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1.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726334

RESUMO

A historical cohort study in workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile was set up in the town of Asbest, the Russian Federation, to study their cause-specific mortality, with a focus on cancer. Chrysotile has different chemical and physical properties compared with other asbestos fibres; therefore it is important to conduct studies specifically of chrysotile and in different geographical regions to improve the knowledge about its carcinogenicity. Setting was the town of Asbest, Sverdlovsk oblast, the Russian Federation. Participants were all current and former employees with at least one year of employment between 1/1/1975 and 31/12/2010 in the mine, enrichment factories, auto-transport and external rail transportation departments, the central laboratory, and the explosives unit of the company. Of the 35,837 cohort members, 12,729 (35.5%) had died (2,373 of them of cancer, including 10 of mesothelioma), 18,799 (52.5%) were known to be alive at the end of the observation period (2015), and 4,309 (12.0%) were censored before the end of 2015. Mean follow-up duration was 21.7 years in men and 25.9 years in women. The mean age at death was 59.4 years in men and 66.5 years in women. This is the largest occupational cohort of chrysotile workers to date, and the only one with a large proportion of exposed female workers.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 14(4): e0214808, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30946771

RESUMO

Workers processing nephrite, antigorite, or talc may be exposed to paragenetic asbestos minerals. An effective screening method for pneumoconiosis in workers exposed to asbestos-contaminated minerals is still lacking. The objective of this study was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of serum and urinary biomarkers for pneumoconiosis in workers exposed to asbestos-contaminated minerals. We conducted a case-control study in a cohort of stone craft workers in Hualien, where asbestos, nephrite, antigorite, and talc are produced. A total of 140 subjects were screened between March 2013 and July 2014. All subjects received a questionnaire survey and a health examination that included a physical examination; chest X-ray; and tests for standard pulmonary function, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, serum soluble mesothelin-related peptide (SMRP), fibulin-3, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and urinary 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG)/creatinine. After excluding subjects with uraemia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we included 48 subjects with pneumoconiosis and 90 control subjects without pneumoconiosis for analysis. In terms of occupational history, 43/48 (90%) case subjects and 68% (61/90) of the control subjects had processed asbestos-contaminated minerals, including nephrite, antigorite, and talc. The case group had decreased pulmonary function in forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second, and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of the FVC. The levels of SMRP, fibulin-3, urinary 8-OHdG/creatinine, and CEA were higher in the case group than in the control group. Subjects exposed to nephrite had significantly higher SMRP levels (0.84 ± 0.52 nM) than subjects exposed to other types of minerals (0.60 ± 0.30 nM). A dose-response relationship was observed between the SMRP level and the severity of pneumoconiosis. Machine learning algorithms, including variables of sex, age, SMRP, fibulin-3, CEA, and 8-OHdG/creatinine, can predict pneumoconiosis with high accuracy. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves ranged from 0.7 to 1.0. We suggest that SMRP and fibulin-3 could be used as biomarkers of pneumoconiosis in workers exposed to asbestos-contaminated minerals.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional , Pneumoconiose/sangue , Pneumoconiose/urina , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/sangue , 8-Hidroxi-2'-Desoxiguanosina/urina , Adulto , Idoso , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/sangue , Asbestose/fisiopatologia , Asbestose/urina , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/urina , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/sangue , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/urina , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Creatinina/sangue , Creatinina/urina , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/urina , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/urina , Humanos , Masculino , Fluxo Máximo Médio Expiratório , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minerais/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Pneumoconiose/fisiopatologia , Taiwan , Talco/efeitos adversos , Capacidade Vital
3.
Cancer Sci ; 110(3): 1076-1084, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30618090

