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1.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(2): 284-289, 2020 Jun 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32588607

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Occupational asbestos exposure is one of the major public health issues. Although asbestos use in Poland has decreased, asbestosis continues to remain an important health concern in the area of occupational medicine. The aim of the study is to perform a descriptive analysis of hospitalization cases in patients suffering from asbestosis in Poland. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The authors used hospital discharge records to conduct a retrospective, population-based study. To estimate the asbestosis hospitalization rate, data from the Nationwide General Hospital Morbidity Study conducted by the National Institute of Public Health were used. Events were defined as in-patient hospital discharges during 2006-2016. 1,101 hospitalization records of 764 patients were included in the study. RESULTS: In the study group of first-time hospitalized patients, the mean and median ages were 68.1 and 69 years, respectively; CI: 67.3-68.9; SD: 11.1, min-max:16-99 years. In this group, significant gender differences were observed (560 males vs. 204 female; P<0.001). No statistical differences were observed regarding the place of residence. During the observation period, 61 in-hospital deaths were reported (8% of all patients), 40 of whom (5.2 % of all patients) took place during the first-time hospitalizations. Asbestosis hospitalizations were mainly clustered in the south-western region, whereas the highest hospitalization rates were clustered in several areas of Poland. CONCLUSIONS: The authors believe this study to be the first evaluation of asbestosis in Poland made on the basis of the hospital morbidity database. The data presented may be helpful in comparative studies on the epidemiology of asbestosis across European countries.


Assuntos
Asbestose/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 318(5): L1084-L1096, 2020 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32209025

RESUMO

Alveolar epithelial cell (AEC) apoptosis, arising from mitochondrial dysfunction and mitophagy defects, is important in mediating idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). Our group established a role for the mitochondrial (mt) DNA base excision repair enzyme, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase 1 (mtOGG1), in preventing oxidant-induced AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis and showed that OGG1-deficient mice have increased lung fibrosis. Herein, we determined whether mice overexpressing the mtOGG1 transgene (mtOgg1tg) are protected against lung fibrosis and whether AEC mtOGG1 preservation of mtDNA integrity mitigates phosphatase and tensin homolog-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) deficiency and apoptosis. Compared with wild type (WT), mtOgg1tg mice have diminished asbestos- and bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis that was accompanied by reduced lung and AEC mtDNA damage and apoptosis. Asbestos and H2O2 promote the MLE-12 cell PINK1 deficiency, as assessed by reductions in the expression of PINK1 mRNA and mitochondrial protein expression. Compared with WT, Pink1-knockout (Pink1-KO) mice are more susceptible to asbestos-induced lung fibrosis and have increased lung and alveolar type II (AT2) cell mtDNA damage and apoptosis. AT2 cells from Pink1-KO mice and PINK1-silenced (siRNA) MLE-12 cells have increased mtDNA damage that is augmented by oxidative stress. Interestingly, mtOGG1 overexpression attenuates oxidant-induced MLE-12 cell mtDNA damage and apoptosis despite PINK1 silencing. mtDNA damage is increased in the lungs of patients with IPF as compared with controls. Collectively, these findings suggest that mtOGG1 maintenance of AEC mtDNA is crucial for preventing PINK1 deficiency that promotes apoptosis and lung fibrosis. Given the key role of AEC apoptosis in pulmonary fibrosis, strategies aimed at preserving AT2 cell mtDNA integrity may be an innovative target.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Asbestose/genética , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas Quinases/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/patologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/genética , Asbestos/administração & dosagem , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/metabolismo , Asbestose/patologia , Bleomicina/administração & dosagem , Dano ao DNA , DNA Glicosilases/deficiência , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Pulmão/metabolismo , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Cultura Primária de Células , Proteínas Quinases/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/induzido quimicamente , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Fibrose Pulmonar/patologia , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , RNA Interferente Pequeno/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Titânio/administração & dosagem
3.
Environ Health ; 18(1): 71, 2019 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391078

