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1.
J Med Microbiol ; 68(11): 1641-1648, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31526456

RESUMO

Introduction: Onychomycosis is a debilitating, difficult-to-treat nail fungal infection with increasing prevalence worldwide. The main etiological agents are dermatophytes, which are common causative pathogens in superficial fungal mycoses. Conventional detection methods such as fungal culture have low sensitivity and specificity and are time-consuming.Aim: The main objective of this study was to design, develop and validate a real-time probe-based multiplex qPCR assay for the detection of dermatophytes and Fusarium species.Methodology: The performance characteristics of the qPCR assays were evaluated. The multiplex qPCR assays targeted four genes (assay 1: pan-dermatophytes/Fusarium spp.; assay 2: Trichophyton rubrum/Microsporum spp.). Analytical validation was accomplished using 150 fungal isolates and clinical validation was done on 204 nail specimens. The performance parameters were compared against the gold standard (fungal culture) and expanded gold standard (culture in conjunction with sequencing).Results: Both the single-plex and multiplex qPCR assays performed well especially when compared against the expanded gold standard. Among the 204 tested nail specimens, the culture method showed that 125 (61.3 %) were infected with at least one organism, of which 40 yielded positive results for dermatophytes and Fusarium spp. These target organisms detected include 20 dermatophytes and 22 Fusarium spp. The developed qPCR assays demonstrated excellent limit of detection, efficiency, coefficient of determination, analytical and clinical sensitivity and specificity.Conclusion: The multiplex qPCR assays were reliable for the diagnosis of onychomycosis, with shorter turn-around time as compared to culture method. This aids in the planning of treatment strategies to achieve optimal therapeutic outcome.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Fusariose/microbiologia , Fusarium/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Multiplex/métodos , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Fusariose/diagnóstico , Fusarium/genética , Humanos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
2.
Molecules ; 24(17)2019 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31470602

RESUMO

The promising antimicrobial activity of essential oils (EOs) has led researchers to use them in combination with antimicrobial drugs in order to reduce drug toxicity, side effects, and resistance to single agents. Mentha x piperita, known worldwide as "Mentha of Pancalieri", is produced locally at Pancalieri (Turin, Italy). The EO from this Mentha species is considered as one of the best mint EOs in the world. In our research, we assessed the antifungal activity of "Mentha of Pancalieri" EO, either alone or in combination with azole drugs (fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole) against a wide panel of yeast and dermatophyte clinical isolates. The EO was analyzed by GC-MS, and its antifungal properties were evaluated by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) parameters, in accordance with the CLSI guidelines, with some modifications. The interaction of EO with azoles was evaluated through the chequerboard and isobologram methods. The results suggest that this EO exerts a fungicidal activity against yeasts and a fungistatic activity against dermatophytes. Interaction studies with azoles indicated mainly synergistic profiles between itraconazole and EO vs. Candida spp., Cryptococcus neoformans, and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. Thus, the "Mentha of Pancalieri" EO may act as a potential antifungal agent and could serve as a natural adjuvant for fungal infection treatment.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Azóis/farmacologia , Mentha piperita/química , Monoterpenos/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Animais , Antifúngicos/química , Antifúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Arthrodermataceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Candida/efeitos dos fármacos , Candida/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Cryptococcus/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Cryptococcus/isolamento & purificação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Guias como Assunto , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Monoterpenos/química , Monoterpenos/isolamento & purificação , Óleos Voláteis/isolamento & purificação
3.
Braz J Microbiol ; 50(4): 985-987, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31463867

RESUMO

Arthroderma benhamiae is a zoophilic dermathophyte that can cause highly inflammatory tinea corporis and tinea capitis in humans. This is the first report of a patient with dermatophytosis caused by A. benhamiae in Brazil. The lesion was an erythematous, annular plaque on the lumbar region that appeared few weeks after playing with a street cat in a 19-month-old girl. Initial presumed diagnosis was tinea corporis caused by Microsporum canis. Topical treatments were ineffective and the patient required systemic treatment with griseofulvin. Mycological diagnosis was inconclusive: morphological differentiation between M. canis and Trichophyton benhamiae may be difficult, especially when the latter present yellow colonies. The etiological agent was identified only by ITS sequencing of the isolates aligned with reference strains to A. benhamiae. This report highlights the importance of ITS sequencing in the identification of isolates from some cases of dermatophytosis, because conventional morphological diagnosis may result in misdiagnosis of the agent and delay proper treatment.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/microbiologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Antifúngicos/administração & dosagem , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Brasil , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Dermatomicoses/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha do Couro Cabeludo/diagnóstico
4.
J Mycol Med ; 29(3): 265-272, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285126

