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1.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649858

RESUMO

Apart from the risk of accidents, war theatres present a hazard related to numerous long-lasting toxic agents. For 10 years, a >60-year-old male journalist worked in war theatres in the Far and Near East where he was exposed to asbestos and other toxic substances (metals, silica, clays, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and other organic substances) contained in dust and smoke of destroyed buildings. More than 15 years later, he developed a mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the soft palate and, subsequently, a pleural malignant mesothelioma. The safety of war journalists should focus not only on preventing the risk of being killed, but also on providing protection from toxic and carcinogenic agents. Exposure to substances released during the destruction of buildings can also pose a carcinogenic risk for survivors.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Poeira , Humanos , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Dióxido de Silício
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444165

RESUMO

Sailors have long been known to experience high rates of injury, disease, and premature death. Many studies have shown asbestos-related diseases among shipyard workers, but few have examined the epidemiology of asbestos-related disease and death among asbestos-exposed sailors serving on ships at sea. Chrysotile and amphibole asbestos were used extensively in ship construction for insulation, joiner bulkhead systems, pipe coverings, boilers, machinery parts, bulkhead panels, and many other uses, and asbestos-containing ships are still in service. Sailors are at high risk of exposure to shipboard asbestos, because unlike shipyard workers and other occupationally exposed groups, sailors both work and live at their worksite, making asbestos standards and permissible exposure limits (PELs). based on an 8-h workday inadequate to protect their health elevated risks of mesothelioma and other asbestos-related cancers have been observed among sailors through epidemiologic studies. We review these studies here.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Militares , Asbestos/análise , Asbestos/toxicidade , Asbestos Serpentinas , Humanos , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Navios
3.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 73, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34395196

RESUMO

Asbestos is a known human carcinogen and the chief known cause of mesothelioma. In 1997, a group of experts developed the Helsinki Criteria, which established criteria for attribution of mesothelioma to asbestos. The criteria include two methods for causation attribution: 1) a history of significant occupational, domestic, or environmental exposure and/or 2) pathologic evidence of exposure to asbestos. In 2014, the Helsinki Criteria were updated, and these attribution criteria were not changed. However, since the Helsinki Criteria were first released in 1997, some pathologists, cell biologists, and others have claimed that a history of exposure cannot establish causation unless the lung asbestos fiber burden exceeds "the background range for the laboratory in question to attribute mesothelioma cases to exposure to asbestos." This practice ignores the impact on fiber burden of clearance/translocation over time, which in part is why the Helsinki Criteria concluded that a history of exposure to asbestos was independently sufficient to attribute causation to asbestos. After reviewing the Helsinki Criteria, we conclude that their methodology is fatally flawed because a quantitative assessment of a background lung tissue fiber level cannot be established. The flaws of the Helsinki Criteria are both technical and substantive. The 1995 paper that served as the scientific basis for establishing background levels used inconsistent methods to determine exposures in controls and cases. In addition, historic controls cannot be used to establish background fiber levels for current cases because ambient exposures to asbestos have decreased over time and control cases pre-date current cases by decades. The use of scanning electron microscope (SEM) compounded the non-compatibility problem; the applied SEM cannot distinguish talc from anthophyllite because it cannot perform selected area electron diffraction, which is a crucial identifier in ATEM for distinguishing the difference between serpentine asbestos, amphibole asbestos, and talc.


Assuntos
Poluentes Ocupacionais do Ar/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/toxicidade , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Pulmão/patologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/induzido quimicamente , Fibras Minerais/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/epidemiologia , Fibras Minerais/toxicidade , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Material Particulado/análise , Material Particulado/química
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205400

RESUMO

Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a cancer that is largely caused by exposure to asbestos. Although asbestos is no longer used in South Korea, the incidence of MM continues to increase due to its long latent period. We aimed to update the previous prediction of MM incidence until 2038. We predicted the incidence of MM over the next 20 years (2019-2038) in South Korea using Møller's age-period-cohort (APC) model and a Poisson regression model based on asbestos consumption. The APC model predicted that the crude incidence rate would increase sharply in men and slowly in women. Despite the sex discrepancy in the rate of increase, the incidence rate for both sexes is expected to continue increasing until 2038. In the Poisson model, the crude incidence rate was predicted to increase continuously until 2038, and far more cases of MM were predicted to occur compared with the results of the APC model. When compared with actual incidence data, the APC model was deemed more suitable than the Poisson model. The APC model predicted a continuous increase over the next 20 years with no peak, suggesting that the incidence of MM will continue to rise far into the future.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma Maligno , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203418

