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1.
Sports Biomech ; 19(2): 212-226, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768090

RESUMO

The topspin tennis forehand drive has become a feature of modern game; yet, as compared to the serve, there has been little research analysing its kinematics. This is surprising given that there is considerably more variation in the execution of the topspin forehand. Our study is the first to examine the amplitude of upper limb joint rotations that produce topspin in the forehand drives of 14 male competitive tennis players using video-based motion analysis. Humerothoracic abduction (-)/adduction (+), extension (-) /flexion (+), and external (-)/internal (+) rotation, elbow extension (-) /flexion (+) and forearm supination (-)/pronation (+), wrist extension (-)/flexion (+) and ulnar (-)/radial (-) deviation were computed. Our findings revealed that the generation of topspin demanded more humeral extension and forearm pronation but less humeral internal rotation angular displacement during the forwardswing. The follow-through phase of the topspin shot was characterised by greater humeral internal rotation and forearm pronation, and reduced humeral horizontal adduction when compared to the flat shot. This study provides practitioners with a better understanding of the upper limb kinematics associated with the topspin tennis forehand drive production to help guide skill acquisition interventions and physical training.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Destreza Motora/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Tênis/fisiologia , Articulação do Punho/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Comportamento Competitivo/fisiologia , Antebraço/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pronação/fisiologia , Estudos de Tempo e Movimento , Gravação em Vídeo
2.
J Sports Med Phys Fitness ; 59(9): 1466-1471, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31610638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The evaluation of joints range of motion (ROM) represents a fundamental step in the diagnosis of joint disorders. Assessors usually measure the ROM angle through a universal goniometer (UG). GYKO inertial system (Microgate, Bolzano, Italy) represent a noninvasive, easy-to-use, Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) method for the measurement of the elbow ROM. The aim of this study was to validate the GYKO digital device comparing it with the gold standard UG in the measurement of elbow flexion-extension ROM in healthy subjects. METHODS: Thirty healthy subjects (15 females, 15 males; mean age: 34 years, range 25-58 years) were enrolled. The elbow ROM of the dominant arm was measured with two methods, UG and GYKO. Active flexion-extension movement of the elbow was measured by two operators with UG (A1_UG; A2_UG) and with GYKO (A1_GYKO; A2_GYKO; B_GYKO). Intra-rater reliability, inter-rater reliability, and concurrent validity were analyzed by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) values. Bland-Altman plot was used to compare UG and GYKO. RESULTS: Both methods were very reliable (P<0.001). Intra-rater reliability showed strong correlation respectively for the UG (ICC=0.798) and for GYKO (ICC=0.859) while inter-rater reliability showed moderate correlation with UG (ICC=0.726) and strong correlation with GYKO (ICC=0.942). The concurrent validity, obtained by three comparisons (A1, A2 and B) showed moderate correlation (ICC: 0.576-0.776). CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study support the use of GYKO as useful as the UG for the assessment of the active flexion-extension ROM of the elbow.


Assuntos
Artrometria Articular/instrumentação , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4825, 2019 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645555

RESUMO

Natural creatures, from fish and cephalopods to snakes and birds, combine neural control, sensory feedback and compliant mechanics to effectively operate across dynamic, uncertain environments. In order to facilitate the understanding of the biophysical mechanisms at play and to streamline their potential use in engineering applications, we present here a versatile numerical approach to the simulation of musculoskeletal architectures. It relies on the assembly of heterogenous, active and passive Cosserat rods into dynamic structures that model bones, tendons, ligaments, fibers and muscle connectivity. We demonstrate its utility in a range of problems involving biological and soft robotic scenarios across scales and environments: from the engineering of millimeter-long bio-hybrid robots to the synthesis and reconstruction of complex musculoskeletal systems. The versatility of this methodology offers a framework to aid forward and inverse bioengineering designs as well as fundamental discovery in the functioning of living organisms.