RESUMO

Onychomycosis or fungal nail infection is one of the most common fungal infections. Nearly 50% of all nail disorders are caused by fungi. This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to determine the prevalence of onychomycosis across Iran. We searched English and Persian databases for studies reporting the epidemiologic features of onychomycosis in Iranian people from January 2000 to December 2018. Literature search revealed 307 studies, of which 24 studies met the eligibility criteria. In order to identifying the existence of publication bias among studies, funnel plots were used. The results of the meta-analysis were visualized as a forest plot representing the prevalence estimates of each study. Heterogeneity was also analyzed using the I2, Chi2, and Tau2 statistics. A high level of I2 and Chi2 was obtained among studies, which provides evidence of notable heterogeneity between studies. The results of current study revealed that the highest prevalence of onychomycosis was related to Mazandaran and Tehran provinces, respectively. As in the literature hypothesized shift in etiologic agents from yeasts to dermatophytes or molds could not be confirmed. Females were affected more frequently than males and in both sexes the highest incidence of infection occurrence was at the ages of >50 years. It seems the highest prevalence of onychomycosis in Mazandaran and Tehran provinces is due to the concentration of specialist doctors and research centers in these two provinces compared with others which leads to more detection and more care of the disease. Therefore, further educational strategies in order to accurate diagnosis in other provinces is necessary to reduce the risk of onychomycosis in Iran.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Leveduras/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Etários , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais
5.
Med Mycol J ; 60(2): 45-49, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31155571

RESUMO

Lophophyton gallinae (Microsporum gallinae) is a zoophilic fungus that causes ringworm in chickens and related species, and occasionally in humans. There are 45 human cases worldwide including a Japanese case from Okinawa in 2009. After the finding of the human L. gallinae case, 793 chickens in Japan, including 293 from the mainland and 500 from the Nansei Island areas, were investigated to determine the prevalence of dermatophytes and their related fungal species. The survey was carried out from December 2008 to March 2013. Various dermatophytes and related fungal species were isolated from the studied chickens, with a prevalence of 24.6%. In total, 224 dermatophytes and related species were isolated in the survey. The most commonly isolated species included, in descending order of frequency, Arthroderma multifidum, Aphanoascus terreus, and Chrysosporium spp. Ar. multifidum and Ap. terreus have no record of pathogenicity, and the present isolates of Chrysosporium spp. were not matched to pathogenic Chrysosporium spp. based on the ITS rDNA sequences. Interestingly, an L. gallinae isolate was detected in a male 10-month-old shamo (fighting cock) from the main island. Furthermore, one strain of Arthroderma simii was also isolated as the second record in Japan following that from an imported chimpanzee. Although L. gallinae and Ar. simii are likely to be endemic in our country, the transmission of dermatophytosis from chickens to humans is unlikely to occur because of the reduced chances for citizens to come in contact with chickens due to various factors.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/patogenicidade , Galinhas/microbiologia , Chrysosporium/isolamento & purificação , Chrysosporium/patogenicidade , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Microsporum/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Chrysosporium/genética , DNA Fúngico/genética , DNA Ribossômico/genética , Dermatomicoses/transmissão , Humanos , Japão , Microsporum/genética , Pan troglodytes/microbiologia , Análise de Sequência de DNA
6.
Hautarzt ; 70(8): 627-637, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31165909

RESUMO

In addition to morphological diagnostics, molecular methods have become available for the diagnosis of suspected dermatophytoses. Since March 2016, INSTAND e. V., in cooperation with the National Reference Laboratory for Dermatophytes, has provided an external quality assessment (EQA) test for the genome detection of dermatophytes twice a year. More than half of the participants used commercial kits for the analysis of the samples. All kits with a high level of accuracy correctly determined the presence of Trichophyton rubrum or no dermatophytes. In species diagnostics beyond Trichophyton rubrum there are large differences between the kits. These are examined in more detail based on clinical studies and the results of the EQA test.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Dermatomicoses , Humanos , Tinha , Trichophyton/classificação
7.
Klin Lab Diagn ; 64(6): 351-353, 2019.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31200407

