Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.222
Filtrar
1.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 1343-1346, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018237

RESUMO

Asbestos is a toxic ore widely used in construction and commercial products. Asbestos tends to dissolve into fibers and after years inhaling them, these fibers calcify and form plaques on the pleura. Despite being benign, pleural plaques may indicate an immunologic deficiency or dysfunctional lung areas. We propose a pipeline for asbestos-related pleural plaque detection in CT images of the human thorax based on the following operations: lung segmentation, 3D patch selection along the pleura, a convolutional neural network (CNN) for feature extraction, and classification by support vector machines (SVM). Due to the scarcity of publicly available and annotated datasets of pleural plaques, the proposed CNN relies on architecture learning with random weights obtained by a PCA-based approach instead of using traditional filter learning by backpropagation. Experiments show that the proposed CNN can outperform its counterparts based on backpropagation for small training sets.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Doenças Pleurais , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Pleura/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Máquina de Vetores de Suporte
2.
Med Lav ; 111(5): 379-387, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33124609

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asbestos-related lung diseases are a group of heterogeneous disorders with different pathogenesis and prognosis. Very few studies investigated the BALF cell profile of asbestos exposed workers. The existence of a relationship between bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) cellular pattern and specific diagnosis and/or asbestos exposure biomarkers would allow the identification of effect biomarkers useful in the follow up of asbestos-exposed workers and in the diagnosis of asbestos-related diseases. OBJECTIVES: To assess BALF cell profile in formerly asbestos-exposed workers and its relationship with asbestos fibre (amphibole and chrysotile) and asbestos body (AB) concentrations. METHODS: 113 male workers formerly exposed to asbestos underwent bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage and were retrospectively enrolled. 35 of them were affected by pleural plaques and 10 were affected by asbestosis. Pulmonary functional tests (PFT), BALF cellular pattern, BALF mineralogical analysis with asbestos fibres and AB counting were performed in each patient. A statistical analysis with a multivariate linear regression model was adopted. RESULTS: From the statistical analysis of data a direct correlation between pack-years and BALF macrophages was found. Inversely correlation between pack-years and BALF lymphocytes was detected. There was not relationship among BALF cellular pattern, PFT values, specific diagnosis, BALF AB count or BALF asbestos fibre concentration. DISCUSSION: BALF cellular pattern does not seem to be related to asbestos exposure biomarkers like AB and asbestos fibre concentration in BALF. Instead, smoke habit can induce an increase in BALF macrophages and a decrease of BALF lymphocytes count.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Asbestose , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Humanos , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
Arch. prev. riesgos labor. (Ed. impr.) ; 23(3): 357-362, jul.-sept. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-194121

RESUMO

Navarra cuenta con el primer y más exhaustivo Registro de trabajadores expuestos laboralmente a amianto de España. Desde 1996 son remitidos por los Servicios de Prevención y pasan al Servicio Navarro de Salud_Osasunbidea para la vigilancia de patología neumológica relacionada, al jubilarse. Actualmente constan 2858 trabajadores, 395 mujeres y 2463 hombres. La práctica totalidad ya no ocupan puestos de riesgo. Durante años ha ayudado al reconocimiento de la contingencia profesional de los daños. Paradógicamente, en este caso, un trabajador fallecido por cáncer de pulmón con patología intersticial previa, un resultado negativo de necropsia, 425CF (cuerpos ferruginosos)/gr de tejido seco de pulmón se utilizó como argumento para rechazar el origen profesional. Es necesario considerar que un resultado positivo confirma exposición pasada pero uno negativo, si era crisotilo, no la descarta, dada la baja persistencia en tejidos. Una historia laboral detallada y, cuando existan, los Registros han de ser el principal argumento causal


