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1.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(7): 2024-2030, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32037814

RESUMO

Artocarpus heterophyllus (jack tree) is an evergreen fruit tree belonging to the genus Artocarpus (Moraceae), which is widely distributed in subtropical and tropical regions of Asia. Its fruits (jackfruit), well-known as the world's largest tree-borne fruit, are being consumed in our daily diets as a very popular tropical fruit throughout the world and have been confirmed to hold various health benefits. In this study, five new prenylated chromones, artocarheterones A-E (1-5), as well as seven known prenylated chromones (6-12) were purified and isolated from the ripe fruits of A. heterophyllus (jackfruit). Their chemical structures were determined through comprehensive spectroscopic methods. This is the first report on prenylated chromones isolated from A. heterophyllus. The anti-HIV-1 effects of all isolated chromones were assessed in vitro. As a result, prenylated chromones (1-12) showed remarkable anti-HIV-1 effects with EC50 values ranging from 0.09 to 9.72 µM. These research results indicate that the isolation and characterization of these prenylated chromones with remarkable anti-HIV-1 activities from the ripe fruits of A. heterophyllus could be significant to the discovery and development of new anti-HIV-1 drugs.


Assuntos
Fármacos Anti-HIV/química , Fármacos Anti-HIV/farmacologia , Artocarpus/química , Cromonas/química , Cromonas/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Frutas/química , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , HIV-1/fisiologia , Estrutura Molecular , Prenilação
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 68(1): 258-266, 2020 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31825219

RESUMO

Screening the volatiles of cempedak [Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.] pulp for odor-active compounds by aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography (GC)-olfactometry of static headspace samples revealed a total of 55 odorants, among which 47 were identified. Using stable isotopically substituted odorants as internal standards, these compounds were quantitated by GC-mass spectrometry, and odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as ratios of the natural concentrations in cempedak pulp to the orthonasal odor detection thresholds. An aroma reconstitution model based on the 41 compounds with OAVs >1 in their natural concentrations successfully mimicked the characteristic aroma of cempedak pulp including the pronounced sulfury, oniony note which is intense in cempedak pulp but absent in jackfruit pulp. Further sensory tests finally showed that 2-(methylsulfanyl)propane, 2-(methylsulfanyl)butane, and 2-(methylsulfanyl)pentane are the key compounds responsible for this unique aroma note in cempedak pulp and vitally contribute to the aroma difference between cempedak pulp and jackfruit pulp.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Aromatizantes/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Olfatometria , Olfato
3.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(5): 1962-1970, 2020 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the impact of cooking on the profile of bioactive compounds in unripe breadfruit. To this end, the accessibility of bioactive compounds by various solvents was assessed through total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity analyses. The most efficient solvent was applied to extract the metabolites, which were evaluated by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in MSE mode. RESULTS: Cooked and raw breadfruit presented total phenolic content and antioxidant capacities in almost all extracts, and pure water proved to be the best extractor. Globally, 146 bioactive compounds have been identified for both raw and cooked fruits' aqueous extracts. Most of these compounds were stable to the heat treatment applied (121 °C/10 min). However, results revealed that 22 metabolites contributed to significantly distinguishing the raw from the cooked samples. Among those, 15 compounds, such as pyrogallol, 1-acetoxypinoresinol, and scopolin, evidenced higher relative abundance in the cooked extracts. On the other hand, only seven metabolites, such as 4-hydroxyhippuric acid, epicatechin, and leptodactylone, decreased post-heating. CONCLUSIONS: Cooking promoted little alteration in the bioactive compounds profile of immature breadfruit and thus appears to be an exploitation alternative for this perishable fruit, which seems to be a source of a large range of bioactive compounds. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Culinária , Frutas/química , Temperatura Alta , Fenóis/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
4.
Molecules ; 24(24)2019 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847475