RESUMO

Role of bacteria Staphylococcus spp., yeasts of Candida spp., Malassezia spp. genera in pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis (AD) in infant patients is well known. However, no data concerning the incidence of dermatophytes in such disease entity were obtained. Aim of the study was estimation of dermatophytes carriage in children with AD. Group of patients involved 44 persons 1 to 18 years old with clinically diagnosed acute AD. Especially for the study a method of skin scales collection was created: painless for patients and safe for medical personnel. The method is based on following stages - rubbing of lichenificated skin zones with sterile swab which was preliminary saturated with phosphate/Tween 80 buffer pH 7,9 and centrifuging of the suspension for sedimentation of skin scales. Microscopic examination of hydrolyzed scales was carried out at maximal magnification x1750, at that different dermatophyte and yeast fungal forms were registered. Spores of dermatophyte fungi were detected with 67,0% frequency, whereas dermatophyte mycelium - with 18,3% frequency. No correlation between dermatophyte spores and mycelium was found out (Pirson`s coefficient r=0,236), however no mycelium without spores was detected, but in 73,3% of cases spores occurred without mycelium. Yeast spores were detected in 45,2% of patients - this fact is agreed with data obtained earlier by the seeding method, but yeast mycelium was found out in 3,5% of patients.Therefore frequent occurrence of dermatophyte fungi on the skin of AD infants is revealed for the first time. At that dermatophytes were found out to exist more often in the form of spores. These results are important for choice of the further therapy.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatite Atópica/diagnóstico , Dermatite Atópica/microbiologia , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Lactente
8.
Hautarzt ; 70(8): 561-574, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31139861

RESUMO

The basis for effective treatment of any dermatomycosis is the correct and timely identification of the pathogen, which allows the targeted choice of the most suitable antimycotic and is important for the prevention of repeated infections. In recent years, infections with dermatophytes seem to have increased. In fact, from 2007 to 2018, there was an increase in the number of samples processed in the Mycology Laboratory of the Department of Dermatology at the University Hospital Jena. The most common isolated dermatophytes between 2007 and 2018 were Trichophyton (T.) rubrum, T. interdigitale, Microsporum (M.) canis and T. benhamiae. However, dermatophytoses may also be caused by rare anthropophilic agents such as Epidermophyton floccosum, zoophiles such as T. verrucosum, T. quinckeanum or Nannizzia (N.) persicolor as well as by geophiles such as N. gypsea. Therefore, these dermatophytes should at least be known, so that in case of unusual observations investigations can be performed accordingly. Changes in the pathogen spectrum of dermatophytoses have taken place over time and it is expected that the occurrence of dermatophytes will be subject of continuous fluctuations, which may mean that the incidence of some of these "rare" dermatophytes, as described here in five clinical examples, may be changing.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Epidermophyton/isolamento & purificação , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Tinha
9.
Hautarzt ; 70(8): 575-580, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many dermatologists do not understand the perpetual adjustments in the dermatophyte nomenclature. OBJECTIVES: The aim is to explain the background and the development of methods that have led to previous and current changes of dermatophyte taxonomy and to the detection of new dermatophytes. METHODS: In this article we evaluate the recent literature on this topic and our own results in the fields of dermatophyte identification, their detection, and of the associated taxonomic developments. RESULTS: Today, the phylogenetic species concept is the basis of taxonomic classification, including that of dermatophytes. Genetic techniques have decisively advanced this and are state of the art nowadays. The detection of new dermatophyte species was often triggered by clinical observations and by morphologically conspicuous cultures that prompted their subsequent exact mycological characterization. Even today not all species of dermatophytes are unequivocally defined. CONCLUSIONS: By exclusively using selected genetic characteristics for the construction of phylogenetic trees additional taxonomically relevant features are neglected. Therefore it is necessary to better integrate data derived from morphologic, physiologic, ecologic and pathophysiologic observations into phylogenetic analyses. Dermatologists are still asked to contribute such information.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Classificação/métodos , Dermatomicoses/diagnóstico , Micologia/métodos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo Genético , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Especificidade da Espécie
10.
Mycoses ; 62(8): 659-664, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31062415