RESUMO

Asbestos-cement slate roofs are one of the most common environmental causes of asbestos exposure. However, few studies have examined residential asbestos-cement slate-related exposure and its effects on human health. This study was performed to evaluate cumulative asbestos exposure levels and to calculate the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) of residents of asbestos-cement slate-roofed houses. We reviewed previous Korean literature to estimate the concentration of airborne asbestos from asbestos-cement slate roofed buildings. Finally, eight studies were selected, and a pooled analysis was performed. The results derived from the pooled analysis were combined with the data from a health impact survey conducted from 2009 to 2016 at the Environmental Health Center for Asbestos (EHCA) of the Yangsan Pusan National University Hospital, and a carcinogenic risk assessment was performed. As a result, the representative value of the indoor exposure concentration related to asbestos-cement slate was found to be 0.0032 f/cc on average, and the representative value of the exposure related to occupational asbestos-cement slate dismantling and demolition was found to be 0.0034 f/cc. In addition, the ELCR of asbestos-cement slate related indoor exposure and occupational dismantling and demolition was found to be of medium risk, and the ELCR of residential dismantling and demolition of asbestos-cement slate was less than 10-6, indicating that the risk was low. Since there is no threshold for carcinogenicity related to asbestos, this should not be ignored even if the risk appears low, and it would be reasonable to calculate the carcinogenic risk based on total lifetime exposure. More studies on asbestos exposure scenarios and the scope of similar exposure groups through additional data collection and further analysis of risk are needed.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/análise , Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Materiais de Construção , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34299971

RESUMO

Asbestos has been recognized as a human carcinogen associated with malignant mesothelioma, cancers of lung, larynx, and ovary. However, a putative association between gastric cancer and asbestos exposure remains controversial. In this study, we aimed to explore gastric cancer risk of workers potentially exposed to asbestos in Taiwan. The asbestos occupational cohort was established from 1950 to 2015 based on the Taiwan Labor Insurance Database, and Taiwan Environmental Protection Agency regulatory datasets, followed by the Taiwan Cancer Registry for the period 1980-2015. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) for cancer were computed for the whole cohort using reference rates of the general population, and also reference labor population. Compared with the general population, SIR of the asbestos occupational cohort for the gastric cancer increased both in males (1.05, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.09) and females (1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.18). A total of 123 worksites were identified to have cases of malignant mesothelioma, where increased risk for gastric cancer was found with a relative risk of 1.76 (95% CI: 1.63-1.90). This 35-year retrospective cohort study of asbestos-exposed workers in Taiwan may provide support for an association between occupational exposure to asbestos and gastric cancer.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Gástricas , Asbestos/toxicidade , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/induzido quimicamente , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Neoplasias Gástricas/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Gástricas/epidemiologia , Taiwan/epidemiologia
9.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283157

RESUMO

Fluorescent probes can be used to detect various types of asbestos (serpentine and amphibole groups); however, the fiber counting using our previously developed software was not accurate for samples with low fiber concentration. Machine learning-based techniques (e.g., deep learning) for image analysis, particularly Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN), have been widely applied to many areas. The objectives of this study were to (1) create a database of a wide-range asbestos concentration (0-50 fibers/liter) fluorescence microscopy (FM) images in the laboratory; and (2) determine the applicability of the state-of-the-art object detection CNN model, YOLOv4, to accurately detect asbestos. We captured the fluorescence microscopy images containing asbestos and labeled the individual asbestos in the images. We trained the YOLOv4 model with the labeled images using one GTX 1660 Ti Graphics Processing Unit (GPU). Our results demonstrated the exceptional capacity of the YOLOv4 model to learn the fluorescent asbestos morphologies. The mean average precision at a threshold of 0.5 (mAP@0.5) was 96.1% ± 0.4%, using the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) fiber counting Method 7400 as a reference method. Compared to our previous counting software (Intec/HU), the YOLOv4 achieved higher accuracy (0.997 vs. 0.979), particularly much higher precision (0.898 vs. 0.418), recall (0.898 vs. 0.780) and F-1 score (0.898 vs. 0.544). In addition, the YOLOv4 performed much better for low fiber concentration samples (<15 fibers/liter) compared to Intec/HU. Therefore, the FM method coupled with YOLOv4 is remarkable in detecting asbestos fibers and differentiating them from other non-asbestos particles.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Aprendizado Profundo , Asbestos/toxicidade , Asbestos Serpentinas/análise , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Estados Unidos
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34069013

