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1.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 31(4): 178-185, jul.-ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-182712

RESUMO

La enfermedad cardiovascular sigue siendo la primera causa de mortalidad en los países occidentales. Se necesitan nuevas estrategias para la prevención y el control de esta enfermedad. Al mismo tiempo, la incidencia de factores de riesgo que conducen al desarrollo de esta afección, como la obesidad, la hipertensión y la diabetes, sigue aumentando. Por lo tanto, la búsqueda de nuevos marcadores o mediadores es una prioridad en la mayoría de los programas de prevención cardiovascular. El estudio de la microbiota intestinal está surgiendo porque se sabe que los microorganismos intestinales actúan colectivamente como un órgano integrado, regulando múltiples funciones biológicas que pueden modular los factores de riesgo cardiovascular y los mecanismos patógenos de este proceso. Esta revisión considera la situación actual con respecto a la influencia de la microbiota intestinal en la enfermedad cardiovascular y, en particular, su influencia en los principales factores de riesgo tradicionales que conducen a la enfermedad cardiovascular, como la obesidad, la diabetes, la hipertensión y los lípidos


Cardiovascular disease remains the first cause of mortality in Western countries. New strategies for prevention and control of cardiovascular disease are needed. At the same time, the incidence of risk factors that lead to the development of this disease, such as obesity, hypertension and diabetes, continues to rise. Therefore, the search for new markers or mediators is a priority in most cardiovascular prevention programs. The study of the intestinal microbiota is emerging because it is known that intestinal microorganisms act collectively as an integrated organ, regulating multiple biological functions that can modulate cardiovascular risk factors and the pathogenic mechanisms of this process. This review considers the current situation regarding the influence of gut microbiota on cardiovascular disease and particularly, its influence on the main traditional risk factors that lead to cardiovascular disease, such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and lipids


Assuntos
Humanos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Fatores de Risco , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , Arteriosclerose/complicações , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Obesidade/epidemiologia
2.
Nutr. hosp ; 36(extr.3): 58-62, jul. 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-184437

RESUMO

Existe mucha evidencia que sugiere una relación en J entre el consumo moderado de alcohol y la salud cardiovascular. Se ha referido una reducción de alrededor del 20% en la mortalidad y de hasta el 40% en la cardiopatía isquémica en los bebedores moderados respecto a los abstemios absolutos. Las dosis consideradas saludables oscilan entre 10 y 20 g/día para mujeres y hombres, respectivamente, y parece que el patrón de bebida es igualmente relevante para obtener ese efecto saludable. Múltiples son los mecanismos que pueden explicar el retraso en la aterogénesis inducido por el consumo saludable de alcohol, pero probablemente los efectos sobre los lípidos y las plaquetas son los más importantes. Sin embargo, se mantiene la controversia sobre si las bebidas alcohólicas fermentadas con alto contenido en polifenoles como cerveza o vino tienen un mayor efecto de protección cardiovascular que los licores que no contienen apenas polifenoles


A large evidence-based reports a J-shaped association among moderate alcohol consumption and cardiovascular health. Low-moderate alcohol intake has been related to lower all-cause mortality (20%) and ischemic heart events (40%) compared to abstainers. The dose that is allegedly beneficial varies between 10-20 gr/day for women and men respectively. Moreover, the drinking pattern seems to be significant in order to get healthy effects. Moderate alcohol consumption hinders atherogenesis by several mechanisms mainly improving lipid profile and reducing thrombogenesis. Nevertheless, it is still unclear whether high-polyphenol alcoholic beverages, such as wine and beer, confer a greater cardiovascular protection than spirits, which have much less polyphenol content


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Miocárdica/prevenção & controle , Arteriosclerose/fisiopatologia , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Isquemia Miocárdica/complicações , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/complicações , Indicadores de Morbimortalidade , Polifenóis/efeitos adversos , Cerveja/efeitos adversos
4.
Clin Investig Arterioscler ; 31 Suppl 1: 1-43, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30981542