RESUMO

Because of their similar clinical presentation, discrimination between nail psoriasis and onychomycosis often is difficult. We aim to investigate the actual frequency of onychomycosis in psoriatic patients and to compare it between psoriatic and non-psoriatic patients. This retrospective study included a total of 9281 patients, referring to our Mycology Laboratory from September 2003 to May 2018. The patients are divided into two groups: PsoGroup (patients with psoriasis) and non-PsoGroup (non-psoriatic patient). Direct microscopic examination with 20% KOH and culture was carried out in both groups. In PsoGroup (711 patients, 59.50% female, 40.50% male, median age of 52.22 ± 15.01), the prevalence of onychomycosis was 49.08%. On the other hand, in non-PsoGroup (8570 patients (71.65% female, 28.35% male, median age of 48.51 ± 19.31 years), the prevalence of onychomycosis was 51.30%. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of onychomycosis in PsoGroup 49.08% (349/711) compared to 51.30% (4397/8570) of non-PsoGroup (P = 0.2578). However, yeasts were significantly more prevalent in non-psoriatic than in psoriatic patients (P = 0.0144.). In our Mycological Laboratory, we observed a similar prevalence of onychomycosis in psoriatic patients and non-psoriatic patients. However, the spectrum of fungal species isolated was different from each other, with a higher prevalence of yeasts in non-PsoGroup that reflect a recent oriental trends.


Assuntos
Dermatoses da Mão/epidemiologia , Unhas/microbiologia , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Onicomicose/epidemiologia , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Feminino , Dermatoses do Pé/diagnóstico , Dermatoses do Pé/epidemiologia , Dermatoses do Pé/microbiologia , Dermatoses da Mão/diagnóstico , Dermatoses da Mão/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/patologia , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Prevalência , Psoríase/microbiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
12.
Med Mycol J ; 60(1): 23-25, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30814467

RESUMO

Human and animal dermatophytoses are most commonly treated with systemic antifungal drugs such as itraconazole (ITZ) and terbinafine (TRF). The antifungal susceptibility of Nannizia fulva, however, remains poorly documented. In the present study, we investigated the in vitro susceptibility of N. fulva to ITZ and TRF using the CLSI M38-A2 test. The mean MICs for the 12 tested strains were 0.6542 mg/L (range: 0.0625-1 mg/L) for ITZ and 0.15625 mg/L (range: <0.003125-0.5 mg/L) for TRF. These results indicate that ITZ and TRF at standard veterinary doses should be efficacious against N. fulva.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Tinha/microbiologia , Doenças dos Animais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças dos Animais/microbiologia , Animais , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Japão , Terbinafina/uso terapêutico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/veterinária
13.
Rev. iberoam. micol ; 36(1): 30-33, ene.-mar. 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-185490

RESUMO

Background: Nannizzia nana is a zoophilic dermatophyte that affects animals like pigs, boars and, exceptionally, humans, in whom it causes tinea capitis, as well as tinea corporis and onychomycosis. Case report: Case 1. A previously healthy 8 year-old boy presented to our clinic with a 1-month evolution dermatosis that affected scalp, developing a pseudoalopecic tumor lesion with abundant seropurulent material. The patient had worked in a pig farm. Case 2. A previously healthy 6 year-old girl, sister of the aforementioned child, presented to our clinic with a dermatosis characterized by multiple erythematous-scaly plaques that affected her face, trunk and arms. N. nana was the fungus isolated on culture in both cases. The children were treated with oral griseofulvin and topical ketoconazole that led to clinical and mycological cures. Conclusions: N. nana dermatophytosis, although being rare in humans, can be treated as other cases of dermatophytosis


Antecedentes: Nannizzia nana es un dermatofito zoófilo que habitualmente afecta a animales, como el cerdo, el jabalí y, excepcionalmente, al ser humano, en el cual provoca tiña de la cabeza, tiña corporal y onicomicosis. Casos clínicos: Caso 1: niño sano de 8 años, con dermatosis de un mes de evolución que afectaba al cuero cabelludo con una lesión tumoral seudoalopécica y abundante material seropurulento. Como antecedente, el niño había trabajado en una granja porcina. Caso 2: niña sana de 6 años y hermana del niño del caso anterior, con dermatosis que le afectaba a la cara, el tronco y los brazos con numerosas placas eritematoescamosas. En ambos casos se aisló en cultivo Nannizzia nana. El tratamiento administrado a los niños fue griseofulvina por vía oral y ketoconazol tópico. Se consiguió la curación clínica y micológica. Conclusiones: Las dermatofitosis por N. nana, aunque son raras en el ser humano, pueden ser tratadas como otras dermatofitosis más habituales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Saúde da Família
14.
J Mycol Med ; 29(1): 14-18, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765158