RESUMO

Occupational asbestos exposure occurs in many workplaces and is a well-known cause of mesothelioma and lung cancer. However, the association between nonoccupational asbestos exposure and those diseases is not clearly described. The aim of this study was to investigate cause-specific mortality among the residents of Amagasaki, a city in Japan with many asbestos factories, and evaluate the potential excess mortality due to established and suspected asbestos-related diseases. The study population consisted of 143 929 residents in Amagasaki City before 1975 until 2002, aged 40 years or older on January 1, 2002. Follow-up was carried out from 2002 to 2015. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) was calculated by sex, using the mortality rate of the Japanese population as reference. A total of 38 546 deaths (including 303 from mesothelioma and 2683 from lung cancer) were observed. The SMRs in the long-term residents' cohort were as follows: death due to all causes, 1.12 (95% CI, 1.10-1.13) in men and 1.07 (95% CI, 1.06-1.09) in women; lung cancer, 1.28 (95% CI, 1.23-1.34) in men and 1.23 (95% CI, 1.14-1.32) in women; and mesothelioma, 6.75 (95% CI, 5.83-7.78) in men and 14.99 (95% CI, 12.34-18.06) in women. These SMRs were significantly higher than expected. The increased SMR of mesothelioma suggests the impact of occupational asbestos exposure among men and nonoccupational asbestos exposure among women in the long-term residents' cohort. In addition, the high level of excess mortality from mesothelioma has persisted, despite the mixture of crocidolite and chrysotile no longer being used for three or four decades.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbesto Crocidolita/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia
4.
J Immunol Res ; 2018: 4391731, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426024

RESUMO

Although the tumorigenicity of asbestos, which is thought to cause mesothelioma, has been clarified, its effect on antitumor immunity requires further investigation. We previously reported a decrease in the percentage of perforin+ cells of stimulated CD8+ lymphocytes derived from patients with malignant mesothelioma. Therefore, we examined the effects of long-term exposure to asbestos on CD8+ T cell functions by comparing long-term cultures of the human CD8+ T cell line EBT-8 with and without exposure to chrysotile (CH) asbestos as an in vitro model. Exposure to CH asbestos at 5 µg/ml or 30 µg/ml did not result in a decrease in intracellular granzyme B in EBT-8 cells. In contrast, the percentage of perforin+ cells decreased at both doses of CH exposure. CH exposure at 30 µg/ml did not suppress degranulation following stimulation with antibodies to CD3. Secreted production of IFN-γ stimulated via CD3 decreased by CH exposure at 30 µg/ml, although the percentage of IFN-γ + cells induced by PMA/ionomycin did not decrease. These results indicate that long-term exposure to asbestos can potentially suppress perforin levels and the production of IFN-γ in human CD8+ T cells.


Assuntos
Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mesotelioma/metabolismo , Perforina/metabolismo , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Degranulação Celular , Linhagem Celular , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mesotelioma/imunologia
5.
J Toxicol Environ Health A ; 81(19): 1015-1027, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30230971

RESUMO

An increased risk for Systemic Autoimmune Diseases (SAID) was reported in the population of Libby, Montana, where extensive exposure to asbestiform amphiboles occurred through mining and use of asbestiform fiber-laden vermiculite. High frequencies of antinuclear autoantibodies (ANA) were detected in individuals and mice exposed to Libby Asbestiform Amphiboles (LAA). Among the 6603 individuals who have undergone health screening at the Center for Asbestos Related Diseases (CARD, Libby MT), the frequencies of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, sarcoidosis, and systemic sclerosis are significantly higher than expected prevalence in the United States. While these data support the hypothesis that LAA can trigger autoimmune responses, evidence suggests that chrysotile asbestos does not. Serological testing was therefore performed in subjects exposed to LAA or predominantly chrysotile (New York steamfitters) using multiplexed array technologies. Analyses were performed in order to determine a) autoantibody profiles in each cohort, and b) whether the two populations could be distinguished through predictive modeling. Analysis using perMANOVA testing confirmed a significant difference between autoantibody profiles suggesting differential pathways leading to autoantibody formation. ANA were more frequent in the LAA cohort. Specific autoantibodies more highly expressed with LAA-exposure were to histone, ribosomal P protein, Sm/Ribonucleoproteins, and Jo-1 (histidyl tRNA synthetase). Myositis autoantibodies more highly expressed in the LAA cohort were Jo-1, PM100, NXP2, and Mi2a. Predictive modeling demonstrated that anti-histone antibodies were most predictive for LAA exposure, and anti-Sm was predictive for the steamfitters' exposure. This emphasizes the need to consider fiber types when evaluating risk of SAID with asbestos exposure.