RESUMO

In this study, a combination of quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (Q-TOF-MS) and linear trap quadrupole orbitrap mass spectrometry (LTQ-Orbitrap-MS) was performed to investigate the fragmentation behaviors of prenylated flavonoids (PFs) from Artocarpus plants. Fifteen PFs were selected as the model molecules and divided into five types (groups A-E) according to their structural characteristics in terms of the position and existing form of prenyl substitution in the flavone skeleton. The LTQ-Orbitrap-MSn spectra of the [M - H]- ions for these compounds provided a wealth of structural information on the five different types of compounds. The main fragmentation pathways of group A were the ortho effect and retro Diels-Alder (RDA), and common losses of C4H10, CO, and CO2. The compounds in group B easily lose C6H12, forming a stable structure of a 1,4-dienyl group, unlike those in group A. The fragmentation pathway for group C is characterized by obvious 1,4A-, 1,4B- cracking of the C ring. The diagnostic fragmentation for group D is obvious RDA cracking of the C ring and the successive loss of CH3 and H2O in the LTQ-Orbitrap-MSn spectra. Fragmentation with successive loss of CO or CO2, ·CH3, and CH4 in the LTQ-Orbitrap-MSn spectra formed the characteristics of group E. The summarized fragmentation rules were successfully exploited to identify PFs from Artocarpus heterophyllus, a well-known Artocarpus plant, which led to the identification of a total of 47 PFs in this plant.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Flavonoides/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Modelos Moleculares , Estrutura Molecular
5.
J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci ; 1130-1131: 121806, 2019 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31670106

RESUMO

Lectins are carbohydrate binding proteins with many physiological and biotechnological applications. Isolation of proteins is normally time-consuming and encompasses multiple and, sometimes, complicated steps that hinder reproducibility and yield. Affinity chromatography is an efficient way to simplify and improve protein purification, however often requiring an expensive and fragile stationary phase. In this regard, automated flow-based systems minimize the time for extraction of species from solid samples without hindering the features of batch procedures. In this work, a new inexpensive affinity-based stationary phase was developed for in-line separation of jacalin, a galactose-binding lectin from jackfruit seeds. In the flow manifold, in-line extraction of proteins was also carried out with continuous monitoring using the spectrophotometric Biuret assay. For protein determination, linear response was observed from 3.0 to 15 g L-1. The results of the analysis of protein extracts from jackfruit seeds obtained with the herein described procedure and batch procedure agreed with 95% confidence level. Quantitative extraction of proteins from jackfruit seed powder required recirculation of extraction buffer for 15 min through a lab-made polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) column containing 200 mg of the crude seed powder. In the chromatographic step, jacalin was isolated after 300 s. Therefore, three essential steps for jacalin isolation were performed in one manifold in a fast way, minimizing sample consumption and solution handling. Additionally, the versatile and multi-task developed flow manifold can be useful for routine analysis and preparative procedures, being adaptable for the extraction and separation of other species from solid matrixes with continuous monitoring of the processes.


Assuntos
Fracionamento Químico/métodos , Cromatografia de Afinidade/métodos , Lectinas de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Artocarpus/química , Lectinas de Plantas/análise , Lectinas de Plantas/química , Lectinas de Plantas/isolamento & purificação , Proteínas de Plantas/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Projetos de Pesquisa , Sementes/química
6.
Planta Med ; 85(16): 1263-1274, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604352

RESUMO

In an effort to identify agents from natural products that inhibit protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), 5 new prenylated stilbenes, (±)-styrastilbene A (1: ), styrastilbene B (2: ), and (±)-styrastilbenes C - E (3, 4: , and 7: ), along with 4 known structurally related compounds (5, 6, 8: , and 9: ), were isolated from the roots of Artocarpus styracifolius. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods, including 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), high-resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HRESIMS), ultraviolet (UV), and infrared (IR). Based on these isolates, a new plausible biosynthetic pathway for the unusual stilbene derivatives 3: -8: with a tetracyclic ring system is proposed. Among these compounds, 1: -3, 8: , and 9: displayed significant PTP1B inhibitory effects with IC50 values ranging from 2.40 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.21 - 2.59) to 8.80 (95% CI: 8.28 - 9.32) µM. Moreover, kinetic analysis and molecular docking simulations were performed to provide insight into the inhibition type as well as the interaction and binding mode of these active isolates with PTP1B. Our results revealed mixed-type PTP1B inhibition for all compounds tested. Docking simulations of these stilbene derivatives showed negative binding energies and close proximity to residues at the allosteric and catalytic sites of PTP1B. These findings suggest that these compounds may have a potential to be further developed as agents for the management of type 2 diabetes mellitus.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Proteína Tirosina Fosfatase não Receptora Tipo 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Prenilação , Estilbenos/química
7.
Molecules ; 24(18)2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547332