Assuntos
Bioengenharia , Simulação por Computador , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Plumas/fisiologia , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Musculoesqueléticos , Asas de Animais/fisiologia , Animais , Osso e Ossos/fisiologia , Humanos , Ligamentos/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Sistema Musculoesquelético , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Robótica , Tendões/fisiologia
4.
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi ; 43(5): 322-325, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31625326

RESUMO

Muscle strength training plays an important role in improving limb movement function, preventing muscle atrophy and promoting muscle function recovery in patients with various bone and joint diseases. The sports function of elbow joint is closely related to people's daily life activity ability. At present, Chinese muscle strength training devices are depended on import. Therefore, it is of great significance to develop muscle strength training devices. Based on the concepts and characteristics of isometric training, isotonic training, passive training and isokinetic training, in the upper computer, the servo driver and servo motor are controlled through the LabView interface, and the real-time torque is detected by the torque sensor, realizing four training modes. The main parameters of the multi-mode elbow joint muscle strength training device meet the requirements, and the trainers have a good experience.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo , Treinamento de Resistência , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético , Torque
5.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102516, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31539754

RESUMO

This study investigated motor responses of force release during isometric elbow flexion by comparing effects of different ramp durations and step-down magnitudes. Twelve right-handed participants (age: 23.1 ±â€¯1.1) performed trajectory tracking tasks. Participants were instructed to release their force from the reference magnitude (REF; 40% of maximal voluntary contraction force) to a step-down magnitude of 67% REF or 33% REF and maintain the released magnitude. Force release was guided by ramp durations of either 1 s or 5 s. Electromyography of the biceps brachii and triceps brachii was performed during the experimental task, and the co-contraction ratio was evaluated. Force output was recorded to evaluate the parameters of motor performance, such as force variability and overshoot ratio. Although a longer ramp duration of 5 s decreased the force variability and overshoot ratio than did shorter ramp duration of 1 s, higher perceived exertion and co-contraction ratio were followed. Force variability was greater when force was released to the step-down magnitude of 33% REF than that when the magnitude was 67% REF, however, the overshoot ratio showed opposite results. This study provided evidence proving that motor control strategies adopted for force release were affected by both duration and step-down magnitude. In particular, it implies that different control strategies are required according to the level of step-down magnitude with a relatively short ramp duration.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Braço/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
6.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 963-970, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374754

RESUMO

In literature, much attention has been devoted to the design of control strategies of exoskeletons for assistive purposes. While several control schemes were presented, their performance still has limitations in minimizing muscle effort. According to this principle, we propose a novel approach to solve the problem of generating an assistive torque that minimizes muscle activation under stability guarantees. First, we perform a linear observability and controllability analysis of the human neuromuscular dynamic system. Based on the states that can be regulated with the available measurements and taking advantage of knowledge of the muscle model, we then solve an LQR problem in which a weighted sum of muscle activation and actuation torque is minimized to systematically synthesize a controller for an assistive exoskeleton.We evaluate the performance of the developed controller with a realistic non-linear human neuromusculoskeletal model. Simulation results show better performance in comparison with a well known controller in the literature, in the sense of closed loop system stability and regulation to zero of muscle effort.


Assuntos
Exoesqueleto Energizado , Modelos Biológicos , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Junção Neuromuscular/fisiologia , Equipamentos de Autoajuda , Comportamento , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Torque , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia
7.
IEEE Int Conf Rehabil Robot ; 2019: 971-976, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31374755

RESUMO

Wearable robotic systems have shown potential to improve the lives of musculoskeletal disorder patients; however, to be used practically, they require a reliable method of control. The user needs to be able to indicate that they wish to move in a way that feels intuitive and comfortable. One proposed method for detecting motion intention is through the combined use of muscle activity, known as electromyography (EMG), and brain activity, known as electroencephalography (EEG). Other groups have developed various methods of fusing EEG/EMG signals for classification of motion intention, but a comprehensive evaluation of their performance has yet to be completed. This work evaluates EEG/EMG fusion methods during elbow flexion-extension motion while varying parameters, such as speed of motion, weight held, and muscle fatigue. Overall, the use of EEG/EMG fusion was found to not be more accurate than using just EMG alone $(86.81 \pm 3.98$%), with some fusion methods demonstrating equivalent performance to EMG $(p=1.000)$. EEG/EMG fusion was, however, demonstrated to be less sensitive to changes in motion parameters, allowing it to perform more consistently across different speed/weight combinations. The results of this work provide further justification for the use of EEG/EMG fusion for control of a wearable robotic device.