Assuntos
Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Autoanticorpos/sangue , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos Serpentinas/imunologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Montana , New York , Adulto Jovem
6.
New Solut ; 28(3): 515-538, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30126335

RESUMO

Product warnings are theoretically designed to reduce injuries associated with occupational, environmental, or consumer product exposures. Unfortunately, in an effort to protect sales, some companies have produced media and information to falsely reassure their customers about the risks associated with their products. These tactics have been termed "anti-warnings." We reviewed corporate documents uncovered in litigation alongside other historical publications to ascertain the types of anti-warnings used by Union Carbide Corporation (UCC) regarding their asbestos products. Our review finds that UCC went to great lengths to confuse their customers and make their particular asbestos product-which contained short-fiber, chrysotile asbestos-look safe. We discuss three primary communications methods UCC used: industry-produced publications, sales force direct communication with customers, and public speeches. These examples provide further insight into how corporations encourage uncertainty about the risks associated with their products. Understanding anti-warning methods is critical for the implementation of future policies that protect consumer, worker, and environmental health.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Comunicação , Indústrias/organização & administração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Segurança , Incerteza
7.
Pneumologie ; 72(7): 507-513, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29775975

RESUMO

Although there is no dispute among independent scientists about the carcinogenic and fibrogenic effects of chrysotile, the asbestos industry has been continuously and successfully acting to cast doubts on its harm. Another approach including asbestos insurance entities is to refuse compensation by raising the bar and fight criminal prosecution for asbestos-related diseases by the help of paid scientists. A recent publication on asbestos fibre burden in human lungs fits well in this context. The claim that chrysotile fibres are biopersistent in human lung is not based on the data provided by these authors, and, additionally, exhibits serious inconsistencies and obvious mismeasurements and significant methodological problems. The conclusion of the authors that fibre analysis of workers' lungs "is of high significance for differential diagnosis, risk assessment and occupational compensation" is unfounded and reprehensible. Also the available literature, the statements of the WHO, IARC, other decisive independent international organizations, and all our experience provide abundant evidence to the contrary. Note, the method is generally restricted to research only and is not recognized for diagnostic purpose and compensation in any other country. In conclusion, fibre counting in lung tissues should not be used to estimate former exposure to chrysotile comprising c. 94 % of applied asbestos in Germany. The authors claim that the analyses can improve the compensation rates in Germany. However, the opposite has been the case; it significantly worsens the non-justified denial of well-substantiated compensation claims.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Pulmão/química , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Alemanha , Humanos
8.
Am J Ind Med ; 61(7): 625-630, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antigorite is generally described as platy, its fibrous (asbestiform) variant is present widespread in serpentinite rocks. In addition to its primarily fibrous occurrence, asbestiform antigorite may also be formed from serpentinite with massive appearance during tunneling and mining. It is not of commercial interest, but exposure may occur in the certain environments. METHODS AND RESULTS: Detailed studies of the structural features of this antigorite type revealed characteristics closely related to those of chrysotile. Therefore, it is plausible that this serpentine mineral may present a similar health risk for exposed subjects. This is in agreement with results from clinical and animal studies, as well as in vitro experiments showing the cytotoxic, fibrogenic, and carcinogenic potential of antigorite, similar to that of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence supports a need for an update to existing regulations to include unregulated asbestiform antigorite, similar to regulatory measures taken for asbestos.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Animais , Asbestos Serpentinas/química , Asbestos Serpentinas/toxicidade , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Am J Ind Med ; 61(5): 383-390, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29573442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Current regulations require that asbestos fibers are collected and examined using a light microscope. This method fails to enumerate fibers that are too short or thin to reliably count using a light microscope under normal conditions. METHODS: A cohort of 3054 workers employed at an asbestos textile plant was followed to ascertain causes of death. Exposure was almost entirely chrysotile. Fiber counts were quantified using light microscopy and electron microscopy. The g-formula was used to estimate impacts on lung cancer of policies defined in terms of fiber counts quantified using light and electron microscopy. RESULTS: Given exposure at the current standard, the estimated lung cancer risk was 7.33%, comparable to the risk expected under a standard of 1 fiber/mL counted using electron microscopy (7.30%). The lifetime risk of lung cancer under a standard of 0.1 fiber/mL counted by electron microscopy was estimated to be 7.10%. CONCLUSIONS: We identify policies defined in terms of electron microscopy-based asbestos exposure metrics that yield comparable, or lower, lung cancer mortality than that expected under the current standard.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Causas de Morte , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Monitoramento Ambiental/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Microscopia Eletrônica , Fibras Minerais , Método de Monte Carlo , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , South Carolina/epidemiologia , Indústria Têxtil
10.
Arch Pathol Lab Med ; 142(6): 753-760, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480760