RESUMO

Some studies have demonstrated that acrylamide (AA) was correlated with oxidative stress, resulting in physical damage. The jackfruit flake was an immature pulp that contained a high level of antioxidant activity. This study aimed to assess the defensive efficacy of jackfruit flake in AA-induced oxidative stress before and after simulated gastrointestinal digestion. Our results indicate that the total polyphenol content of Jackfruit flake digest (Digestive products of jackfruit flake after gastrointestinal, JFG) was diminished; however, JFG had raised the relative antioxidant capacity compared to Jackfruit flake extract (JFE). Additionally, the results of High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (HPLC-MS) implied that a proportion of compounds were degraded/converted into other unknown and/or undetected metabolites. Further, by high content analysis (HCA) techniques, JFG markedly reduced cytotoxicity and excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells, thereby alleviating mitochondrial disorders. In this study, it may be converted active compounds after digestion that had preferable protective effects against AA-induced oxidative damage.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/análise , Artocarpus/química , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Acrilamida/toxicidade , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CACO-2 , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Digestão , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Espectrometria de Massas , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Membranas Mitocondriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Permeabilidade , Polifenóis/análise , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Estômago/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem ; 34(1): 1623-1632, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31480857

RESUMO

This study aimed to search the α-glucosidase inhibitors from the barks part of Artocarpus elasticus. The responsible compounds for α-glucosidase inhibition were found out as dihydrobenzoxanthones (1-4) and alkylated flavones (5-6). All compounds showed a significant enzyme inhibition toward α-glucosidase with IC50s of 7.6-25.4 µM. Dihydrobenzoxanthones (1-4) exhibited a competitive inhibition to α-glucosidase. This competitive behaviour was fully characterised by double reciprocal plots, Yang's method, and time-dependent experiments. The compound 1 manifested as the competitive and reversible simple slow-binding, with kinetic parameters k3 = 0.0437 µM-1 min-1, k4 = 0.0166 min-1, and Kiapp = 0.3795 µM. Alkylated flavones (5-6) were mixed type I (KI < KIS) inhibitors. The binding affinities (KSV) represented by all inhibitors were correlated to their concentrations and inhibitory potencies (IC50). Moreover, compounds 1 and 5 were identified as new ones named as artoindonesianin W and artoflavone B, respectively. Molecular modelling study proposed the putative binding conformation of competitive inhibitors (1-4) to α-glucosidase at the atomic level.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Xantonas/farmacologia , alfa-Glucosidases/metabolismo , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Fluorescência , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/química , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/isolamento & purificação , Estrutura Molecular , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Xantonas/química , Xantonas/isolamento & purificação
9.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 214, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412852

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The present study evaluated the antinociceptive effect of the bark of Artocarpus lacucha, which is used for the treatment of stomachache, headache and boils in the traditional system of medicine. METHODS: The antinociceptive activity was investigated by the tail immersion, hot plate, acetic acid- & formalin-induced nociception and carrageenan-induced paw edema tests using a hydro-methanolic extract of A. lacucha bark. The plant extract was found to contain a substantial amount of phenolic compounds according to the total phenolic and flavonoid content assay. A phenolic metabolite, (+)-catechin, has been isolated using different chromatographic techniques. The compound was characterized with 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. (+)-catechin, isolated from A. lacucha was assessed for antinociceptive effects swiss albino mice. Furthermore, the possible involvement of opioid receptors and ATP-sensitive K+ channel for the effect of the plant extract and (+)-catechin has been justified using naloxone and glibenclamide, respectively. RESULTS: Oral administration (p.o) of the plant extract (50-200 mg/Kg b.w.) resulted in significant thermal pain protection in the hot plate and tail immersion tests. The action of the plant extract was significantly antagonized by naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist, in the hot plate and tail immersion tests, which supports the involvement of opioid receptors. Both the plant extract and (+)-catechin, (50-200 mg/Kg b.w., p.o.) significantly diminished the acetic acid- & formalin-induced nociception, and carrageenan-induced paw edema. Glibenclamide, an ATP-sensitive K+ channel blocker, significantly reversed their effect in the acetic acid-induced writhing test which indicates the participation of ATP-sensitive K+ channel system. CONCLUSIONS: The investigation revealed potential central and peripheral antinociceptive effects of A. lacucha bark supports its applications in the traditional system of medicine.