Assuntos
Eletroencefalografia/métodos , Eletromiografia/métodos , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Movimento (Física) , Fadiga Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador
8.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(5): 1105-1114, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31441804

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Loss of elbow flexion commonly occurs following acute brachial plexus injury. The double fascicular transfer is often used in acute C5-C6 and C5-C7 root injuries, but is rarely applied in cases involving concomitant C8 or T1 root injury. The authors designed a rat model using varying severities of lower trunk injury to determine whether partial injury to the lower trunk affects nerve transfers for elbow flexion. METHODS: There were four different rat groups in which 0, 25, 75, or 100 percent of the donor lower trunk remained intact. One-fourth of the cross-sectional area of the ulnar nerve was then transferred to the musculocutaneous nerve immediately. The authors assessed outcomes using a grooming test, muscle mass, retrograde labeling of sensory/motor neurons that regenerated axons, and immunohistochemical stain of regenerated axons. RESULTS: Five months after nerve transfer, rats that underwent partial injury of the lower trunk fared significantly worse than the rats in whom the donor lower trunk remained 100 percent intact, but significantly better than the rats with 0 percent intact lower trunk. Rats with 25 or 75 percent of the lower trunk intact recovered equivalent function, at both the donor and recipient sites. CONCLUSIONS: Although relatively weak compared with the 100 percent intact donor lower trunk group, the partially injured donor nerve was still functional; even though the nerve sustained a partial injury, the residual axons reinnervated the target muscles. The power of the muscles following either 25 percent or 75 percent injuries was equal after the recovery. Resorting to this approach may be useful in cases in which no alternatives are available.


Assuntos
Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Plexo Braquial/lesões , Articulação do Cotovelo/inervação , Regeneração Nervosa/fisiologia , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Doença Aguda , Animais , Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Seguimentos , Masculino , Distribuição Aleatória , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Fatores de Risco , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 24(3): 251-257, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438785

RESUMO

Geometrically, rings distribute their stress along their arc instead of concentrating at any one point. The forearm ring is composed of the radius, ulna, proximal radioulnar joint, and distal radioulnar joint. The annular ligament, interosseous membrane, and triangular fibrocartilage complex link and stabilize the ring. Injuries to the forearm occur along a continuum with recognized patterns of ring disruption, including Galeazzi, Monteggia, and Essex-Lopresti injuries. The Darrach procedure causes a disruption to the forearm ring and can lead to painful convergence between the radius and distal ulnar stump. Injuries to the forearm ring are unstable. Management of forearm injuries is centered on the restoration of the anatomy and stability of the forearm ring. Forearm ring injuries and their treatment are discussed in this article.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Antebraço/cirurgia , Procedimentos Ortopédicos , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Fratura-Luxação/cirurgia , Humanos , /fisiologia , Ligamentos Articulares/fisiologia , Rádio (Anatomia)/fisiologia , Fraturas do Rádio/cirurgia , Fibrocartilagem Triangular/lesões , Fibrocartilagem Triangular/fisiologia , Ulna/fisiologia , Articulação do Punho/fisiologia
10.
J Hand Surg Asian Pac Vol ; 24(3): 323-328, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31438805