RESUMO

One of the main goals of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis is to contribute to a wider and greater knowledge of vascular disease, its prevention and treatment. Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death in our country and also lead to a high degree of disability and health expenditure. Arteriosclerosis is a multifactorial disease, this is why its prevention requires a global approach that takes into account the different risk factors with which it is associated. Thus, this document summarizes the current level of knowledge and integrates recommendations and procedures to be followed for patients with established cardiovascular disease or high vascular risk. Specifically, this document reviews the main symptoms and signs to be evaluated during the clinical visit, the laboratory and imaging procedures to be routinely requested or those in special situations. It also includes the estimation of vascular risk, the diagnostic criteria of the different entities that are cardiovascular risk factors, and presents general and specific recommendations for the treatment of the different cardiovascular risk factors and their final objectives. Finally, the document includes aspects that are not often mentioned in the literature, such as the organisation of a vascular risk consultation.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Arteriosclerose/diagnóstico , Arteriosclerose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Gestão de Riscos/normas , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha
6.
Dtsch Med Wochenschr ; 144(5): 329-333, 2019 03.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30836404

RESUMO

Early Vascular Aging, a concept describing pathophysiologic and clinical aspects of premature arterial stiffness and arteriosclerosis, has attracted attention in recent years. Early diagnosis and intervention is essential for prevention and postponing cardiovascular events.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Arteriosclerose , Rigidez Vascular , Arteriosclerose/diagnóstico , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Arteriosclerose/terapia , Humanos
7.
Nutrients ; 10(10)2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30309028

RESUMO

Inhibiting the onset of arteriosclerotic disease, which has been increasing due to the westernized diet and aging, is a significant social challenge. Curcumin, a type of polyphenol, has anti-oxidative effects and anti-inflammatory action and is expected to treat and to have prophylactic effects on different diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of long-term administration of curcumin on vascular aging and chronic inflammation-the causes of arteriosclerotic disease. Eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) or 0.1% curcumin-mixed HFD (HFD + Cu) until 80 weeks old (n = 20 for each group). After the breeding, we examined the expression of antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), oxidative stress, vascular aging, and inflammatory changes in the aorta. In the HFD group, oxidative stress increased with decreased sirt1 expression in the aorta followed by increased senescent cells and enhanced inflammation. Whereas in the HFD + Cu group, HO-1 was induced in the aorta with the suppression of oxidative stress. Additionally, it was shown that sirt1 expression in the aorta in the HFD + Cu group remained at a level comparable to that of the 8-week-old mice with suppression of increased senescent cells and enhanced inflammation. Consequently, disorders associated with HFD were resolved. These results suggest that curcumin might be a food with a prophylactic function against arteriosclerotic disease.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/efeitos dos fármacos , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Curcumina/farmacologia , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Envelhecimento/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Inflamação , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo
8.
Transplantation ; 102(10): 1674-1683, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30247451

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transplant vasculopathy is a major cause of chronic rejection of transplanted organs. In the present study, we examined the effects of CX-5461, a novel selective inhibitor of RNA polymerase I, on development of transplant vasculopathy using a modified model of rat aortic transplantation. METHODS: The thoracic aortas from Fischer rats were transplanted into the abdominal cavity of Lewis rats. CX-5461 was mixed in pluronic gel and administered via perivascular release. RESULTS: Treatment with CX-5461 mitigated the development of neointimal hyperplasia and vascular inflammation. This effect was likely to be attributable in part to inhibition of macrophage-dependent innate immunity reactions. Specifically, CX-5461 exhibited potent inhibitory effects on macrophage migration and lipopolysaccharide-induced activation. Treatment with CX-5461 also prevented macrophage differentiation and maturation from primary bone marrow cells. In macrophages, CX-5461 did not alter the total amount of p53 protein, but significantly increased p53 phosphorylation, which was involved in regulating cytokine-stimulated macrophage proliferation. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, our results suggest that pharmacological inhibition of RNA polymerase I may be a novel strategy to treat transplantation-induced arterial remodeling.