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis is a frequent cutaneous infection affecting the keratinized tissues of humans, pets and livestock. Animals can carry dermatophytic elements asymptomatically and are considered to play an important role in the epidemiology of the disease. As exposure to any infected lesion free animals, especially cats, may lead to the development of infection in humans. OBJECTIVES: This study was done to determine the frequency of fungal agents isolated from skin and hair of cats living in rural areas of Meshkin-shahr, Iran. ANIMALS: A total of 103 asymptomatic cats living in rural areas of the region were studied. METHODS: This cross-sectional descriptive study was performed in Medical Mycology Laboratory, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences from February 2015 to July 2016. A total of 103 asymptomatic cats were studied. Mycological analysis including direct examination and culture on SC, SCC and DTM of the collected samples were conducted. For molecular confirmation when needed, panfungal PCR targeting the ITS1 region of the rDNA gene cluster using primers ITS1 and ITS4 were performed. Gender and age were also recorded. RESULTS: None of the 103 cats examined were positive for fungal elements on direct examination. However, 15 (14.5%) cases showed dermatophytes growth. T. verrucosum was the most common etiologic agents of dermatophytosis. Although the gender of the cats had not significant association with dermatophytosis prevalence, age was a significant influential risk factor (P=0.019). Aspergillus spp., Alternaria spp., Rhizopus spp., Penicillium spp.and paecilomyces spp. in descending frequency were the most predominantly identified saprophytic fungi. CONCLUSION: Our findings clearly highlighted the epidemiological role of asymptomatic cats in spreading dermatophytosis to humans and other animals.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções Assintomáticas/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/veterinária , Cabelo/microbiologia , Pele/microbiologia , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Doenças do Gato/epidemiologia , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Estudos Transversais , DNA Intergênico , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Vetores de Doenças , Feminino , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , População Rural
15.
J Mycol Med ; 29(1): 1-6, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30765159

RESUMO

Dermatophytes are common pathogens in superficial mycoses that are routinely identified by culture or PCR analysis of freshly collected skin, nail or hair specimens. Although clinical samples are normally processed without delay, practical or research issues may necessitate sample storage until later analysis. However, the influence of extended sample storage on the ability to recover fungi by culture vs. PCR analysis has not been specifically studied. Here, a total of 172 dermatological samples collected from 2013-2015 were examined before and after refrigerated storage at 4°C for 10.2-32.3 (mean 25.6) months. By culture, 35% of the dermatophyte-containing fresh samples remained positive at re-examination. At species level, only 19% of initially Trichophyton rubrum-positive samples yielded a positive result after refrigeration, whereas few samples containing Trichophyton violaceum, Microsporum canis or Microsporum audouinii remained culture-positive. Using PCR, 76% of dermatophyte DNA-positive fresh samples were still positive at re-analysis. Notably, 92% of the samples targeted by the T. rubrum DNA primer remained positive after storage. Hence, PCR analysis is more favourable than cultivation with regard to the detectability of dermatophytes in long-term refrigerated clinical samples.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Temperatura Baixa , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Manejo de Espécimes , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Contagem de Colônia Microbiana , Primers do DNA , DNA Fúngico/análise , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Cabelo/microbiologia , Humanos , Microsporum/isolamento & purificação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Pele/microbiologia , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 16(41): 434-437, 2019 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30739936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dermatophytosis are the most common types of cutaneous fungal infection seen in human and animals affecting skin, hair and nails caused by dermatophytes. The diagnosis of dermatophytes is based on the clinical observation and laboratory diagnosis by direct microscopic examination and fungal cultures. The present study is undertaken to isolate different type of dermatophytes causing fungal infection. METHODS: A prospective cross-sectional study design was used in a total of 90 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytic infection attending the out patient department of Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching hospital (KMCTH). Skin scraping, hair and nail samples were collected from the patients and were processed by direct microscopy and culture using standard protocol. Dermatophytes were identified based on the microscopic arrangement of microconidia and macroconidia. RESULTS: Dermatophytosis was more common in the age group of 21-40 years and was more predominant among male with male to female ratio of 1.7: 1. Among the total clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis, 53 were positive in direct microscopy and only a total of 20 were positive by culture. Most common clinical type observed in our study was Tinea corporis(25%) followed by Tinea cruris. Trichophyton rubrum(50%) was the commonest aetiological agent in majority of clinical types followed by Trychophyton mentagrophytes(35%). CONCLUSIONS: The study highlighted T. corporis followed by T. cruris and T. unguim as the most common clinical pattern of dermatophytosis with a male predominance and 21-40 years being the most affected age group. T. rubram was the most common aetiological agent causing dermatophytosis.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Doenças do Cabelo/microbiologia , Onicomicose/microbiologia , Adulto , Animais , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Cabelo/microbiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Unhas/microbiologia , Nepal/epidemiologia , Ambulatório Hospitalar , Estudos Prospectivos , Pele/microbiologia , Taenia/isolamento & purificação , Trichophyton/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
17.
Rev Iberoam Micol ; 36(1): 30-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30691951