Assuntos
Analgésicos/administração & dosagem , Artocarpus/química , Catequina/administração & dosagem , Edema/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Analgésicos/química , Analgésicos/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Carragenina/efeitos adversos , Catequina/análise , Catequina/isolamento & purificação , Edema/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Nociceptividade/efeitos dos fármacos , Dor/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/química
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(20): 5838-5846, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050422

RESUMO

An aroma extract dilution analysis applied to the volatiles isolated from jackfruit ( Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) pulp by solvent extraction and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation resulted in the detection of 48 odorants with flavor dilution (FD) factors between 1 and ≥8192. Application of gas chromatography-olfactometry to static headspace samples revealed additional five highly volatile odorants. The structures of 44 out of the 53 detected odorants could be assigned. These 44 compounds were quantitated using stable isotopically substituted odorants as internal standards, and their odor activity values (OAVs) were calculated as the ratio of the natural concentrations in jackfruit pulp and the odor threshold values in water. High OAVs were in particular obtained for ethyl 3-methylbutanoate (74000), ethyl butanoate (1800), 3-methylbutanal (1500), and 2-methylpropanal (1400). An aroma model solution based on the natural concentrations of the 35 compounds for which OAVs > 1 had been calculated fully mimicked the characteristic jackfruit pulp aroma.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Aromatizantes/química , Odorantes/análise , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/química , Adulto , Feminino , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Olfatometria , Olfato , Adulto Jovem
11.
Food Funct ; 10(5): 2729-2738, 2019 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038133

RESUMO

Brosimone I is an isoprenoid-substituted flavonoid from Artocarpus heterophyllus. Here, we reported for the first time that brosimone I induced cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis in HCT116 human colon cancer cells. Brosimone I treatment increased the cytosolic Ca2+ level, and subsequently activated the CaMKKß-AMPK pathway. STO-609, a CaMKKß inhibitor, and compound C, an AMPK-specific inhibitor, attenuated brosimone I-induced loss of cell viability in HCT116 cells. Furthermore, brosimone I enhanced ER stress. Salubrinal, an ER stress inhibitor, reduced brosimone I-induced cell growth inhibition. In addition, brosimone I was found to increase ROS generation and the inhibition of ROS formation by NAC, a ROS inhibitor, attenuated brosimone I-induced cell death, cytosolic Ca2+ increase, and ER stress markers. Collectively, our findings reveal that brosimone I induces cell cycle G1 phase arrest and apoptosis via the induction of ROS-mediated increased cytosolic Ca2+, ER stress, and the activation of the CaMKKß-AMPK signaling pathway.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artocarpus/química , Neoplasias do Colo/fisiopatologia , Estresse do Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Flavonoides/farmacologia , Pontos de Checagem da Fase G1 do Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Cálcio/metabolismo , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/genética , Quinase da Proteína Quinase Dependente de Cálcio-Calmodulina/metabolismo , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias do Colo/genética , Neoplasias do Colo/metabolismo , Retículo Endoplasmático/efeitos dos fármacos , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Flavonoides/química , Células HCT116 , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Transdução de Sinais
13.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(12): 5283-5292, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Water is generally considered to be a safe and green solvent suitable for use in natural product extraction. In this study, an eco-friendly subcritical water method was used to extract pectin from waste jackfruit peel (JFP-S), which was compared with pectin obtained by the traditional citric acid method (JFP-C). RESULTS: The extraction process was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), and the optimum process parameters were as follows: extraction temperature 138 °C, extraction time 9.15 min, liquid / solid (L/S) ratio 17.03 mL g-1 . Under these conditions, the pectin yield was 149.6 g kg-1 (dry basis). Pectin obtained from the two extraction methods displayed a high degree of esterification and the monosaccharide composition was consistent. The galacturonic acid content of JFP-S and JFP-C was 52.27% and 56.99%, respectively. JFP-S had more hairy regions and side chains than JFP-C. The molecular weight of JFP-S was 113.3 kDa, which was significantly lower than that of JFP-C (174.3 kDa). Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that two samples had similar pectin typical absorption peaks. According to differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), both JFP-S and JFP-C had relatively good thermal stability. JFP-S demonstrated lower apparent viscosity and elasticity than JFP-C. Meanwhile, the G' and G'' moduli of JFP-S were lower, which found expression in the gel textural characterization of the samples. CONCLUSION: This work showed that the subcritical water method is an efficient, time-saving, and eco-friendly technology for the extraction of pectin from jackfruit peel compared with the traditional citric acid method. The physicochemical properties of pectin could be changed during subcritical water extraction. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Química Verde/métodos , Pectinas/química , Pectinas/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Resíduos/análise , Esterificação , Peso Molecular , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Temperatura , Viscosidade
14.
Phytochem Anal ; 30(6): 617-622, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020748