Assuntos
Aorta/transplante , Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Benzotiazóis/uso terapêutico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Coração/efeitos adversos , Naftiridinas/uso terapêutico , Neointima/prevenção & controle , Aloenxertos/citologia , Aloenxertos/efeitos dos fármacos , Aloenxertos/imunologia , Animais , Aorta/citologia , Aorta/efeitos dos fármacos , Aorta/imunologia , Doenças da Aorta/imunologia , Arteriosclerose/imunologia , Benzotiazóis/farmacologia , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Transplante de Coração/métodos , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Naftiridinas/farmacologia , Neointima/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Células RAW 264.7 , RNA Polimerase I/antagonistas & inibidores , Ratos , Ratos Endogâmicos F344 , Resultado do Tratamento , Remodelação Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Vascular/imunologia
9.
Circ Res ; 122(11): 1608-1624, 2018 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29798903

RESUMO

Vascular, resident stem cells are present in all 3 layers of the vessel wall; they play a role in vascular formation under physiological conditions and in remodeling in pathological situations. Throughout development and adult early life, resident stem cells participate in vessel formation through vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. In adults, the vascular stem cells are mostly quiescent in their niches but can be activated in response to injury and participate in endothelial repair and smooth muscle cell accumulation to form neointima. However, delineation of the characteristics and of the migration and differentiation behaviors of these stem cells is an area of ongoing investigation. A set of genetic mouse models for cell lineage tracing has been developed to specifically address the nature of these cells and both migration and differentiation processes during physiological angiogenesis and in vascular diseases. This review summarizes the current knowledge on resident stem cells, which has become more defined and refined in vascular biology research, thus contributing to the development of new potential therapeutic strategies to promote endothelial regeneration and ameliorate vascular disease development.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/etiologia , Vasos Sanguíneos/citologia , Neovascularização Fisiológica , Células-Tronco/fisiologia , Adulto , Animais , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Movimento Celular , Endotélio Vascular/citologia , Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Camundongos , Modelos Animais , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/citologia , Células-Tronco Multipotentes/fisiologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/fisiologia , Neointima/etiologia , Neointima/patologia , Células-Tronco/citologia , Doenças Vasculares/etiologia , Doenças Vasculares/prevenção & controle , Remodelação Vascular/fisiologia
10.
Nutr Res ; 50: 82-93, 2018 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540275

RESUMO

The differences in the morbidity and mortality of cardiovascular diseases between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations might be explained by the differences in their diet, especially fat. To test the hypothesis that the fatty acid (FA) compositions differ between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations and that high concentrations of n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and linoleic acid are associated with a low level of arteriosclerosis, the authors compared the circulating FA compositions between Sri Lankan and Japanese populations and examined the association of the circulating FA composition with arterial stiffness in each population. The study participants were patients with diabetes, dyslipidemia, or hypertension in Sri Lanka (n = 100) or Japan (n = 236). Serum FA compositions were measured by gas chromatography. Arterial stiffness was measured using the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI). Analysis of covariance was used to compare the FA compositions between the populations. Multiple regression was used to assess the association between each FA and CAVI levels. The concentrations of myristic, γ-linolenic, dihomo-γ-linolenic, and arachidonic acids were higher in the Sri Lankan patients than in the Japanese patients. In contrast, the concentrations of linoleic, α-linolenic, and eicosapentaenoic acids were higher in the Japanese patients than in the Sri Lankan patients. Although no associations of n-3 polyunsaturated FAs and linoleic acid with CAVI were observed in both patient populations, odd-chain saturated FAs (pentadecanoic and heptadecanoic acids) were significantly inversely associated with CAVI levels in the Sri Lankan (P for trend = .03) but not the Japanese patients. The odd-chain saturated FAs might be inversely associated with atherosclerosis in this Sri Lankan population.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus , Dieta/etnologia , Dislipidemias , Ácidos Graxos/sangue , Hipertensão , Rigidez Vascular , Idoso , Arteriosclerose/etnologia , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/etnologia , Gorduras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Gorduras na Dieta/sangue , Dislipidemias/sangue , Dislipidemias/etnologia , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-3/sangue , Ácidos Graxos Ômega-6/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/sangue , Hipertensão/etnologia , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sri Lanka
13.
Clín. investig. arterioscler. (Ed. impr.) ; 29(supl.1): 9-15, jul. 2017. ilus, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-170492