RESUMO

Background: Shoulder and elbow motions can affect ulnar nerve strain. However, there is no evidence that links this kind of strain to specific activities. The purpose of this study was to examine ulnar nerve strain at the elbow resulting from normal daily activities. Methods: This study was conducted using thirty fresh frozen cadaveric elbows from subjects who had no deformities or history of previous upper extremity surgery. Strain was calculated based on nerve elongation. Ulnar nerve strain at the elbow from motion related to common daily activities was measured in both normal nerves and nerves in which gliding motion was restricted. The results of these measurement were then compared. Results: Activities related to extreme elbow and shoulder motions, such as cellular phone use, yielded an average strain of 6.3%. In addition, we found that nerve strain increased significantly in conditions in which gliding motion was restricted. Nerve strain due to motion associated with cellular phone use, for example, rose by 69.1%. Conclusions: Elbow flexion and shoulder abduction in daily activities are associated with increases in ulnar nerve strain, but this may not cause permanent damage to the nerve. After nerve gliding motion had been restricted, nerves that normally exhibited less strain often had even increased higher levels of strain than those nerves that normally exhibited high strain.


Assuntos
Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Entorses e Distensões/etiologia , Nervo Ulnar/lesões , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cadáver , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia
11.
Bone Joint J ; 101-B(7): 867-871, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256676

RESUMO

AIMS: Improvements in the evaluation of outcomes following peripheral nerve injury are needed. Recent studies have identified muscle fatigue as an inevitable consequence of muscle reinnervation. This study aimed to quantify and characterize muscle fatigue within a standardized surgical model of muscle reinnervation. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included 12 patients who underwent Oberlin nerve transfer in an attempt to restore flexion of the elbow following brachial plexus injury. There were ten men and two women with a mean age of 45.5 years (27 to 69). The mean follow-up was 58 months (28 to 100). Repeated and sustained isometric contractions of the elbow flexors were used to assess fatigability of reinnervated muscle. The strength of elbow flexion was measured using a static dynamometer (KgF) and surface electromyography (sEMG). Recordings were used to quantify and characterize fatigability of the reinnervated elbow flexor muscles compared with the uninjured contralateral side. RESULTS: The mean peak force of elbow flexion was 7.88 KgF (sd 3.80) compared with 20.65 KgF (sd 6.88) on the contralateral side (p < 0.001). Reinnervated elbow flexor muscles (biceps brachialis) showed sEMG evidence of fatigue earlier than normal controls with sustained (60-second) isometric contraction. Reinnervated elbow flexor muscles also showed a trend towards a faster twitch muscle fibre type. CONCLUSION: The assessment of motor outcomes must involve more than peak force alone. Reinnervated muscle shows a shift towards fast twitch fibres following reinnervation with an earlier onset of fatigue. Our findings suggest that fatigue is a clinically relevant characteristic of reinnervated muscle. Adoption of these metrics into clinical practice and the assessment of outcome could allow a more meaningful comparison to be made between differing forms of treatment and encourage advances in the management of motor recovery following nerve transfer. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2019;101-B:867-871.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/lesões , Fadiga Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/fisiopatologia , Transferência de Nervo , Traumatismos dos Nervos Periféricos/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Eletromiografia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dinamômetro de Força Muscular , Músculo Esquelético/inervação , Músculo Esquelético/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/fisiopatologia , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Radiol Clin North Am ; 57(5): 857-881, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351538

RESUMO

The anatomy of the upper limb is complex and allows for exceptional functionality. The movements of the joints of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist represent a complex dynamic interaction of muscles, ligaments, and bony articulations. A solid understanding and of the characteristics and reciprocal actions of the anatomic elements of the joints of the upper limb helps explain the mechanisms and patterns of injury. This article focuses on the anatomy and functionality of the shoulder, elbow, and wrist, with emphasis on the stabilizing mechanisms, to set the foundation for understanding the occurrence of pathologic conditions.