Navarra has the first and most exhaustive Record of workers exposed to asbestos in Spain. Since 1996, referred by the Prevention Services and transferred to the Servicio Navarro de Salud_Osasunbidea for related pulmonary pathology surveillance upon retirement. There are currently 2,858 workers, 395 women and 2,463 men. Almost no longer occupy positions of risk. For years it has helped to recognize the professional contingency of damages.Paradoxically, in this case, a worker who died of lung cancer with previous interstitial pathology, a negative result of an autopsy, 425ferruginous bodies/gr dry lung tissue was used to deny the professional origin. It is necessary to consider that a positive result confirms past exposure but the negative one should not be evaluated when it was chrysotile, given the low temporal persistence in tissues. A reliable work history and, when they exist, the Records must be the main causal argument


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Autopsia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236736, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785269

RESUMO

Quantifying the association between lifetime exposures and the risk of developing a chronic disease is a recurrent challenge in epidemiology. Individual exposure trajectories are often heterogeneous and studying their associations with the risk of disease is not straightforward. We propose to use a latent class mixed model (LCMM) to identify profiles (latent classes) of exposure trajectories and estimate their association with the risk of disease. The methodology is applied to study the association between lifetime trajectories of smoking or occupational exposure to asbestos and the risk of lung cancer in males of the ICARE population-based case-control study. Asbestos exposure was assessed using a job exposure matrix. The classes of exposure trajectories were identified using two separate LCMM for smoking and asbestos, and the association between the identified classes and the risk of lung cancer was estimated in a second stage using weighted logistic regression and all subjects. A total of 2026/2610 cases/controls had complete information on both smoking and asbestos exposure, including 1938/1837 cases/controls ever smokers, and 1417/1520 cases/controls ever exposed to asbestos. The LCMM identified four latent classes of smoking trajectories which had different risks of lung cancer, all much stronger than never smokers. The most frequent class had moderate constant intensity over lifetime while the three others had either long-term, distant or recent high intensity. The latter had the strongest risk of lung cancer. We identified five classes of asbestos exposure trajectories which all had higher risk of lung cancer compared to men never occupationally exposed to asbestos, whatever the dose and the timing of exposure. The proposed approach opens new perspectives for the analyses of dose-time-response relationships between protracted exposures and the risk of developing a chronic disease, by providing a complete picture of exposure history in terms of intensity, duration, and timing of exposure.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco
7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236475, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726334

RESUMO

A historical cohort study in workers occupationally exposed to chrysotile was set up in the town of Asbest, the Russian Federation, to study their cause-specific mortality, with a focus on cancer. Chrysotile has different chemical and physical properties compared with other asbestos fibres; therefore it is important to conduct studies specifically of chrysotile and in different geographical regions to improve the knowledge about its carcinogenicity. Setting was the town of Asbest, Sverdlovsk oblast, the Russian Federation. Participants were all current and former employees with at least one year of employment between 1/1/1975 and 31/12/2010 in the mine, enrichment factories, auto-transport and external rail transportation departments, the central laboratory, and the explosives unit of the company. Of the 35,837 cohort members, 12,729 (35.5%) had died (2,373 of them of cancer, including 10 of mesothelioma), 18,799 (52.5%) were known to be alive at the end of the observation period (2015), and 4,309 (12.0%) were censored before the end of 2015. Mean follow-up duration was 21.7 years in men and 25.9 years in women. The mean age at death was 59.4 years in men and 66.5 years in women. This is the largest occupational cohort of chrysotile workers to date, and the only one with a large proportion of exposed female workers.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/patologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/patologia , Federação Russa/epidemiologia
8.
Pneumologie ; 74(9): 603-610, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32643765

RESUMO

Occupational diseases are certain diseases designated as such by law. Whereas the medical conditions are described in guidelines, their recognition is based on judicial administrative procedures. Establishing causality is based on requirements of social law. The basic socio-legal concepts are mentioned and the principles of causality in asbestos-related occupational diseases are listed. Exemplary social court judgments are cited. Judgements may not infrequently differ from the medical point of view. The aim of this article is to describe the correct use of social medical understanding in order to carry out adequate assessment of occupational diseases, which implements the legal requirements.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose , Dermatologia/legislação & jurisprudência , Doenças Profissionais , Medicina do Trabalho/legislação & jurisprudência , Justiça Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Asbestose/diagnóstico , Asbestose/terapia , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/terapia
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560553