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance (qNMR) spectroscopy is an analytical method based on the principles of NMR spectroscopy. The main advantages of this method are its simplicity, time efficiency, high accuracy and reproducibility, and it is a non-destructive technique. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate and standardise the quality of Artocarpus lacucha heartwood. A method for quantifying its oxyresveratrol content using qNMR was developed. METHODOLOGY: Proton (1 H)NMR (400 MHz) spectroscopy was used to analyse the methanol-d4 solution of a given amount of crude extract of A. lacucha heartwood using ethyl p-methoxycinnamate (EPMC) as an internal standard. The qNMR methodology was validated in terms of its linearity and range, limit of quantification (LOQ), stability, precision, and accuracy for the determination of the oxyresveratrol content. RESULTS: The qNMR method was validated in terms of its linearity, range, LOQ, accuracy, precision, and stability. The quantitative determination of the oxyresveratrol content in the methanolic crude extract of A. lacucha was found to be 17% based on 1 HNMR analysis, which proved to be a reliable method as the results were comparable to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. CONCLUSIONS: This study validated qNMR spectroscopy as a reliable analytical procedure to determine oxyresveratrol in A. lacucha heartwood. Therefore, this qNMR method can serve as an alternative to the classical HPLC methods for evaluating and standardising the quality of A. lacucha heartwood.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Espectroscopia de Prótons por Ressonância Magnética/métodos , Estilbenos/análise , Madeira , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Limite de Detecção , Extratos Vegetais/normas , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estilbenos/normas
15.
Pharm Biol ; 57(1): 120-124, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30776315

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Dengue control may be done by targeting its vector. In this study, we used Artocarpus blancoi (Elm.) Merr. (Moraceae) leaves, an endemic hematophagous insect repellent as a larvicide and ovicide. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the larvicidal and ovicidal activities of its soluble crude ethanol extract and the hexane, aqueous, and ethyl acetate fractions against Aedes aegypti. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Third to early fourth instar A. aegypti larvae were exposed to 200, 400, 600, 800 and 1000 ppm of crude ethanol; to 10, 20, 40, 60 and 80 ppm of ethyl acetate; and to 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1500 ppm of hexane fractions of A. blancoi; 48 h LC50 and LC90 values were determined. For the ovicidal assay, an average of 25 eggs/paper strip was used; inhibition of egg hatchability was counted 72 h after exposure. Fractions were screened qualitatively for phytochemicals. RESULTS: Ethyl acetate soluble fraction gave the lowest LC50 value (18.59 ppm) followed by the crude ethanol (411 ppm), hexane (685 ppm) and aqueous (20,158 ppm) fractions. Similarly, ethyl acetate soluble fraction appeared to be the most ovicidal (80 ppm). Larvicidal and ovicidal activities of the fractions were dose dependent. Qualitative phytochemical screening revealed moderate presence of glycosides and sterols and trace amounts of triterpenes, flavonoids, saponins and tannins. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: A. blancoi is a potential larvicide and ovicide against A. aegypti, and future studies isolating the specific components responsible for such actions would be significant.


Assuntos
Aedes , Artocarpus/química , Inseticidas , Controle de Mosquitos/métodos , Mosquitos Vetores , Extratos Vegetais , Animais , Larva
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(1): e20170922, 2019 Feb 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30785498

RESUMO

In Brazil, there are two species of Artocarpus that were introduced: Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg, known as fruta-pão, and Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam., known as jaca. Both are used as food and medicine. The objective of this work was to conduct a comparative anatomical and histochemical study between A. altilis and A. heterophyllus. Techniques of optical, polarized and scanning electron coupled to energy dispersive spectroscopy. The anatomical characterization showed the characters of general occurrence in the family Moraceae and of those that allow the differentiation of A. altilis and A. heterophyllus. The histochemistry revealed the sites of synthesis and/or storage of the metabolites. The chemical microanalyses brought new information about the chemical composition of crystals. The study provides pharmacobotanical data for the quality control of the species.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/anatomia & histologia , Artocarpus/química , Anatomia Comparada , Artocarpus/classificação , Brasil , Histocitoquímica , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
17.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 121: 1109-1117, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30342148