RESUMO

La angiografía convencional ha facilitado la evaluación de la evolución de las estenosis coronarias en las últimas décadas del siglo xx. Con esta técnica se ha demostrado que el tratamiento hipolipemiante con estatinas puede frenar la reducción de la luz vascular coronaria. La incorporación de la ecografía intravascular (IVUS) ha permitido una mejor evaluación de las lesiones aterosclerosas de la pared de las coronarias. Mediante IVUS, se ha demostrado que el tratamiento hipolipemiante intensivo con estatinas es capaz de hacer regresar las lesiones coronarias si se alcanzan valores de colesterol unido a lipoproteínas de baja densidad (cLDL) inferiores a 80 mg/dl. Se han obtenido resultados similares con el uso de ezetimiba. Recientemente se ha evaluado por primera vez el efecto de evolocumab, un anticuerpo humano frente a PCSK9, sobre las lesiones coronarias en el estudio GLAGOV. El evolocumab redujo significativamente, en torno al 60%, los valores de cLDL hasta cifras inferiores a 40 mg/dl en comparación con el placebo y demostró que dicho efecto se asocia a una regresión de las placas coronarias medidas con IVUS, que persiste hasta concentraciones finales de cLDL de 20 mg/dl. Evolocumab ha demostrado estos efectos protectores en ausencia de efectos secundarios significativos. Las implicaciones pronósticas favorables de la regresión de las lesiones aterosclerosas, ya conocidas con las estatinas, han sido recientemente confirmadas para evolocumab en el estudio FOURIER (AU)


Conventional angiography allowed the evaluation of the development of coronary stenosis in the last decades of the twentieth century. This technique has demonstrated that lipid-lowering therapy with statins can halt the shrinking of the coronary lumen. The incorporation of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) has improved the assessment of atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary artery wall. Through IVUS, it has been demonstrated that lipid-lowering with high-intensity statin therapy is able to induce regression of coronary lesions if low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (LDLc) are reduced to below 80 mg/dl. Similar results have been obtained with the use of ezetimibe. Recently, the effect of evolocumab, a human anti-PCSK9 antibody, has been evaluated in the GLAGOV trial. Evolocumab significantly reduced (by around 60%) LDLc levels to levels lower than 40 mg/dl as compared to placebo. This effect was associated with the regression of coronary plaques as demonstrated by IVUS and persisted down to final LDLc levels of 20 mg/dl. The protective effects of evolocumab were obtained in the absence of significant adverse effects. The favourable prognostic implications of the regression of atherosclerotic lesions, already known with statins, have recently been confirmed for evolocumab in the FOURIER trial (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Arteriosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Lipoproteínas LDL/uso terapêutico , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção/métodos , Ultrassonografia de Intervenção , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ezetimiba/uso terapêutico , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/uso terapêutico
15.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2(6): 608-616, 2017 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28384800