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients of malignant mesothelioma (MM) and their caregivers face significant physical and psychological challenges. The purpose of the present study is to examine the emotional impact after the diagnosis of MM in a group of patients and familial caregivers in a National Priority Contaminated Site (NPCS). METHODS: A sample of 108 patients and 94 caregivers received a sociodemographic/clinical questionnaire, the Beck Depression Inventory II, the Davidson Trauma Scale, the Coping Orientation to the Problems Experienced-New Italian Version, and the Defense style questionnaire. The risk of depressive and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in relation to the strategies of coping and defense mechanisms was estimated in patients and caregivers separately by logistic regression models. RESULTS: For patients, a high risk of depression was associated with high usage of Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ) Isolation (OR: 53.33; 95% CI: 3.22-882.30; p = 0.01) and DSQ Somatization (OR: 16.97; 95% CI: 1.04-275.90; p = 0.05). Other significant risks emerged for some coping strategies and some defenses regarding both depression and trauma in patients and caregivers. CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that for both patients and caregivers unconscious adaptive processes have a central role in dealing with overwhelming feelings related to the disease.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Angústia Psicológica , Adaptação Psicológica , Adulto , Idoso , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/diagnóstico , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/psicologia , Carcinógenos , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/psicologia , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/etiologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1017, 2020 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32590953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Quantifying the potential cancer cases associated with environmental carcinogen exposure can help inform efforts to improve population health. This study developed an approach to estimate the environmental burden of cancer and applied it to Ontario, Canada. The purpose was to identify environmental carcinogens with the greatest impact on cancer burden to support evidence-based decision making. METHODS: We conducted a probabilistic assessment of the environmental burden of cancer in Ontario. We selected 23 carcinogens that we defined as "environmental" (e.g., pollutants) and were relevant to the province, based on select classifications provided by the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We evaluated population exposure to the carcinogens through inhalation of indoor/outdoor air; ingestion of food, water, and dust; and exposure to radiation. We obtained or calculated concentration-response functions relating carcinogen exposure and the risk of developing cancer. Using both human health risk assessment and population attributable fraction models in a Monte Carlo simulation, we estimated the annual cancer cases associated with each environmental carcinogen, reporting the simulation summary (e.g., mean and percentiles). RESULTS: We estimated between 3540 and 6510 annual cancer cases attributable to exposure to 23 environmental carcinogens in Ontario. Three carcinogens were responsible for over 90% of the environmental burden of cancer: solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation, radon in homes, and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in outdoor air. Eight other carcinogens had an estimated mean burden of at least 10 annual cancer cases: acrylamide, arsenic, asbestos, chromium, diesel engine exhaust particulate matter, dioxins, formaldehyde, and second-hand smoke. The remaining 12 carcinogens had an estimated mean burden of less than 10 annual cancer cases in Ontario. CONCLUSIONS: We found the environmental burden of cancer in Ontario to fall between previously estimated burdens of alcohol and tobacco use. These results allow for a comparative assessment across carcinogens and offer insights into strategies to reduce the environmental burden of cancer. Our analysis could be adopted by other jurisdictions and repeated in the future for Ontario to track progress in reducing cancer burden, assess newly classified environmental carcinogens, and identify top burden contributors.


Assuntos
Carcinógenos Ambientais/administração & dosagem , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Monitoramento Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos , Carcinógenos Ambientais/análise , Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Ontário , Material Particulado/análise , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
13.
Internist (Berl) ; 61(6): 626-633, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32328688

RESUMO

Rare work-related illnesses do not usually meet the requirements to be recognised and compensated as a legal occupational disease. However, common diseases (e.g. ovarian carcinoma) are sometimes caused by occupational influences (e.g. asbestos), making the occupational disease ovarian cancer caused by occupational exposure to asbestos a rare disease. Since in our modern working world the occupational influences that are harmful to health are decreasing qualitatively (substitutes) and quantitatively (limit values), the diseases they cause are also becoming increasingly rare.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Ovarianas/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Raras
14.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 59(1): e831, ene.-mar. 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126407