RESUMO

CONTEXT: - Although many mesotheliomas are related to asbestos exposure, not all are, and there is increasing information on other causes of mesothelioma. OBJECTIVE: - To provide a review of non-asbestos causes for malignant mesothelioma. DATA SOURCES: - Review of relevant published literature via PubMed and other search engines. CONCLUSIONS: - Currently, most pleural mesotheliomas (70% to 90%) in men in Europe and North America are attributable to asbestos exposure; for peritoneal mesothelioma the proportion is lower. In North America few mesotheliomas in women at any site are attributable to asbestos exposure, but in Europe the proportion is higher and varies considerably by locale. In certain geographic locations other types of mineral fibers (erionite, fluoro-edenite, and probably balangeroite) can induce mesothelioma. Therapeutic radiation for other malignancies is a well-established cause of mesothelioma, with relative risks as high as 30. Carbon nanotubes can also induce mesotheliomas in animals but there are no human epidemiologic data that shed light on this issue. Chronic pleural inflammation may be a cause of mesothelioma but the data are scanty. Although SV40 can induce mesotheliomas in animals, in humans the epidemiologic data are against a causative role. A small number of mesotheliomas (probably in the order of 1%) are caused by germline mutations/deletions of BRCA1-associated protein-1 ( BAP1) in kindreds that also develop a variety of other cancers. All of these alternative etiologies account for a small proportion of tumors, and most mesotheliomas not clearly attributable to asbestos exposure are spontaneous (idiopathic).


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Neoplasias Peritoneais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Ubiquitina Tiolesterase/genética , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/genética , Mesotelioma/patologia , Nanotubos de Carbono/efeitos adversos , América do Norte , Neoplasias Peritoneais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Peritoneais/genética , Neoplasias Peritoneais/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pleurais/genética , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Zeolitas/efeitos adversos
11.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 92: e1-e8, 2018.
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-173791

RESUMO

La actual estructura del Estado de las Autonomías se caracteriza por el pluralismo institucional y la autonomía de las diferentes administraciones públicas. En este contexto el principio de coordinación es fundamental para la cohesión del Estado, pero la experiencia muestra que es difícil su puesta en práctica. En este trabajo se examinó el conjunto de actuaciones realizado por las administraciones en relación a un problema de salud laboral y de salud pública planteado en marzo de 2016. La Dirección General de Salud Pública del Gobierno de Aragón tuvo conocimiento de la posible utilización por una empresa de Zaragoza de zapatas de freno con amianto para fabricar ejes de maquinaria agrícola. Se recabó la colaboración del Instituto Aragonés de Seguridad y Salud Laboral (ISSLA), del Departamento de Industria y de la Inspección de Trabajo y Seguridad Social, dichas administraciones detectaron la utilización de varios modelos de zapatas con un contenido de crisotilo del 2-5%. Las zapatas procedían de una empresa china. Los ejes eran comercializados en varias Comunidades Autónomas. Se activó una alerta nacional a través del SIRIPQ (Sistema de Intercambio Rápido de Información de Productos Químicos) coordinado por el Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad. Se tomaron medidas tales como el cese del trabajo con las zapatas, la sustitución de las ya instaladas mediante la aplicación de un Plan Único de Trabajo, la inmovilización de las zapatas presentes en la empresa, etc. Este caso muestra que la cooperación y la corresponsabilidad de administraciones públicas de diferentes ámbitos territoriales, sectoriales y competenciales permite mejorar la prevención de riesgos laborales