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nannizzia nana is a zoophilic dermatophyte that affects animals like pigs, boars and, exceptionally, humans, in whom it causes tinea capitis, as well as tinea corporis and onychomycosis. CASE REPORT: Case 1. A previously healthy 8 year-old boy presented to our clinic with a 1-month evolution dermatosis that affected scalp, developing a pseudoalopecic tumor lesion with abundant seropurulent material. The patient had worked in a pig farm. Case 2. A previously healthy 6 year-old girl, sister of the aforementioned child, presented to our clinic with a dermatosis characterized by multiple erythematous-scaly plaques that affected her face, trunk and arms. N. nana was the fungus isolated on culture in both cases. The children were treated with oral griseofulvin and topical ketoconazole that led to clinical and mycological cures. CONCLUSIONS: N. nana dermatophytosis, although being rare in humans, can be treated as other cases of dermatophytosis.


Assuntos
Tinha , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Criança , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Tinha/diagnóstico , Tinha/tratamento farmacológico , Tinha/microbiologia
18.
Mycoses ; 62(5): 458-465, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30687976

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Superficial fungal infections (SFI), one of the most prevalent diseases in the world, are infections of keratin-rich structures of human body mostly caused by dermatophytes and yeasts. OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to determine the possible changes in the epidemiology of SFI on the territory of Southeastern Serbia and to investigate epidemiological characteristics and the influence of SFI on the patient's quality of life. METHODS: From 2012 to the end of 2017, samples of 1643 patients (568 males and 1075 females, mean age 40.32 ± 22.44 years) with suspected SFI from Southeastern Serbia were examined using the standard mycological methods. The questionnaires were used to investigate epidemiological characteristics. RESULTS: Superficial fungal infections were diagnosed in 20.5% (n = 336) of patients. In the group of dermatophytes, the most prevalent was Microsporum canis (63.9%, n = 76) followed by Trichophyton mentagrophytes (21.8%, n = 26). Non-albicans Candida species were dominant aetiological agents of superficial candidosis (62.3%). BMI ≥25 kg/m2 (P = 0.019) was determined as an independent risk factor for SFI. There was a statistically significant difference in the EQVAS score between the groups of patients and the control group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Results of conducted study indicate that SFI prevalence has not changed in the previous period. However, increase of Candida-SFI prevalence, especially Candida onychomycosis, was established.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/classificação , Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Candida/classificação , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Dermatomicoses/epidemiologia , Dermatomicoses/microbiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Sérvia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med Mycol ; 57(3): 277-283, 2019 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29762721

RESUMO

Onychomycosis represents one of the most frequent mycoses in the world. Causative agents are mainly dermatophytes, but yeasts and nondermatophyte moulds can also be involved. Conventional diagnostic methods include direct microscopy (or histology) and culturing. However, molecular methods are becoming increasingly popular in this field. The DermaGenius® (DG) Nail multiplex assay (PathoNostics, The Netherlands) is a new commercial real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit, which can detect Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton interdigitale and Candida albicans directly in nails. The present study is a retrospective evaluation of the kit applied to 138 finger and toenail clippings in comparison to histology and culture methods. The sensitivity and specificity of the PCR assay are 80% (76/95) and 74.4% (32/43), respectively, when histology and culture are used as reference to define onychomycosis. DG performance is not different from histology combined with culture (P = .11) but the best diagnostic efficacy (88.4%, 122/138) is obtained by the combination of histology and DG. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the clinical usefulness of the DG in diagnostics. The high specificity of this test guarantees a better identification compared to culture that can lead to dermatophyte misidentifications. It is a reliable PCR assay that shortens the time to diagnosis and can unmask the presence of nongrowing fungal pathogens in nails.


Assuntos
Arthrodermataceae/isolamento & purificação , Candida albicans/isolamento & purificação , Unhas/microbiologia , Onicomicose/diagnóstico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arthrodermataceae/genética , Candida albicans/genética , Criança , DNA Fúngico/genética , Feminino , Técnicas Histológicas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Molecular/métodos , Técnicas de Tipagem Micológica , Kit de Reagentes para Diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Trichophyton/genética , Adulto Jovem
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