RESUMO

RESUMEN Introducción: El mesotelioma pleural maligno es un tumor maligno primario de la pleura, comúnmente asociado con la exposición al asbesto. Se considera una patología rara y muy agresiva. Objetivo: Realizar una revisión sobre los criterios de diagnóstico y tratamiento actualizados en torno al mesotelioma pleural maligno. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica en fuentes de información disponibles en la Biblioteca Virtual de Salud, de la red telemática Infomed, entre ellas, las bases de datos SciELO, Pubmed/Medline, Cumed, Lilacs, así como el Google Académico. Se seleccionaron un total de 39 referencias. Conclusiones: Existen pocas referencias en la literatura nacional relacionadas con el diagnóstico, tratamiento y seguimiento de los pacientes con mesotelioma pleural maligno. El diagnóstico combina el uso del método clínico, los estudio imagenológicos e histoquímicos. No existe un tratamiento estándar, siendo recomendable un enfoque individualizado que combine según cada caso, cirugía, quimio y radioterapia. Los desafíos futuros incluyen el desarrollo de nuevas alternativas terapéuticas(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma is a primary malignant tumor of the pleura, commonly associated with exposure to asbestos. It is considered a rare and very aggressive pathology. Objective: Conduct a review of updated diagnostic and treatment criteria for malignant pleural mesothelioma. Material and Methods: A bibliographic review was made through the search of information in sources available from the Cuban National Health Care Network and Portal (INFOMED), among them, databases such as SciELO, Pubmed / Medline, Cumed, Lilacs, as well as Google Scholar. Finally, a total of 39 references were selected for our study. Conclusions: There are few references in the national literature related to the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of patients with malignant pleural mesothelioma. The diagnosis combines the use of the clinical method, the imaging and histochemical studies. There is no standard treatment, being recommended an individualized approach that combines according to each case, surgery, chemo and radiotherapy. Future challenges include the development of new therapeutic alternatives(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/terapia , Bases de Dados Bibliográficas , Fibras Minerais
15.
BMC Cancer ; 20(1): 171, 2020 Mar 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32126982

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Silica and asbestos are recognized lung carcinogens. However, their role in carcinogenesis at other organs is less clear. Clearance of inhaled silica particles and asbestos fibers from the lungs may lead to translocation to sites such as the bladder where they may initiate carcinogenesis. We used data from a Canadian population-based case-control study to evaluate the associations between these workplace exposures and bladder cancer. METHODS: Data from a population-based case-control study were used to characterize associations between workplace exposure to silica and asbestos and bladder cancer among men. Bladder cancer cases (N = 658) and age-frequency matched controls (N = 1360) were recruited within the National Enhanced Cancer Surveillance System from eight Canadian provinces (1994-97). Exposure concentration, frequency and reliability for silica and asbestos were assigned to each job, based on lifetime occupational histories, using a combination of job-exposure profiles and expert review. Exposure was modeled as ever/never, highest attained concentration, duration (years), highest attained frequency (% worktime) and cumulative exposure. Odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were estimated using adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: A modest (approximately 20%) increase in bladder cancer risk was found for ever having been exposed to silica, highest attained concentration and frequency of exposure but this increase was not statistically significant. Relative to unexposed, the odds of bladder cancer were 1.41 (95%CI: 1.01-1.98) times higher among men exposed to silica at work for ≥27 years. For asbestos, relative to unexposed, an increased risk of bladder cancer was observed for those first exposed ≥20 years ago (OR:2.04, 95%CI:1.25-3.34), those with a frequency of exposure of 5-30% of worktime (OR:1.45, 95%CI:1.06-1.98), and for those with < 10 years of exposure at low concentrations (OR:1.75, 95%CI:1.10-2.77) and the lower tertile of cumulative exposure (OR:1.69, 95%CI:1.07-2.65). However, no clear exposure-response relationships emerged. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a slight increase in risk of bladder cancer with exposure to silica and asbestos, suggesting that the effects of these agents are broader than currently recognized. The findings from this study inform evidence-based action to enhance cancer prevention efforts, particularly for workers in industries with regular exposure.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Dióxido de Silício/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Canadá , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Bexiga Urinária/induzido quimicamente
16.
Biomed Res Int ; 2020: 6890186, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32190676