Assuntos
Radiografia , Extremidade Superior/anatomia & histologia , Extremidade Superior/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Cotovelo/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Articulação do Ombro/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Ombro/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Articulação do Punho/anatomia & histologia , Articulação do Punho/diagnóstico por imagem , Articulação do Punho/fisiologia
14.
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 36(3): 401-406, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232542

RESUMO

Three-dimensional finite element model of elbow was established to study the effect of medial collateral ligament (MCL) in maintaining the stability of elbow joint. In the present study a three-dimensional geometric model of elbow joint was established by reverse engineering method based on the computed tomography (CT) image of healthy human elbow. In the finite element pre-processing software, the ligament and articular cartilage were constructed according to the anatomical structure, and the materials and contacts properties were given to the model. In the neutral forearm rotation position and 0° flexion angle, by comparing the simulation data of the elbow joint with the experimental data, the validity of the model is verified. The stress value and stress distribution of medial collateral ligaments were calculated at the flexion angles of elbow position in 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, 90°, 105°, 120°, 135°, respectively. The result shows that when the elbow joint loaded at different flexion angles, the anterior bundle has the largest stress, followed by the posterior bundle, transverse bundle has the least, and the stress value of transverse bundle is trending to 0. Therefore, the anterior bundle plays leading role in maintaining the stability of the elbow, the posterior bundle plays supplementary role, and the transverse bundle does little. Furthermore, the present study will provide theoretical basis for clinical recognizing and therapy of elbow instability caused by medial collateral ligament injury.


Assuntos
Ligamentos Colaterais/fisiologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Análise de Elementos Finitos , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Cadáver , Humanos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
15.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 144(1): 155-166, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31246823

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Elbow flexion after upper brachial plexus injury may be restored by a nerve transfer from the ulnar nerve to the biceps motor branch with an optional nerve transfer from the median nerve to the brachialis motor branch (single and double fascicular nerve transfer). This meta-analysis assesses the effectiveness of both techniques and the added value of additional reinnervation of the brachialis muscle. METHODS: Comprehensive searches were performed identifying studies concerning restoration of elbow flexion through single and double fascicular nerve transfers. Only C5 to C6 lesion patients were included in quantitative analysis to prevent confounding by indication. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients reaching British Medical Research Council elbow flexion grade 3 or greater. Meta-analysis was performed with random effects models. RESULTS: Thirty-five studies were included (n = 688). In quantitative analysis, 29 studies were included (n = 341). After single fascicular nerve transfer, 190 of 207 patients reached Medical Research Council grade 3 or higher (random effects model, 95.6 percent; 95 percent CI, 92.9 to 98.2 percent); and after double fascicular nerve transfer, 128 of 134 patients reached grade 3 or higher (random effects model, 97.5 percent; 95 percent CI, 95.0 to 100 percent; p = 0.301). Significantly more double nerve transfer patients reached grade 4 or greater if preoperative delay was 6 months or less (84 of 101 versus 49 of 51; p = 0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Additional reinnervation of the brachialis muscle did not result in significantly more patients reaching Medical Research Council grade 3 or higher for elbow flexion. Double fascicular nerve transfer may result in more patients reaching grade 4 or higher in patients with a preoperative delay less than 6 months. The median nerve may be preserved or used for another nerve transfer without substantially impairing elbow flexion restoration.


Assuntos
Plexo Braquial/lesões , Transferência de Nervo/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Plexo Braquial/fisiologia , Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Nervo Ulnar/transplante , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Orthop Res ; 37(9): 2027-2034, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31081556

RESUMO

The anterior bundle of the medial collateral ligament (AMCL) resists the loads that arise at the elbow during overhand throwing and has commonly been divided into posterior and anterior bands. While these anterior and posterior bands have been thought to bear the load at different flexion angles, any transition of the load distribution between the two bands is poorly understood and has not considered laxity (slack). This study considers the AMCL as three bands and quantifies the mechanical response to vertical distraction, simulating valgus-load joint opening, through the sequential superposition of the band responses after the elimination of inherent laxity. Eight cadaveric elbow specimens were used for the study. The intact AMCL of each specimen was tested under vertical distraction in a specialized load frame at four elbow flexion angles and then subsequently retested after two longitudinal transections. The greatest laxity at full extension and full flexion belonged to the posterior (1.9 mm) and anterior (2.4 mm) band, respectively. At the lesser and higher flexion angles, the greatest structural stiffness belonged to the anterior and middle band. The overall AMCL was the most structurally stiff at 60°, with approximately 150 N of force required for 2% elongation. This study shows that the different bands of the AMCL may have different load bearing properties at different flexion angles, causing each band to support different proportions of an imposed load. The presence of the laxity may impose a load-bearing delay, causing load-bearing in each band to begin asynchronously. © 2019 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 37:2027-2034, 2019.