The current structure of the Spanish State of Autonomies is characterized by institutional pluralism and the autonomy of the different public administrations. In this context, the principle of coordination is fundamental for the cohesion of the system, but experience shows that its implementation is difficult. This paper examines the set of actions carried out by the administrations in relation to an occupational and public health problem raised in March 2016. The Public Health General Direction of Aragon’s Government was informed of a possible use of brake linings with asbestos to manufacture axles for agricultural machinery by a Company from Zaragoza; the ollaboration from Aragon’s Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, the Industry Department and the Labour and Social Security Inspectorate were asked; the joint action of these administrations detected the use of several models of brake linings with a content of 2-5% of Chrysotile. The brake linings came from a Chinese company. The axles nated are sold in several Spanish Autonomous Communities. A national alert was activated by the SIRIPQ (System of Rapid Exchange of Information on Chemical Products) which is coordinated by the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality. Several measures were taken including: ceasing the work with the brake linings, the replacement of brake linings with asbestos, the immobilization of brake linings in the company by application of the REACH Reglament, etc. This case shows that the cooperation and coresponsibility of public administrations from different territorial, sectoral and competence areas allows improving the occupational risks prevention and the public health


Assuntos
Humanos , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Poluição Industrial/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29165392

RESUMO

This paper provides a narrative of the national intervention strategy in Sweden aimed to restrict the industrial use of asbestos. For many years, asbestos was imported for widespread industrial use, resulting in large amounts throughout Swedish society. In 1972, the whistle was blown in a Communist Party parliamentary motion describing asbestos as a health hazard and requesting action to prohibit its use. Although the motion was rejected, it initiated the extensive charting of asbestos sources on a tripartite basis, involving government agencies, and employer and trade-union organizations. Restrictive asbestos management practices were enforced from July 1982. The year 1985 saw the Government Asbestos Commission review, covering use-determining factors, international regulations, and assessments of cancer risks. The relative risks of chrysotile and amphibole were considered internationally (by the IARC), since chrysotile (a Canadian export) was regarded as unharmful in Canada at that time. Prohibiting asbestos use resulted in its virtual disappearance as an import to Sweden from the early 1980s. However, asbestos has undergone a transition from an occupational to a public-health hazard (although some work-related hazards, such as handling and disposal, remain). The transition reflects the public's exposure to existing stocks, in homes, workplaces, etc. Mesothelioma incidence has come to be regarded as an indicator of prevention effectiveness.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Suécia
13.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(11): 838-846, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28935666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To conduct an updated literature review and meta-analysis of studies of pleural malignant mesothelioma (PMM) risk among persons exposed to asbestos non-occupationally (household and neighbourhood). METHODS: We performed a literature search for articles available in the National Center for Biotechnology Information's PubMed database published between 1967 and 2016. Meta-analyses were conducted to calculate pooled PMM risk estimates, stratifying for household or neighbourhood exposure to asbestos and/or predominant asbestos fibre type (chrysotile, amphibole or mixed). RESULTS: Eighteen studies in 12 countries comprising 665 cases met the meta-analysis inclusion criteria. We identified 13 estimates of PMM risk from neighbourhood exposures, 10 from household and one from mixed exposure, and combined the estimates using random-effects models. The overall meta-relative risk (meta-RR) was 5.9 (95% CI 4.4 to 8.7). The meta-RRs for household and neighbourhood exposures were 5.4 (95% CI 2.6 to 11.2) and 6.9 (95% CI 4.2 to 11.4), respectively. We observed trends in risk in relation to fibre type for both household and neighbourhood studies. For chrysotile, mixed and amphibole fibres, respectively, meta-RRs for neighbourhood studies were 3.8 (95% CI 0.4 to 38.4), 8.4 (95% CI 4.7 to 14.9) and 21.1 (95% CI 5.3 to 84.5) and meta-RRs for household studies were 4.0 (95% CI 0.8 to 18.8), 5.3 (95% CI 1.9 to 15.0) and 21.1 (95% CI 2.8 to 156.0). CONCLUSIONS: PMM risks from non-occupational asbestos exposure are consistent with the fibre-type potency response observed in occupational settings. By relating our findings to knowledge of exposure-response relationships in occupational settings, we can better evaluate PMM risks in communities with ambient asbestos exposures from industrial or other sources.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Habitação , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pleurais/induzido quimicamente , Características de Residência , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional , Medição de Risco
14.
Eur Respir J ; 49(6)2017 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28663314