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of occupational burnout and its influence on the psychological health of factory workers and miners, in order to provide theoretical basis and reference for alleviating occupational burnout and promoting psychological health. The cross-sectional study investigated 6130 factory workers and miners with online questionnaire; the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI) and Symptom Check List-90 (SCL-90) were used. In total, 6120 valid questionnaires were collected; effectiveness was 99.8%. The percentage of the factory workers and miners suffering from occupational burnout was 85.98% and psychological health problems was 38.27%. A statistically significant difference was observed in relation to the prevalence of occupational burnout among factory workers and miners of different sex, education level, labor contracts, work schedule, monthly incomes, weight, hypertension, age, working years, working hours per day, working hours per week, coal dust, silica dust, asbestos dust, benzene, lead, and noise. The detection rate of psychological health was higher for males than females. The detection rate of psychological health was higher for working days per week less than 5 days than more than 5 days. The detection rate of psychological health with high school education, senior professional title, night shift, divorced, monthly income less than 3000 yuan, weight more than 75 kg, age more than 45 years, and working years between 25 and 30 years was higher than that of the other groups. The results showed that sex, education level, professional title, work schedule, monthly income, hypertension, age, working years, asbestos dust, benzene, and occupational burnout affected psychological health among factory workers and miners. Factory workers and miners had high levels of occupational burnout, and occupational burnout was a risk factor that can lead to psychological health.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Mineradores/psicologia , Adulto , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Poeira , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instalações Industriais e de Manufatura , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041124

RESUMO

The identification and monitoring of occupational cancer is an important aspect of occupational health protection. The Italian law on the protection of workers (D. Leg. 81/2008) includes different cancer monitoring systems for high and low etiologic fraction tumors. Record linkage between cancer registries and administrative data is a convenient procedure for occupational cancer monitoring. We aim to: (i) Create a list of industries with asbestos exposure and (ii) identify cancer cases who worked in these industries. The Italian National Mesothelioma Registry (ReNaM) includes information on occupational asbestos exposure of malignant mesothelioma (MM) cases. We developed using data from seven Italian regions a methodology for listing the industries with potential exposure to asbestos linking ReNaM to Italian National Social Security Institute (INPS) data. The methodology is iterative and adjusts for imprecision and inaccuracy in reporting firm names at interview. The list of asbestos exposing firms was applied to the list of cancer cases (all types associated or possibly associated with asbestos according to International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) monograph 100C) in two Italian regions for the indication of possible asbestos exposure. Eighteen percent of the cancer cases showed at least one work period in firms potentially exposing to asbestos, 48% of which in regions different from where the cases lived at diagnosis. The methodology offers support for the preliminary screening of asbestos exposing firms in the occupational history of cancer cases.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Indústrias , Itália , Programas Nacionais de Saúde , Sistema de Registros
18.
Int J Biochem Cell Biol ; 121: 105700, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006662

RESUMO

MiR-222 and miR-126 are associated with asbestos exposure and the ensuing malignancy, but the mechanism(s) of their regulation remain unclear. We evaluated the mechanism by which asbestos regulates miR-222 and miR-126 expression in the context of cancer etiology. An 'in vitro' model of carcinogen-induced cell transformation was used based on exposing bronchial epithelium BEAS-2B cells to three different carcinogens including asbestos. Involvement of the EGFR pathway and the role of epigenetics have been investigated in carcinogen-transformed cells and in malignant mesothelioma, a neoplastic disease associated with asbestos exposure. Increased expression of miR-222 and miR-126 were found in asbestos-transformed cells, but not in cells exposed to arsenic and chrome. Asbestos-mediated activation of the EGFR pathway and macrophages-induced inflammation resulted in miR-222 upregulation, which was reversed by EGFR inhibition. Conversely, asbestos-induced miR-126 expression was affected neither by EGFR modulation nor inflammation. Rather than methylation of the miR-126 host gene EGFL7, epigenetic mechanism involving DNMT1- and PARP1-mediated chromatin remodeling was found to upregulate of miR-126 in asbestos-exposed cells, while miR-126 was downregulated in malignant cells. Analysis of MM tissue supported the role of PARP1 in miR-126 regulation. Therefore, activation of the EGFR pathway and the PARP1-mediated epigenetic regulation both play a role in asbestos-induced miRNA expression, associated with in asbestos-induced carcinogenesis and tumor progression.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Mesotelioma/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Idoso , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/patologia
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 35(10): 949-960, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040805