RESUMO

Importance: Cohort studies have reported increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among individuals with low vitamin D status. To date, randomized clinical trials of vitamin D supplementation have not found an effect, possibly because of using too low a dose of vitamin D. Objective: To examine whether monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation prevents CVD in the general population. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Vitamin D Assessment Study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial that recruited participants mostly from family practices in Auckland, New Zealand, from April 5, 2011, through November 6, 2012, with follow-up until July 2015. Participants were community-resident adults aged 50 to 84 years. Of 47 905 adults invited from family practices and 163 from community groups, 5110 participants were randomized to receive vitamin D3 (n = 2558) or placebo (n = 2552). Two participants retracted consent, and all others (n = 5108) were included in the primary analysis. Interventions: Oral vitamin D3 in an initial dose of 200 000 IU, followed a month later by monthly doses of 100 000 IU, or placebo for a median of 3.3 years (range, 2.5-4.2 years). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the number of participants with incident CVD and death, including a prespecified subgroup analysis in participants with vitamin D deficiency (baseline deseasonalized 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels <20 ng/mL). Secondary outcomes were myocardial infarction, angina, heart failure, hypertension, arrhythmias, arteriosclerosis, stroke, and venous thrombosis. Results: Of the 5108 participants included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 65.9 (8.3) years, 2969 (58.1%) were male, and 4253 (83.3%) were of European or other ethnicity, with the remainder being Polynesian or South Asian. Mean (SD) baseline deseasonalized 25(OH)D concentration was 26.5 (9.0) ng/mL, with 1270 participants (24.9%) being vitamin D deficient. In a random sample of 438 participants, the mean follow-up 25(OH)D level was greater than 20 ng/mL higher in the vitamin D group than in the placebo group. The primary outcome of CVD occurred in 303 participants (11.8%) in the vitamin D group and 293 participants (11.5%) in the placebo group, yielding an adjusted hazard ratio of 1.02 (95% CI, 0.87-1.20). Similar results were seen for participants with baseline vitamin D deficiency and for secondary outcomes. Conclusions and Relevance: Monthly high-dose vitamin D supplementation does not prevent CVD. This result does not support the use of monthly vitamin D supplementation for this purpose. The effects of daily or weekly dosing require further study. Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: ACTRN12611000402943.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Colecalciferol/administração & dosagem , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angina Pectoris/epidemiologia , Angina Pectoris/prevenção & controle , Arritmias Cardíacas/epidemiologia , Arritmias Cardíacas/prevenção & controle , Arteriosclerose/epidemiologia , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/epidemiologia , Insuficiência Cardíaca/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Nova Zelândia , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/epidemiologia , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico
16.
Eur J Sport Sci ; 17(5): 586-592, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28287021

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Maintenance and enhancement of vascular endothelial function contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease and prolong a healthy life expectancy. Given the reversible nature of vascular endothelial function, interventions to improve this function might prevent arteriosclerosis. Accordingly, we studied the effects of a 6-month static stretching intervention on vascular endothelial function (reactive hyperaemia peripheral arterial tonometry index: RH-PAT index) and arterial stiffness (brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity: baPWV) and investigated the reversibility of these effects after a 6-month detraining period following intervention completion. METHODS: The study evaluated 22 healthy, non-smoking, premenopausal women aged ≥40 years. Subjects were randomly assigned to the full-intervention (n = 11; mean age: 48.6 ± 2.8 years) or a half-intervention that included a control period (n = 11; mean age: 46.9 ± 3.6 years). RESULTS: Body flexibility and vascular endothelial function improved significantly after 3 months of static stretching. In addition to these improvements, arterial stiffness improved significantly after a 6-month intervention. However, after a 6-month detraining period, vascular endothelial function, flexibility, and arterial stiffness all returned to preintervention conditions, demonstrating the reversibility of the obtained effects. CONCLUSION: A 3-month static stretching intervention was found to improve vascular endothelial function, and an additional 3-month intervention also improved arterial stiffness. However, these effects were reversed by detraining.


Assuntos
Endotélio Vascular/fisiologia , Exercícios de Alongamento Muscular , Rigidez Vascular , Adulto , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Artérias/fisiologia , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso
18.
Nefrologia ; 37(1): 20-28, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697413

RESUMO

Phytate, or myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6-hexakis dihydrogen phosphate (InsP6), is a naturally occurring phosphorus compound that is present in many foods, mainly legumes, whole grains and nuts. Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) have cardiovascular disease mortality up to 30times higher than the general population. Vascular calcifications (VCs) directly contribute to overall morbidity and mortality, especially in CKD. In part, this high mortality is due to elevated levels of phosphorus in the blood. Therefore, control of dietary phosphorus is essential. Dietary phosphorus can be classified according to its structure in organic phosphorus (plant and animal) and inorganic (preservatives and additives). Plant-phosphorus (legumes and nuts), mainly associated with InsP6, is less absorbable by the human gastrointestinal tract as the bioavailability of phosphorous from plant-derived foods is very low. Recent data indicate that restriction of foods containing plant phosphates may compromise the adequate supply of nutrients that have a beneficial effect in preventing cardiovascular events, such as InsP6 or fibre found in legumes and nuts. Experimental studies in animals and observational studies in humans suggest that InsP6 can prevent lithiasis and VCs and protect from osteoporosis. In conclusion, we need prospective studies to elucidate the potential benefits and risks of phytate (InsP6) through the diet and as an intravenous drug in patients on haemodialysis.