Assuntos
Ligamentos Colaterais/fisiologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suporte de Carga
17.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(9)2019 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075934

RESUMO

Real-time and accurate monitoring of dynamic deflection is of great significance for health monitoring and condition assessment of bridge structures. This paper proposes an improved step-type liquid level sensing system (LLSS) for dynamic deflection monitoring. Layout of straight-line-type pipeline is replaced by step-type pipeline in this improved deflection monitoring system, which can remove the interference of the inclination angle on the measurement accuracy and is applicable for dynamic deflection monitoring. Fluid dynamics are first analyzed to demonstrate that measurement accuracy is interfered with by the fluid velocity induced by structural vibration, and ANSYS-FLOTRAN is applied for analyzing the influence range caused by the turbulent flow. Finally, a step-type LLSS model is designed and experimented with to verify the influence of the three key parameters (initial displacement excitation, step height, and distance from the measurement point to the elbow) on the measurement accuracy, and the reasonable placement scheme for the measurement point is determined. The results show that the measurement accuracy mainly depends on the turbulent flow caused by step height. The measurement error gets smaller after about 1.0 m distance from the elbow. To ensure that the measurement error is less than 6%, the distance between the measurement point and the elbow should be larger than 1.0 m.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Monitorização Fisiológica/métodos , Vibração
18.
Res Q Exerc Sport ; 90(3): 385-394, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31135277

RESUMO

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate (a) time-dependent changes in muscle damage (MD) biomarkers, oxidative stress (OS) indices, and maximum strength performance; (b) the relationship between changes in maximum strength performance and changes in MD and OS indices; and (c) whether eccentric exercise-induced MD is related to OS. Method: Twenty-nine male volunteers (age: 22.13 ± 3.1 years) participated in the study. Participants performed 60 maximal eccentric actions of the elbow flexors at a constant velocity of 60°·s-1. Maximum isokinetic strength (MIS), visual analog scale soreness scores, serum creatine kinase (CK) activity, total antioxidant status, total oxidant status (TOS), protein carbonyl (PCO), and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine level were analyzed. Blood samples were obtained before, immediately after, and 24 h, 48 h, and 96 h after the eccentric exercise. Change in total work (%ΔTWk), peak torque (%ΔPT), and OS index were calculated. Results: CK, PCO, and TOS significantly increased over time (p < .05). However, no significant main effect was observed for MIS or any other investigated biomarkers (p > .05). MIS was not related to MD or OS indices. However, %ΔTWk demonstrated a moderate inverse correlation with OS indices. No significant relationship was observed between %ΔPT and any of the selected biomarkers. Conclusions: Our findings confirm the hypothesis that acute eccentric exercise increases MD biomarkers and OS indices. However, indices of OS damage were significantly related, particularly, to the strength loss of flexors. This finding suggests that the decline in strength performance is not the primary determinant of the magnitude of MD following voluntary eccentric contraction.