RESUMO

The traceability of asbestos fibres in human lungs is a matter of discussion especially for chrysotile. This issue is of high significance for differential diagnosis, risk assessment and occupational compensation. At present no intra-individual longitudinal information is available. This study addresses the question whether the asbestos fibre burden in human lungs decreases with time after exposure cessation.The database of the German Mesothelioma Register was screened for patients with asbestos body counts of at least 500 fibres per gram of wet lung, which had been analysed twice from different tissue excisions at minimum intervals of 4 years.Twelve datasets with individual longitudinal information were discovered with a median interval of about 8 years (range 4-21 years). Both examinations were performed after exposure cessation (median: surgery, 9.5 years; autopsy, 22 years). Pulmonary asbestos fibre burden was stable between both examinations (median 1623/4269 asbestos bodies per gram wet lung). Electron microscopy demonstrated a preponderance of chrysotile (median 80%).This study is the first to present longitudinal intra-individual data about the asbestos fibre burden in living human lungs. The high biopersistence of amphiboles, but also of chrysotile, offers mechanistic explanations for fibre toxicity, especially the long latency period of asbestos-related diseases.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Autopsia , Alemanha , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pulmão/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/cirurgia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/cirurgia , Microscopia Eletrônica , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros
15.
Occup Environ Med ; 74(8): 558-563, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28438787

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term mortality of a cohort of Italian asbestos miners. METHODS: The cohort included 1056 men employed in a chrysotile mine between 1930 and 1990, who were followed up during 1946-2014, for a total of 37 471 person-years of observation. Expected deaths and SMRs were computed using national and local (after 1980, when available) reference. RESULTS: A total of 294 (27.8%) subjects were alive and at the end of follow-up, 722 (68.4%) were dead and 40 (3.8%) were lost to follow-up. The SMR for overall mortality was 1.35 (95%CI 1.25 to 1.45). The SMR for pleural cancer, based on seven observed deaths, was 5.54 (95% CI 2.22 to 11.4) and related to time since first exposure, but not to duration of employment, cumulative exposure or time since last exposure. The SMR for lung cancer was 1.16 (95% CI 0.87 to 1.52; 53 observed deaths), with no excess among workers with cumulative exposure below 100 fibre/mL-years (SMR 0.82; 95% CI 0.44 to 1.40). CONCLUSIONS: The update of the follow-up of this cohort confirmed an increased mortality from pleural cancer mortality in miners exposed to chrysotile and a lack of significant increase in lung cancer mortality.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pleurais/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Doença Crônica/mortalidade , Estudos de Coortes , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mineração , Mortalidade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Distribuição de Poisson
16.
Med Pr ; 68(2): 247-258, 2017 Mar 24.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28345684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The adverse health effects of occupational exposure to asbestos dust may occur several years after first exposure. The objective of the study was to assess the relationship between lesions in the respiratory system and the factors contributing to occupational exposure to asbestos described in the first medical examination as well as to analyze the factors responsible for the progression of these changes in further medical tests. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group comprised 591 former workers of asbestos processing plant "Gambit" in Lubawka. The results of medical examinations carried out in 2001-2012 were assessed. Statistical inference was performed based on bilateral significance tests at the 0.05 level of significance. RESULTS: A higher risk of interstitial lung changes along with an increase in the cumulative concentration of asbestos was indicated; for the employees with the highest exposure, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) was 1.63 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.99-2.71), while for changes with the severity degree qualifying for asbestosis diagnosis, the risk was significantly increased, over fivefold higher, compared to subjects employed in the lowest exposure. The analysis of the relationship between the progression of interstitial changes and the exposure to asbestos dust showed a fourfold higher risk of the progression in workers employed in the highest exposure. Mean values of FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s), FVC (forced vital capacity), FEV1/FVC (forced expiratory volume in 1 s to forced vital capacity) were significantly lower in the subjects working in a higher asbestos exposure. The effect of tobacco smoking on the occurrence of interstitial lung changes and their progression was also confirmed. CONCLUSIONS: The results of prophylactic medical examinations of the health status of workers formerly employed in the plants using chrysotile indicate the importance andthe need for a long-term clinical follow-up and the promotion of anti-smoking prevention in this group of former employees. Med Pr 2017;68(2):247-258.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/patologia , Pulmão/patologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ventilação Pulmonar , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestose/diagnóstico por imagem , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Asbestose/fisiopatologia , Poeira , Feminino , Humanos , Pulmão/diagnóstico por imagem , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia , Radiografia Torácica
17.
Curr Environ Health Rep ; 3(4): 335-347, 2016 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27696225