RESUMO

The effect of improved extrusion cooking technology (IECT) on jackfruit seed starch (JFSS) digestion properties was investigated by the in vitro starch hydrolysis, hydrolysis index (HI) and glycaemic index (GI). The IECT markedly increased the content of rapidly digestible starch (RDS), slowly digestible starch (SDS), equilibrium concentration (C∞), HI, GI, and the rate of starch digestion but decreased in resistant starch (RS). Increasing the temperature and screw speed resulted in significant increases in SDS, C∞, HI, GI, and decreases in RDS, RS content. The scanning electron microscope demonstrated the digestion result that the JFSS changed from more compact structure to more loose polyhedral and from fewer pits to number of hollows. However, the opposite results were observed for increasing moisture content. All these results suggested that the in vitro digestibility of the high amylose and small granules JFSS can be efficiently enhanced by the improved extrusion cooking treatment.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Culinária/métodos , Índice Glicêmico , Sementes/química , Amido/química , Glicemia/metabolismo , Digestão , Hidrólise , Cinética , Período Pós-Prandial , Amido/metabolismo
18.
Nat Prod Res ; 33(10): 1436-1441, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29281901

RESUMO

Two new 2-arylbenzofurans, namely 13-O-methyllakoochin B (1) and artogomezianin (2), were isolated from the root bark of Artocarpus gomezianus, along with six known compounds (3-8). The structures of new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical methods. All of the isolates were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Artogomezianin (2) and lakoochin A (3) exhibited strong α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 18.25 and 26.19 µM, respectively, as compared with the positive control acarbose.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Benzofuranos/isolamento & purificação , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Inibidores de Glicosídeo Hidrolases/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química , Benzofuranos/química , Metabolismo dos Carboidratos , Estrutura Molecular
19.
Biochem J ; 476(1): 101-113, 2019 01 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30563945

RESUMO

Frutalin (FTL) is a multiple-binding lectin belonging to the jacalin-related lectin (JRL) family and derived from Artocarpus incisa (breadfruit) seeds. This lectin specifically recognizes and binds α-d-galactose. FTL has been successfully used in immunobiological research for the recognition of cancer-associated oligosaccharides. However, the molecular bases by which FTL promotes these specific activities remain poorly understood. Here, we report the whole 3D structure of FTL for the first time, as determined by X-ray crystallography. The obtained crystals diffracted to 1.81 Å (Apo-frutalin) and 1.65 Å (frutalin-d-Gal complex) of resolution. The lectin exhibits post-translational cleavage yielding an α- (133 amino acids) and ß-chain (20 amino acids), presenting a homotetramer when in solution, with a typical JRL ß-prism. The ß-prism was composed of three 4-stranded ß-sheets forming three antiparallel Greek key motifs. The carbohydrate-binding site (CBS) involved the N-terminus of the α-chain and was formed by four key residues: Gly25, Tyr146, Trp147 and Asp149. Together, these results were used in molecular dynamics simulations in aqueous solutions to shed light on the molecular basis of FTL-ligand binding. The simulations suggest that Thr-Ser-Ser-Asn (TSSN) peptide excision reduces the rigidity of the FTL CBS, increasing the number of interactions with ligands and resulting in multiple-binding sites and anomeric recognition of α-d-galactose sugar moieties. Our findings provide a new perspective to further elucidate the versatility of FTL in many biological activities.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Galactose/química , Galectinas/química , Sementes/química , Sítios de Ligação , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Especificidade por Substrato
20.
Food Chem ; 278: 185-189, 2019 Apr 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30583360

RESUMO

Changes in physicochemical properties of fresh cut tender jackfruit during storage is depend on its colour. Colorimeter measurements are best for the samples with homogeneous colour. However, for samples with non-homogenous colors or large sizes (like fruits and vegetables), the colorimeters are inappropriate and inaccurate. The aim for this study is to quantify the amount of browning in fresh cut tender jackfruit slices by using image analysis technique and justify the results by comparing them with existing techniques like sensory examination, enzyme activity, and colorimeter. It can be concluded from the results that browning in fresh cut tender jackfruit slices increase rapidly in control and normally packed samples. Correlation coefficient as high as 0.963, represent that image analysis system is an accurate and highly consistent method to quantify the colour of fruits and vegetables.


Assuntos
Artocarpus/química , Frutas/química , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Cor
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