounds (secondary metabolites), thus limiting A. campestris defence against progressive parasitisation.


Assuntos
Artemisia , Cuscuta , Cuscuta/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Clorofila A/metabolismo , Fotossíntese
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