RESUMO

To justify the continuous use of two million tons of asbestos every year, it has been argued that a safe/controlled use can be achieved. The aim of this review was to identify recent scientific studies that present empirical evidence of: 1) health consequences resulting from past asbestos exposures and 2) current asbestos exposures resulting from asbestos use. Articles with evidence that could support or reject the safe/controlled use argument were also identified. A total of 155 articles were included in the review, and 87 % showed adverse asbestos health consequences or high asbestos exposures. Regarding the safe/controlled use, 44 articles were identified, and 82 % had evidence suggesting that the safe/controlled use is not being achieved. A large percentage of articles with evidence that support the safe/controlled use argument have a conflict of interest declared. Most of the evidence was developed in high-income countries and in countries that have already banned asbestos.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Asbestose , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente
18.
Ann Occup Hyg ; 60(8): 1020-35, 2016 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27234376

RESUMO

Asbestos and non-asbestos containing brake products are currently used in low- and middle-income countries like Colombia. Because brake products are distributed detached from their supports, they require manipulation before installation, which release fibers and expose workers. Previous studies of our research group have documented exposures in excess of the widely accepted 0.1 f/cm(3) exposure guideline. The aim of this study is to identify factors associated with non-compliance of the 8-h time weighted average (TWA) 0.1 f/cm(3) asbestos occupational limit among brake mechanics (i.e. riveters). Eighteen brake repair shops (BRS) located in Bogotá (Colombia) were sampled during 3 to 6 consecutive days for the entire work-shift. Personal and short-term personal samples were collected following NIOSH methods 7400 and 7402. Longitudinal based logistic regression models were used to determine the association between the odds of exceeding the 8-h TWA 0.1 f/cm(3) asbestos occupational limit and variables such as type of tasks performed by workers, workload (number of products manipulated daily), years of experience as riveters, and shop characteristics. These models can be used to estimate the odds of being currently or historically overexposed when sampling data do not exist. Since the information required to run the models can vary for both retrospective and current asbestos occupational exposure studies, three models were constructed with different information requirements. The first model evaluated the association between the odds of non-compliance with variables related to the workload, the second model evaluated the association between the odds of non-compliance with variables related to the manipulation tasks, and the third model evaluated the association between the odds of non-compliance with variables related with both the type of tasks performed by workers and the workload. Variables associated with the odds of non-compliance included conducting at least one manipulation activity with beveling and grinding of asbestos and non-asbestos containing brake products during the work shift, the location of the worker in the shop during non-manipulation activities, cleaning activities of the manipulation area, the years of experience working as riveters, and the number of asbestos and non-asbestos containing brake products manipulated daily. These models could be useful for current and retrospective occupational studies, in determining the odds of non-compliance of the asbestos occupational limit among brake mechanics.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Exposição por Inalação/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/análise , Automóveis , Colômbia , Humanos , Manufaturas , National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, U.S. , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
19.
Med Lav ; 107(2): 141-7, 2016 Mar 24.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27015029