Assuntos
Calcinose/prevenção & controle , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hiperfosfatemia/complicações , Fosfatos/metabolismo , Fósforo na Dieta/farmacocinética , Ácido Fítico/metabolismo , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/metabolismo , Urolitíase/prevenção & controle , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Disponibilidade Biológica , Calcinose/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/etiologia , Distúrbio Mineral e Ósseo na Doença Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Cinacalcete/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Fabaceae , Humanos , Hiperfosfatemia/mortalidade , Masculino , Estrutura Molecular , Nozes , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Osteoporose/etiologia , Fósforo na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Fósforo na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Ácido Fítico/farmacologia , Ácido Fítico/uso terapêutico , Estudos Prospectivos , Ratos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/dietoterapia , Urolitíase/etiologia
19.
Contrib Nephrol ; 189: 210-214, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27951570

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biocompatibility and the efficiency of solute removal are important considerations in blood purification therapy. Improvement of biocompatibility is expected to lead to the prevention of dialysis-related complications (e.g. amyloidosis, arteriosclerosis, and malnutrition) and to the delay of disease progression by alleviating microinflammation. SUMMARY: The biocompatibility of dialyzers is greatly influenced by the interaction between blood and the treatment materials, in which the chemical and physical characteristics of membrane materials play important roles. In hemodiafiltration (HDF), treatment characteristics such as dilution modes are also considered to greatly affect this interaction between blood and materials. Studies have reported that the levels of C-reactive protein are decreased in patients receiving HDF. Thus, the improvement of biocompatibility is an important factor in HDF. Key Messages: To improve the biocompatibility of HDF, it is essential to improve the biocompatibility of hemodiafilters. This article outlines the importance of biocompatibility and related factors in HDF.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Hemodiafiltração/normas , Membranas Artificiais , Amiloidose/prevenção & controle , Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Hemodiafiltração/efeitos adversos , Hemodiafiltração/métodos , Humanos , Falência Renal Crônica/terapia
20.
Braz J Cardiovasc Surg ; 31(4): 291-299, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27849301

RESUMO

Objective: Intimal hyperplasia is associated with graft failure and vascular sutures in the first year after surgery and in postangioplasty restenosis. Allium sativum (common garlic) lowers cholesterol and has antioxidant effects; it also has antiplatelet and antitumor properties and, therefore, has great potential to reduce or inhibit intimal hyperplasia of the arteries. Our objective is to determine if the garlic has an efficacy to inhibit myointimal hyperplasia compared to cilostazol. Methods: Female New Zealand rabbits were divided into the following groups (n=10 each) according to treatment: group A, garlic, 800 µg×kg-1×day-1, orally; group C, cilostazol, 50 mg.day-1, orally; group PS, 10 ml of 0.9% physiological saline solution, orally. Our primary is the difference of the mean of myointimal hyperplasia. Statistical analysis was performed by using ANOVA and Tukey tests, as well as the Chi-square test. We calculated the 95% confidence interval for each point estimate, and the P value was set as < 0.05. Results: Group PS had a mean hyperplasia rate of 35.74% (95% CI, 31.76-39.71%); group C, 16.21% (95% CI, 13.36-19.05%); and group A, 21.12% (95% CI, 17.26-25.01%); P < 0.0001. Conclusion: We conclude that Allium sativum had the same efficacy in inhibiting myointimal hyperplasia when compared to the positive control, cilostazol.


Assuntos
Arteriosclerose/prevenção & controle , Alho/química , Tetrazóis/farmacologia , Túnica Íntima/patologia , Animais , Arteriosclerose/patologia , Cilostazol , Feminino , Hiperplasia/prevenção & controle , Imuno-Histoquímica , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas , Coelhos
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