Assuntos
Exercício/fisiologia , Força Muscular/fisiologia , Músculo Esquelético/lesões , Estresse Oxidativo/fisiologia , /sangue , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Creatina Quinase/sangue , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Humanos , Contração Isométrica/fisiologia , Masculino , Músculo Esquelético/fisiologia , Mialgia/etiologia , Mialgia/fisiopatologia , Carbonilação Proteica/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 143(5): 1017e-1026e, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31033825

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Infants with brachial plexus birth injury who do not recover motor function spontaneously in a timely manner are candidates for brachial plexus reconstruction with nerve autograft. Outcomes of this intervention are incompletely understood. The authors present the long-term outcomes of brachial plexus reconstruction with sural nerve autograft in infants with brachial plexus birth injury. METHODS: The authors retrospectively reviewed all infants with brachial plexus birth injury who underwent brachial plexus reconstruction with sural nerve autograft between 1992 and 2014 with a minimum 2-year follow-up. The authors used Active Movement Scale scores to determine the presence and timing of shoulder, elbow, and wrist recovery. They assessed recovery of hand function in infants with global brachial plexus birth injury with the Raimondi scale. The number and type of secondary reconstructive procedures were identified. RESULTS: Forty-three infants who underwent brachial plexus reconstruction at age 7 ± 2 months old were followed for 7 ± 5 years. Most infants recovered antigravity elbow flexion (91 percent) and shoulder abduction (67 percent), but fewer recovered antigravity shoulder external rotation (19 percent) and wrist extension (37 percent). Mean postoperative times until observed antigravity motor strength (Active Movement Scale score >5) at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist were all greater than 12 months; evidence of initial motor recovery (Active Movement Scale score >2) was observed earlier. The mean Raimondi score in infants with global brachial plexus birth injury was 2.2 (range, 0 to 5) at final follow-up. Thirty-three children underwent 2 ± 1.2 secondary reconstructive procedures. CONCLUSIONS: Brachial plexus reconstruction with sural nerve autograft reliably results in recovery of shoulder abduction and elbow flexion, but recovery of shoulder external rotation and wrist extension is less predictable, and recovery often takes more than 1 year. Secondary procedures are often performed to optimize function. CLINICAL QUESTION/LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Therapeutic, IV.


Assuntos
Traumatismos do Nascimento/complicações , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/métodos , Nervo Sural/transplante , Plexo Braquial/lesões , Plexo Braquial/cirurgia , Neuropatias do Plexo Braquial/etiologia , Articulação do Cotovelo/inervação , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Articulação do Ombro/inervação , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Transplante Autólogo/métodos , Resultado do Tratamento , Articulação do Punho/inervação , Articulação do Punho/fisiologia
20.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(8)2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013966

RESUMO

In practical rehabilitation robot development, it is imperative to pre-specify the critical workspace to prevent redundant structure. This study aimed to characterize the upper extremity motion during essential activities in daily living. An IMU-based wearable motion capture system was used to access arm movements. Ten healthy subjects performed the Action Research Arm Test (ARAT) and six pre-selected essential daily activities. The Euler angles of the major joints, and acceleration from wrist and hand sensors were acquired and analyzed. The size of the workspace for the ARAT was 0.53 (left-right) × 0.92 (front-back) × 0.89 (up-down) m for the dominant hand. For the daily activities, the workspace size was 0.71 × 0.70 × 0.86 m for the dominant hand, significantly larger than the non-dominant hand (p ≤ 0.011). The average range of motion (RoM) during ARAT was 109.15 ± 18.82° for elbow flexion/extension, 105.23 ± 5.38° for forearm supination/pronation, 91.99 ± 0.98° for shoulder internal/external rotation, and 82.90 ± 22.52° for wrist dorsiflexion/volarflexion, whereas the corresponding range for daily activities were 120.61 ± 23.64°, 128.09 ± 22.04°, 111.56 ± 31.88°, and 113.70 ± 18.26°. The shoulder joint was more abducted and extended during pinching compared to grasping posture (p < 0.001). Reaching from a grasping posture required approximately 70° elbow extension and 36° forearm supination from the initial position. The study results provide an important database for the workspace and RoM for essential arm movements.


Assuntos
Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Monitorização Fisiológica , Movimento/fisiologia , Articulação do Ombro/fisiologia , Atividades Cotidianas , Adulto , Articulação do Cotovelo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Ombro/fisiologia , Extremidade Superior/fisiologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Articulação do Punho/fisiologia
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