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Malignant mesothelioma cases among primary school teachers are usually linked with asbestos exposure due to the mineral contained in the building structure. Among the approximately 12,000 cases of mesothelioma described in the fourth report of the National Mesothelioma Register, 11 cases of primary school teachers are reported, in spite of the fact that the "catalogue of asbestos use" does not describe circumstances of asbestos exposure other than or different to that due to asbestos contained in the buildings. Four cases in the Brescia Provincial Mesothelioma Register are identified as teachers, without this circumstance of exposure. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the asbestos concentration and fibre type retained in the lungs of a teacher reported as a new mesothelioma case and preliminarily classified as of unknown asbestos exposure. METHODS: The mesothelioma case presented here was diagnosed at age 78 and malignant mesothelioma was confirmed at autopsy; the patient was interviewed directly for occupational history. Samples of lung parenchyma from necropsies were collected, stored and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and samples of DAS paste were analyzed by SEM to detect asbestos fibre content. RESULTS: It was possible to confirm past exposure to DAS paste in forming and finishing dry items and toys during school recreational activity almost every day from the mid-60s to about the mid-70s. Subsequent SEM analysis showed: i) chrysotile fibres were found in an old and unused pack of DAS paste; ii) a lung burden of 1,400 asbestos bodies, 310.000 total asbestos fibres (33% chrysotile, 67% amphibole) and 210.000 talc fibre per gr/dry lung tissue was detected from necropsies performed on the subject. These results seem to be in agreement with an occupational exposure to asbestos due to past use of DAS paste. After the investigation, this case was reclassified from "unknowun" to " sure" occupational asbestos exposure. The occupational origin of the tumour was recognized by the Italian Workers' Compensation Authority (INAIL). CONCLUSION: This case suggests i) the need to carry out any possible detailed studies of the circumstances and exposure sources whenever any mesothelioma case is classified as "asbestos exposure unknown", according to the guidelines of the National Mesothelioma Register, ii) handling of DAS paste can be considered as sure asbestos exposure and iii) it should be borne in mind that mesothelioma cases can occur even after cumulative low, occupational exposure, even only to chrysotile.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/complicações , Docentes , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Jogos e Brinquedos , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Idoso , Amiantos Anfibólicos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/patologia , Autopsia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Mesotelioma/patologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia
20.
Med Lav ; 107(1): 29-36, 2016 Jan 20.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26822244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2013 the International Journal of Surgical Pathology published a case report of intrasplenic malignant mesothelioma (MM) in a 48-year-old man: it was the first report in literature describing a case of primitive intra-splenic MM, described without  a history of asbestos exposure. OBJECTIVE: To verify the possible past exposure to asbestos, ignored by the patient himself, by studying in depth his environmental and occupational history. METHODS: Information about the occupational and non-occupational history of the subject was collected by Experts of the Operational Unit of Occupational Health and Safety Control (UOC PSAL) of the Local Health Unit Umbria 1 - Perugia, using the Italian National Mesothelioma Register (ReNaM) questionnaire and guide lines; an inspection was  carried out at the past canning industry where the patient worked in the period 1982-1990 and material was taken to be analysed by MOCF and SEM. RESULTS: Samples showed the presence of asbestos  fibres belonging to the amphibole class (amosite and crocidolite) and to the serpentine class (chrysotile). CONCLUSIONS: The survey described the past occupational exposure to asbestos in a canning industry, where  the subject worked in the period 1982-1990,  unknown to the patient himself. The authors strongly confirm the  usefulness of standardized methods, such as the ReNaM Questionnaire, and the importance of technical expertise of the investigator to find and analyse the suspect materials and to demonstrate  possible past occupational exposure to asbestos.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos , Embalagem de Alimentos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Anamnese , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Neoplasias Esplênicas/etiologia , Amianto Amosita/efeitos adversos , Asbesto Crocidolita/efeitos adversos , Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico , Masculino , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Neoplasias Esplênicas/diagnóstico
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