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the overall asbestos exposure intensity and assess the health risk to residents due to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) near abandoned asbestos mines in South Korea. Of 38 mines, we found 19 with measured concentrations of NOA. We evaluated the average of airborne NOA concentrations according to the environmental exposure category. When evaluated regionally by dividing into two clusters, the mean concentrations in activity-based sampling (ABS) scenarios exceeded the Korean exposure limit (0.01 f/cc) in both clusters. Moreover, airborne NOA concentrations in agricultural activity (5.49 × 10-2 f/cc) and daily activity (6.95 × 10-2 f/cc) had the highest values for clusters A and B, respectively. The excess lifetime cancer risk of one region (cluster A) by the ABS scenarios did not exceed the Korean Ministry of the Environment's criteria for soil purification (1 × 10-4). However, one of the ABS scenarios-the daily life activity of clusters centered on Chungcheongbuk-do (cluster B)-showed an exposure of 1.08 × 10-4, greater than the limit (1 × 10-4). This indicates non negligible health damage to residents living near the abandoned asbestos mines, and it is necessary to continuously monitor and clean up the asbestos contamination.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Mineração , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
11.
Public Health ; 195: 57-60, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34052509

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Naturally occurring asbestos from ophiolitic outcrops can pose a health risk to the resident population. Some studies have documented this risk of exposure in many areas around the world. The aim of the study is to estimate the possible impact on health caused by asbestos outcrops present in some areas of Calabria, a region of southern Italy. STUDY DESIGN: The design of the study is observational and uses routinely collected data on employment, compensations and mortality. METHODS: Data from archives of mortality in the period 2005-2015 were selected. Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) for malignant mesothelioma (MM) by municipalities of residence with reference to the regional population was estimated assuming a Poisson distribution of the data. Administrative archives of companies' employment records and occupational disease compensation data were used to exclude occupational origin cases. RESULTS: A total of 163 cases of MM were identified. Statistically significant excess risks (P-value <0.05) were observed for several municipalities, some of which were located in areas where asbestos outcrops had previously been identified. Significant SMRs vary between 44.0 and 5.2. The mean age at death in the areas at risk of ophiolitic outcrops ranges from 65.4 to 77.1 years, and the gender ratio (male/female) ranges from 0.66 to 1.3. CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring of areas most involved in the risk of environmental contamination from ophiolitic outcrops is highly suggested. Full implementation of the local MM surveillance system is strongly encouraged. Further investigations are recommended to specifically identify the cause of exposure and confirm the hypothesis of a causal association with asbestos naturally occurring in these risk areas.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma Maligno , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802062

RESUMO

Although exposure to asbestos via various routes has been acknowledged, comprehensive exposure and risk assessment methods have not been developed at the national level. We conducted a study to reconstruct comprehensive past asbestos exposure estimations and to suggest a method to calculate the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) of Koreans. The past occupational exposure reconstruction was conducted by rebuilding the previous general population job-exposure matrix (JEM). The para-occupational and household exposure estimation was based on the pooled analysis of data from other countries as well as Korea. The neighborhood exposure from occupational sources by distance was estimated by the exponential decay model. As a result, 141 JEM exposure groups across four periods including ~79, the 80s, 90s, 2000s with a ratio of 2.0:1.0:0.5:0.05 were reconstructed. The para-occupational and household exposures were 11% and 1% of the JEM respectively. The environmental exposure source concentration from outside occupational exposure was 2.5% of the inside concentration. The ratio of the concentration of environmental exposure source (C0) to distance d (Cd) was exp-kd  with a decay constant k of 6.834. The mean concentrations (f/cc) were 2.28 × 10-3 for outdoor, 4.65 × 10-5 for indoor, 1.95 × 10-2 for transportation activity, 4.44 × 10-2 for agricultural activity, and 4.68 × 10-2 for daily life activity in naturally occurring asbestos areas. Indoor and outdoor asbestos concentrations from living in a slate roof house were 1.73 × 10-6 and 2.70 × 10-8, respectively. For improved generalizability, validity, and applicability of the proposed method, further studies on each route with real assessments and experiments are required.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco
13.
New Solut ; 31(2): 152-169, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33641519

RESUMO

The talc industry and Food and Drug Administration (FDA) have asserted that talc has been asbestos-free since 1976 when the industry created a voluntary specification for the asbestos content of cosmetic talc. However, recent evidence reveals that cosmetic talc is not and never was asbestos-free. This narrative review examines the talc industry's role in delaying and ultimately blocking federal regulation of cosmetic talc from the 1970s to today. We review primary source material, including corporate documents released in recent litigation and FDA documents released in response to Freedom of Information Act requests. Our results indicate that the talc industry exerted considerable influence over three key areas: regulatory proceedings at the FDA; testing methods and the manipulation of test results (including undisclosed results); and press coverage and the medical literature. The talc companies' actions and FDA indifference have had a lasting effect on consumer health, including the regulation of talc by other government agencies.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Cosméticos , Asbestos/toxicidade , Humanos , Indústrias , Talco
14.
Pneumologie ; 75(3): 201-205, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33728629

RESUMO

The S2k guideline "Diagnostics and assessment of occupational asbestos-related diseases" was updated in November 2020. This article summarizes the most important changes. There is a new reference to the risk of potentially high exposures to asbestos fibers when renovating plaster, fillers and adhesives containing asbestos.Biomarkers such as mesothelin and calretinin should currently only be used in the context of research. The "asbestos airways disease", which can only be diagnosed histologically, is included in the guideline as an early form of asbestosis. Since the UIP pattern is not characteristic of asbestosis, computed tomography cases with UIP patterns alone cannot be assigned reliably to asbestosis without the simultaneous detection of pleural plaques. With regard to the evaluation of the functional damage, attention is drawn to the importance of flow volume curve, whole-body plethysmography, diffusion capacity and exercise testing. If available, the reference values ​​according to GLI are the basis of the assessment. The guideline contains specific recommendations on prevention, medical treatment and, for the first time, on the importance of outpatient rehabilitation and training therapy. There are also references to the assessment of the new occupational disease ovarian cancer after occupational exposure to asbestos.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Asbestose , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Doenças Pleurais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Asbestose/diagnóstico , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33668145

RESUMO

The cancer risk associated with exposure to environmental and occupational carcinogens such as asbestos, benzene, radiation, or lifestyle carcinogens such as cigarette smoking depends on the entire history of exposure to the carcinogen, including the age of exposure and the time-varying intensity of exposure [...].


Assuntos
Asbestos , Carcinógenos Ambientais , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Doenças Profissionais , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Benzeno , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Humanos
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669318

RESUMO

Lung cancer (LC) mortality remains a consistent part of the total deaths occurring worldwide. Its etiology is complex as it involves multifactorial components. This work aims in providing an epidemiological assessment on occupational and environmental factors associated to LC risk by means of an ecological study involving the 8092 Italian municipalities for the period 2006-2015. We consider mortality data from mesothelioma as proxy of asbestos exposure, as well as PM2.5 and radon levels as a proxy of environmental origin. The compensated cases for occupational respiratory diseases, urbanization and deprivation were included as predictors. We used a negative binomial distribution for the response, with analysis stratified by gender. We estimated that asbestos is responsible for about 1.1% (95% CI: 0.8, 1.4) and 0.5% (95% CI: 0.2, 0.8) of LC mortality in males and females, respectively. The corresponding figures are 14.0% (95% CI: 12.5, 15.7) and 16.3% (95% CI: 16.2, 16.3) for PM2.5 exposure, and 3.9% (95% CI: 3.5, 4.2) and 1.6% (95% CI: 1.4, 1.7) for radon exposure. The assessment of determinants contribution to observed LC deaths is crucial for improving awareness of its origin, leading to increase the equity of the welfare system.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Exposição Ocupacional , Asbestos/toxicidade , Cidades , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33673264

RESUMO

Worldwide, 230,000+ people die annually from asbestos-related diseases (ARDs). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that countries develop a National Asbestos Profile (NAP) to eliminate ARDs. For 195 countries, we assessed the global status of NAPs (A: bona fide NAP, B: proxy NAP, C: relevant published information, D: no relevant information) by national income (HI: high, UMI: upper-middle, LMI: lower-middle, LI: low), asbestos bans (banned, no-ban) and public data availability. Fourteen (7% of 195) countries were category A (having a bona fide NAP), while 98, 51 and 32 countries were categories B, C and D, respectively. Of the 14 category-A countries, 8, 3 and 3 were LMI, UMI and HI, respectively. Development of a bona fide NAP showed no gradient by national income. The proportions of countries having a bona fide NAP were similar between asbestos-banned and no-ban countries. Public databases useful for developing NAPs contained data for most countries. Irrespective of the status of national income or asbestos ban, most countries have not developed a NAP despite having the potential. The global status of NAP is suboptimal. Country-level data on asbestos and ARDs in public databases can be better utilized to develop NAPs for globally eliminating ARDs.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Mesotelioma , Asbestos/toxicidade , Humanos , Renda , Organização Mundial da Saúde
18.
Clin Transl Oncol ; 23(5): 980-987, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33538989

RESUMO

Mesothelioma is a rare and aggressive tumour with dismal prognosis arising in the pleura and associated with asbestos exposure. Its incidence is on the rise worldwide. In selected patients with early-stage MPM, a maximal surgical cytoreduction in combination with additional antitumour treatment may be considered in selected patients assessed by a multidisciplinary tumor board. In patients with unresectable or advanced MPM, chemotherapy with platinum plus pemetrexed is the standard of care. Currently, no standard salvage therapy has been approved yet, but second-line chemotherapy with vinorelbine or gemcitabine is commonly used. Novel therapeutic approaches based on dual immunotherapy or chemotherapy plus immunotherapy demonstrated promising survival benefit and will probably be incorporated in the future.


Assuntos
Mesotelioma Maligno/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma Maligno/terapia , Neoplasias Pleurais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Pleurais/terapia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Desoxicitidina/uso terapêutico , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Oncologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/etiologia , Mesotelioma Maligno/patologia , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Pemetrexede/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Platina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/patologia , Radioterapia/métodos , Sociedades Médicas , Espanha , Vinorelbina/uso terapêutico
19.
Radiol Oncol ; 55(2): 179-186, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544514

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The study investigated the influence of GCLC, GCLM, GSTM1, GSTT1 and GSTP1 polymorphisms, as well as the influence of interactions between polymorphism and interactions between polymorphisms and asbestos exposure, on the risk of developing pleural plaques, asbestosis and malignant mesothelioma (MM). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The cross sectional study included 940 asbestos-exposed subjects, among them 390 subjects with pleural plaques, 147 subjects with asbestosis, 225 subjects with MM and 178 subjects with no asbestos-related disease. GCLC rs17883901, GCLM rs41303970, GSTM1 null, GSTT1 null, GSTP1 rs1695 and GSTP1 rs1138272 genotypes were determined using PCR based methods. In statistical analysis, logistic regression was used. RESULTS: GSTT1 null genotype was associated with the decreased risk for pleural plaques (OR = 0.63; 95% CI = 0.40-0.98; p = 0.026) and asbestosis (OR = 0.51; 95% CI = 0.28-0.93; p = 0.028), but not for MM. A positive association was found between GSTP1 rs1695 AG + GG vs. AA genotypes for MM when compared to pleural plaques (OR = 1.39; 95% CI = 1.00-1.94; p = 0.049). The interactions between different polymorphisms showed no significant influence on the risk of investigated asbestos-related diseases. The interaction between GSTT1 null polymorphism and asbestos exposure decreased the MM risk (OR = 0.17; 95% CI = 0.03-0.85; p = 0.031). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that GSTT1 null genotype may be associated with a decreased risk for pleural plaques and asbestosis, may modify the association between asbestos exposure and MM and may consequently act protectively on MM risk. This study also revealed a protective effect of the interaction between GSTP1 rs1695 polymorphism and asbestos exposure on MM risk.


Assuntos
Asbestose/genética , Glutationa/genética , Mesotelioma Maligno/genética , Doenças Pleurais/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Idoso , Asbestos/toxicidade , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Genótipo , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Glutationa S-Transferase pi/genética , Glutationa Transferase/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Regressão , Fumar/epidemiologia
20.
Toxicology ; 452: 152717, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581214

RESUMO

The effects of asbestos on immunocompetent cells have been investigated. In particular, attention was paid to regulatory T cell function, which was observed using the HTLV-1 immortalized human polyclonal T cell line MT-2. Exposure to asbestos (approximately more than 25 µg/mL for 1-3 day) induced apoptosis, and we observed an increase in regulatory T cell function and acceleration of the cell cycle with continuous exposure to low concentrations of asbestos (5-10 µg/mL for more than eight months). Furthermore, cDNA microarray analysis in this study revealed that expression of matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) was markedly higher in exposed sublines compared to original MT-2 cells. It was determined that MMP-7 had no effect on Treg function, as determined by examination of sublines and by addition of recombinant MMP-7 and neutralizing antibodies or inhibitors of MMP-7. However, when examining melting of the extracellular matrix (an MMP-7-mediated event) or the extent to which the MT-2 parent strain or long-term exposed subline cells pass through a fibronectin-coated filter, more filter passes were observed for the subline. These results suggest that the effect of asbestos fibers on Treg cells results in excessive migration of the tumor microenvironment through hypersecretion of MMP-7 together with an increase in suppressive function and enhancement of cell cycle progression. Therefore, one possible way to prevent the development of asbestos-induced cancer is to reduce the function (including MMP-7 production) or amount of Treg cells by physiologically active substances or food ingredients. Alternatively, it may be possible to invoke immune checkpoint treatments when carcinogenesis occurs.


Assuntos
Asbestos/toxicidade , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaloproteinase 7 da Matriz/biossíntese , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Transformada , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Humanos
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