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the available information on cancer risk, asbestos is used in large areas in the world, mostly in the production of asbestos cement. Moreover, questions are raised regarding the shape of the dose response relation, the relation with time since exposure and the association with neoplasms in various organs. We conducted a study on the relationship between cumulative asbestos exposure and mortality from asbestos related diseases in a large Italian pool of 21 cohorts of asbestos-cement workers with protracted exposure to both chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. METHODS: The cohort included 13,076 workers, 81.9% men and 18.1% women, working in 21 Italian asbestos-cement factories, with over 40 years of observation. Exposure was estimated by plant and period, and weighted for the type of asbestos used. Data were analysed with consideration of cause of death, cumulative exposure and time since first exposure (TSFE), and by gender. SMRs were computed using reference rates by region, gender and calendar time. Poisson regression models including cubic splines were used to analyse the effect of cumulative exposure to asbestos and TSFE on mortality for asbestos-related diseases. 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were computed according to the Poisson distribution. RESULTS: Mortality was significantly increased for 'All Causes' and 'All Malignant Neoplasm (MN)', in both genders. Considering asbestos related diseases (ARDs), statistically significant excesses were observed for MN of peritoneum (SMR: men 14.19; women 15.14), pleura (SMR: 22.35 and 48.10), lung (SMR: 1.67 and 1.67), ovary (in the highest exposure class SMR 2.45), and asbestosis (SMR: 507 and 1023). Mortality for ARDs, in particular pleural and peritoneal malignancies, lung cancer, ovarian cancer and asbestosis increased monotonically with cumulative exposure. Pleural MN mortality increased progressively in the first 40 years of TSFE, then reached a plateau, while peritoneal MN showed a continuous increase. The trend of lung cancer SMRs also showed a flattening after 40 years of TSFE. Attributable proportions for pleural, peritoneal, and lung MN were respectively 96, 93 and 40%. CONCLUSIONS: Mortality for ARDs was associated with cumulative exposure to asbestos. Risk of death from pleural MN did not increase indefinitely with TSFE but eventually reached a plateau, consistently with reports from other recent studies.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asbestose/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/induzido quimicamente , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
7.
Rev Pneumol Clin ; 74(6): 436-443, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30269937

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The odd risk ratio for an asbestos-related disease is 6.9 for National Defense personnel and 94% of the victims who are compensated belong to the French Navy. While employment-exposure matrices exist for the civilian environment, none are available to the military. Our work consists of the creation of the first employment-exposure matrix in the French Navy, in order to optimize post-occupational medical surveillance. METHOD: We conducted a bibliographic search for asbestos in naval repair, naval embarking and foreign navies. From databases such as Medline, Pubmed, we used the following keywords "Navy", "Asbestos", "Shypyard" and "Military" and we have extended ourselves to the registers of existing theses on the subject. RESULTS: Epidemiological and bibliographic data confirm the increased risk in the French Navy. Three variables are important in the proposal of this employment-exposure matrix: employment, year of arming the ship and duration of embarkation. There is a major risk for personnel whose work is in direct contact with asbestos, in particular machine personnel, irrespective of their duration of exposure. For embarked personnel who do not have direct contact with asbestos in their jobs, the increase in risk depends essentially on the ship's year of arming and the presence of asbestos, whether or not on board, as well as the duration of exposure of seafarers. CONCLUSION: These results allow us to recommend a classification of the risk in accordance with the recommendations of the French Health Authority and to propose an adequate post-professional follow-up for the personnel of the Navy.


Assuntos
Asbestos/toxicidade , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Militares , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Navios , Asbestose/etiologia , Emprego , França/epidemiologia , Humanos , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Navios/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo
8.
BMJ Open ; 8(7): e022806, 2018 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30049702

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The global burden of asbestos-related diseases (ARDs) is significant, and most of the world's population live in countries where asbestos use continues. We examined the gaps between ARD research and suggestions of WHO and the International Labour Organization on prevention. METHODS: From the Web of Science, we collected data on all articles published during 1991-2016 and identified a subset of ARD-related articles. We classified articles into three research areas-laboratory, clinical and public health-and examined their time trends. For all and the top 11 countries publishing ARD-related articles, we calculated the proportions of all ARD-related articles that were in each of the three areas, the average rates of ARD-related articles over all articles, and the average annual per cent changes of rates. RESULTS: ARD-related articles (n=14 284) accounted for 1.3‰ of all articles in 1991, but this had declined to 0.8‰ by 2016. Among the three research areas, the clinical area accounted for the largest proportion (65.0%), followed by laboratory (26.5%) and public health (24.9%). The public health area declined faster than the other areas, at -5.7% per year. Discrepancies were also observed among the top 11 countries regarding emphasis on public health research, with Finland and Italy having higher, and China and the Netherlands lower, emphases. CONCLUSIONS: There is declining emphasis on the public health area in the ARD-related literature. Under the ongoing global situation of ARD, primary prevention will remain key for some time, warranting efforts to rectify the current trend in ARD-related research.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/etiologia , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Bibliometria , China , Finlândia , Humanos , Itália , Países Baixos , Saúde Pública/tendências
9.
Ugeskr Laeger ; 180(25)2018 Jun 18.
Artigo em Dinamarquês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29938630

RESUMO

Asbestos was used in numerous products until its total ban in Denmark in 1988. The prevalence of asbestosis and pleural plaques does not yet appear to be falling. Unfortunately the statistics are unreliable due to errors in the Danish translation of the ICD-10 codes of the disease. In this review, clinical and radiologic diagnostic criteria of asbestosis and pleural plaques and recommendations for follow-up of patients are described. Typical changes on a high-resolution CT scan combined with relevant asbestos exposure is essential for the diagnosis. Asbestosis and pleural plaques are both notifiable in Denmark.


Assuntos
Asbestose , Doenças Pleurais , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/diagnóstico , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/fisiopatologia , Asbestose/terapia , Dinamarca , Humanos , Classificação Internacional de Doenças , Doenças Profissionais/diagnóstico , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Doenças Pleurais/diagnóstico , Doenças Pleurais/etiologia , Doenças Pleurais/fisiopatologia , Doenças Pleurais/terapia , Radiografia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Traduções
10.
Epidemiol Prev ; 42(2): 142-150, 2018.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29774711

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: to estimate the health impact of asbestos fibres naturally occurring in Mount Pollino area (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy). DESIGN: geographic mortality, hospitalization, and incidence study. Setting and participant s: population resident in 12 Municipalities of Mount Pollino area with naturally occurring asbestos fibres. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: standardized mortality ratio (SMR) and standardized hospitalization rate (SHR) for asbestos-related diseases; standardized incidence ratio (SIR) for mesotheliomas. Result s: in the area of Mount Pollino, where asbestos fibres naturally occur, especially in the sub-area in which fibres are close to dwellings and settlements, it was observed: • a significant excess of mesothelioma incidence (SIR: 208; CI95% 111-355; 13 observed); • a non-significant excess of hospitalization for malignant pleural neoplasms (SHR: 176; CI95% 93-335; 9 observed); • a significant excess for mortality and hospitalization for pneumoconiosis (SMR: 534; CI95% 345-824; 20 observed - SHR: 245; CI95% 149-405; 15 observed); • a significant excess for hospitalization (SHR: 852; CI95% 290-2,506; 3 observed) for asbestosis. CONCLUSION: it is necessary to continue environmental monitoring and environmental remediation in the area with higher asbestos exposure. It is suggested to implement a permanent process of epidemiological surveillance in this same area. A communication plan with local administrators, general practitioners, school teachers, media, and the resident population at large should be realized.


Assuntos
Asbestos/toxicidade , Asbestose/etiologia , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestose/mortalidade , Exposição Ambiental , Monitoramento Ambiental , Feminino , Geografia Médica , Fenômenos Geológicos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Incidência , Itália , Masculino , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Fibras Minerais/toxicidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Vigilância da População , Neoplasias do Sistema Respiratório/etiologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Respiratório/mortalidade
11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29772681

RESUMO

Introduction: Asbestos has been used for thousands of years but only at a large industrial scale for about 100⁻150 years. The first identified disease was asbestosis, a type of incurable pneumoconiosis caused by asbestos dust and fibres. The latest estimate of global number of asbestosis deaths from the Global Burden of Disease estimate 2016 is 3495. Asbestos-caused cancer was identified in the late 1930's but despite today's overwhelming evidence of the strong carcinogenicity of all asbestos types, including chrysotile, it is still widely used globally. Various estimates have been made over time including those of World Health Organization and International Labour Organization: 107,000⁻112,000 deaths. Present estimates are much higher. Objective: This article summarizes the special edition of this Journal related to asbestos and key aspects of the past and present of the asbestos problem globally. The objective is to collect and provide the latest evidence of the magnitude of asbestos-related diseases and to provide the present best data for revitalizing the International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program on Asbestos-related Diseases. Methods: Documentation on asbestos-related diseases, their recognition, reporting, compensation and prevention efforts were examined, in particular from the regulatory and prevention point of view. Estimated global numbers of incidence and mortality of asbestos-related diseases were examined. Results: Asbestos causes an estimated 255,000 deaths (243,223⁻260,029) annually according to latest knowledge, of which work-related exposures are responsible for 233,000 deaths (222,322⁻242,802). In the European Union, United States of America and in other high income economies (World Health Organization regional classification) the direct costs for sickness, early retirement and death, including production losses, have been estimated to be very high; in the Western European countries and European Union, and equivalent of 0.70% of the Gross Domestic Product or 114 × 108 United States Dollars. Intangible costs could be much higher. When applying the Value of Statistical Life of 4 million EUR per cancer death used by the European Commission, we arrived at 410 × 108 United States Dollars loss related to occupational cancer and 340 × 108 related to asbestos exposure at work, while the human suffering and loss of life is impossible to quantify. The numbers and costs are increasing practically in every country and region in the world. Asbestos has been banned in 55 countries but is used widely today; some 2,030,000 tons consumed annually according to the latest available consumption data. Every 20 tons of asbestos produced and consumed kills a person somewhere in the world. Buying 1 kg of asbestos powder, e.g., in Asia, costs 0.38 United States Dollars, and 20 tons would cost in such retail market 7600 United States Dollars. Conclusions: Present efforts to eliminate this man-made problem, in fact an epidemiological disaster, and preventing exposures leading to it are insufficient in most countries in the world. Applying programs and policies, such as those for the elimination of all kind of asbestos use-that is banning of new asbestos use and tight control and management of existing structures containing asbestos-need revision and resources. The International Labor Organization/World Health Organization Joint Program for the Elimination of Asbestos-Related Diseases needs to be revitalized. Exposure limits do not protect properly against cancer but for asbestos removal and equivalent exposure elimination work, we propose a limit value of 1000 fibres/m³.


Assuntos
Asbestose/epidemiologia , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Asbestose/diagnóstico , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/prevenção & controle , Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Humanos , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Mesotelioma/prevenção & controle
12.
Am J Ind Med ; 61(7): 625-630, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29733442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Although antigorite is generally described as platy, its fibrous (asbestiform) variant is present widespread in serpentinite rocks. In addition to its primarily fibrous occurrence, asbestiform antigorite may also be formed from serpentinite with massive appearance during tunneling and mining. It is not of commercial interest, but exposure may occur in the certain environments. METHODS AND RESULTS: Detailed studies of the structural features of this antigorite type revealed characteristics closely related to those of chrysotile. Therefore, it is plausible that this serpentine mineral may present a similar health risk for exposed subjects. This is in agreement with results from clinical and animal studies, as well as in vitro experiments showing the cytotoxic, fibrogenic, and carcinogenic potential of antigorite, similar to that of chrysotile and amphibole asbestos. CONCLUSIONS: Current evidence supports a need for an update to existing regulations to include unregulated asbestiform antigorite, similar to regulatory measures taken for asbestos.


Assuntos
Asbestos Serpentinas/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/etiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Animais , Asbestos Serpentinas/química , Asbestos Serpentinas/toxicidade , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29473898

RESUMO

The most effective way of reducing the global burden of asbestos-related diseases is through the implementation of asbestos bans and minimising occupational and non-occupational exposure to respirable asbestos fibres. Australia's asbestos consumption peaked in the 1970s with Australia widely thought to have had among the highest per-capita asbestos consumption level of any country. Australia's discontinuation of all forms of asbestos and asbestos-containing products and materials did not occur at a single point of time. Crocidolite consumption ceased in the late 1960s, followed by amosite consumption stopping in the mid 1980s. Despite significant government reports being published in 1990 and 1999, it was not until the end of 2003 that a complete ban on all forms of asbestos (crocidolite, amosite, and chrysotile) was introduced in Australia. The sustained efforts of trade unions and non-governmental organisations were essential in forcing the Australian government to finally implement the 2003 asbestos ban. Trade unions and non-government organisations continue to play a key role today in monitoring the government's response to Australian asbestos-related disease epidemic. There are significant challenges that remain in Australia, despite a complete asbestos ban being implemented almost fifteen years ago. The Australian epidemic of asbestos-related disease has only now reached its peak. A total of 16,679 people were newly diagnosed with malignant mesothelioma between 1982 and 2016, with 84% of cases occurring in men. There has been a stabilisation of the age-standardised malignant mesothelioma incidence rate in the last 10 years. In 2016, the incidence rate per 100,000 was 2.5 using the Australian standard population and 1.3 using the Segi world standard population. Despite Australia's complete asbestos ban being in place since 2003, public health efforts must continue to focus on preventing the devastating effects of avoidable asbestos-related diseases, including occupational and non-occupational groups who are potentially at risk from exposure to respirable asbestos fibres.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Asbestose/etiologia , Política de Saúde , Neoplasias Pulmonares/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/induzido quimicamente , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestose/prevenção & controle , Austrália/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos
14.
Ind Health ; 56(3): 249-254, 2018 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29479016

RESUMO

Health surveillance of asbestos exposed workers should be stratified according to the exposure level. Unfortunately there is a lack of information regarding asbestos exposure in many working places and markers of asbestos exposure are often needed. The aim of the study was to assess the reliability of different dose and effect biomarkers in the follow up of asbestos-exposed workers. Mineralogical analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) as a biomarker of asbestos fibre burden was performed in a population of 307 male subjects occupationally exposed to asbestos. Using nonparametric statistical methods 8 variables were analyzed with respect to asbestos-related diseases and working sectors. The existence of a relationship between serum soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRP) and asbestos exposure levels was also investigated. Concentrations of amphiboles, chrysotile and asbestos bodies in BALF were higher in patients with asbestosis as well as in railway industry workers. A correlation between the onset of non malignant asbestos-related diseases and the levels of SMRP concentration was not found. This study confirms that fibre concentration in BALF may be considered as a reliable biomarker of previous asbestos exposure, whereas SMRP does not appear to be influenced by asbestos exposure levels.


Assuntos
Asbestos/análise , Asbestose/etiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Seguimentos , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Ferrovias
15.
Arch Environ Occup Health ; 73(3): 186-188, 2018 05 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28686522

RESUMO

Before its use was banned in developed countries, asbestos was widely applied in upholstery. However, the risk of asbestos diseases among upholsterers has only rarely been reported. In this case series, we present a first series of 6 workers employed in small workshops who developed several asbestos-related diseases, including pleural plaques, pleural fibrosis, and asbestosis. Exposures were intermittent and difficult to quantify, but lung asbestos content assessed by bronchoalveolar lavage was high in the 3 patients evaluated. In conclusion, upholstery work should be considered an at-risk occupation for developing asbestos-related diseases during the 20th century.


Assuntos
Asbestose/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Ocupações , Têxteis , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes de Função Respiratória , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha
16.
Occup Environ Med ; 75(1): 29-36, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28756413

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Three hundred and thirty thousand Italians arrived in Australia between 1945 and 1966, many on assisted passage schemes where the worker agreed to a 2-year unskilled employment contract. Italians were the largest of 52 migrant groups employed at the Wittenoom blue asbestos mining and milling operation. We compare mortality from asbestos-related diseases among Italian and Australian workers employed at Wittenoom. METHODS: A cohort of 6500 male workers was established from employment records and followed up at state and national mortality and cancer registries. SMRs were calculated to compare mortality with the Western Australian male population. Time-varying Cox proportional hazards models compared the risk of mesothelioma between Australian and Italian workers. RESULTS: 1031 Italians and 3465 Australians worked at Wittenoom between 1943 and 1966. Duration of employment was longer for the Italian workers, although the concentration of exposure was similar. The mesothelioma mortality rate per 100 000 was higher in Italians (184, 95% CI 148 to 229) than Australians (128, 95% CI 111 to 149). The risk of mesothelioma was greater than twofold (HR 2.27, 95% CI 1.43 to 3.60) in Italians at the lowest asbestos exposure category (<10 fibre years/per mL). CONCLUSIONS: A hierarchy in migration, isolation and a shortage of workers led to Italians at Wittenoom incurring higher cumulative exposure to blue asbestos and subsequently a greater rate of malignant mesothelioma than Australian workers. IMPACT: Poor working conditions and disparities between native and foreign-born workers has had a detrimental and differential impact on the long-term health of the workforce.


Assuntos
Asbesto Crocidolita/efeitos adversos , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/mortalidade , Emigrantes e Imigrantes , Grupos Étnicos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Mesotelioma/mortalidade , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Asbestose/etiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Indústria Manufatureira , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Migrantes , Austrália Ocidental , Adulto Jovem
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29053631

RESUMO

This paper aims to examine the process through which a total ban on asbestos was achieved in Japan. We reconstructed the process, analyzed the roles of involved parties/events, and drew lessons from the Japanese experience of achieving the ban. In Japan, a bill to phase out asbestos was proposed in 1992 but rejected without deliberation. Wide support for such a ban subsequently grew, however, largely due to the actions of trade unions and civil societies in establishing a coalition, raising awareness, organizing asbestos victims and their families, and propagating information on international developments. A governmental decision towards a ban was made in 2002 based on several national and international factors. A huge asbestos scandal in 2005 preponed the achievement of a total ban and led to the establishment of comprehensive measures to tackle asbestos issues. However, challenges remain for the elimination of asbestos-related diseases.


Assuntos
Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Cooperação Internacional , Exposição Ocupacional/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
19.
Chem Res Toxicol ; 30(9): 1655-1660, 2017 09 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28853857

RESUMO

Although necessary, in vitro and in vivo studies are not fully successful at predicting nanomaterials toxicity. We propose to associate such assays to the biological monitoring of nanoparticles in clinical samples to get more relevant data on the chemical and physical nature and dose of nanoparticles found in humans. The concept is to establish the load of nanoparticles in biological samples of patients. Then, by comparing samples from different patient groups, nanoparticles of interest could be identified and a potential link between a given nanoparticle type and toxicity could be suggested. It must be confirmed by investigating the biological effects induced by these nanoparticles using in vitro or in vivo models (mechanistic or dose-response studies). This translational approach from the bedside to the bench and vice versa could allow a better understanding of the nanoparticle effects and mechanisms of toxicity that can contribute, at least in part, to a disease.


Assuntos
Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/toxicidade , Asbestose/etiologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Humanos , Exposição por Inalação , Pulmão/patologia , Metais/química , Nanopartículas/química
20.
Int J Occup Med Environ Health ; 30(3): 419-431, 2017 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28481375

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Malignant mesothelioma is closely associated to asbestos exposure. One such exposure may occur through contact with occupationally exposed household members and their belongings. This study examines the features of pleural mesothelioma attributable only to asbestos brought home by another family member. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The data sources were 1063 mesothelioma cases diagnosed between 1995 and 2014, from the Friuli Venezia Giulia Mesothelioma Register. In all cases the diagnosis of mesothelioma was based on the pathology report. Exposure information and demographic data were acquired by an occupational medical standardized questionnaire/interview. RESULTS: Household-exposure mesothelioma cases included 33 women and 2 men. Relationships were: wives (N = 22), daughters (N = 9), sons (N = 2), and mothers (N = 2). Asbestos exposure in the workers predominantly occurred in shipyards. Out of the 35 pleural cases, 19 were epithelial, 9 biphasic, 3 sarcomatoid, and 4 not specified. The mean age at diagnosis was 77 years old. The mean latency was 59 years, with wives having a significant shorter latency than offspring. Latency was not significantly related to morphology and asbestosis. The overall mean survival was 16 months (median 11 months) but treatment was beneficial (mean 16 months vs. 7 months). Biphasic/sarcomatoid histology and presence of asbestosis were associated with a decreased survival, although not with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our data confirms that household exposure increases the risk for pleural mesothelioma amongst women with no history of occupational asbestos exposure. This is an ongoing problem in many countries, as well as in Italy, where the evaluation of a framework for the compensation of these cases is under debate. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(3):419-431.


Assuntos
Asbestos/toxicidade , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Características da Família , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Asbestose/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Masculino , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pleurais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
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