RESUMO

Environmental asbestos exposure and occupational asbestos exposure increase the risk of several types of cancer, but the role of such exposures for haematological malignancies remains controversial. We aimed to examine the risk of haematological malignancies: first, in subjects exposed early in life, independently of any occupational exposure occurring later; second, in subjects exposed occupationally. We established an environmentally exposed cohort from four schools located near the only former asbestos cement production plant in Denmark. We identified nearly all pupils in the seventh grade and created an age and sex-matched 1:9 reference cohort from the Danish Central Population Register. Participants were born 1940-1970 and followed up in national registers until the end of 2015. Occupational asbestos exposure was assessed for all participants using two different job exposure matrices. The school cohort included 12,111 participants (49.7% girls) and the reference cohort 108,987 participants. Eight subgroups of haematological malignancy were identified in the Danish Cancer Registry. These cases were analysed for combined overall haematological malignancy, a combined subgroup of lymphomas and a combined subgroup of leukaemias. The data were analysed using Cox regression (hazard ratios (HR)) including other cancers and death as competing risks. Haematological malignancy was identified in 1125 participants. The median follow-up was 49.3 years (0.1-63.4). Early environmental asbestos exposure was not associated with an increased risk of haematological malignancy. Long-term occupational asbestos exposure was associated with overall haematological malignancy (HR 1.69, 95% CI 1.04-2.73); in particular for the leukaemia subgroup (HR 2.14, 95% CI 1.19-3.84). This large follow-up study suggests that long-term occupational asbestos exposure is associated with increased leukaemia risk. However, further studies are needed to confirm these observations.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/complicações , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco
20.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(3): 151-159, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32054819

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study provides a detailed analysis of the global and regional burden of cancer due to occupational carcinogens from the Global Burden of Disease 2016 study. METHODS: The burden of cancer due to 14 International Agency for Research on Cancer Group 1 occupational carcinogens was estimated using the population attributable fraction, based on past population exposure prevalence and relative risks from the literature. The results were used to calculate attributable deaths and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs). RESULTS: There were an estimated 349 000 (95% Uncertainty Interval 269 000 to 427 000) deaths and 7.2 (5.8 to 8.6) million DALYs in 2016 due to exposure to the included occupational carcinogens-3.9% (3.2% to 4.6%) of all cancer deaths and 3.4% (2.7% to 4.0%) of all cancer DALYs; 79% of deaths were of males and 88% were of people aged 55 -79 years. Lung cancer accounted for 86% of the deaths, mesothelioma for 7.9% and laryngeal cancer for 2.1%. Asbestos was responsible for the largest number of deaths due to occupational carcinogens (63%); other important risk factors were secondhand smoke (14%), silica (14%) and diesel engine exhaust (5%). The highest mortality rates were in high-income regions, largely due to asbestos-related cancers, whereas in other regions cancer deaths from secondhand smoke, silica and diesel engine exhaust were more prominent. From 1990 to 2016, there was a decrease in the rate for deaths (-10%) and DALYs (-15%) due to exposure to occupational carcinogens. CONCLUSIONS: Work-related carcinogens are responsible for considerable disease burden worldwide. The results provide guidance for prevention and control initiatives.


Assuntos
Carga Global da Doença/estatística & dados numéricos , Carga Global da Doença/tendências , Expectativa de Vida , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Carcinógenos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/tendências , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Masculino , Mesotelioma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Anos de Vida Ajustados por Qualidade de Vida , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA