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1.
Int J Health Serv ; 48(3): 586-591, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895204

RESUMO

Jock William McCulloch, who died at Melbourne, Australia, in January 2018, was one of the foremost historians of occupational health of his generation. This tribute reviews his career and oeuvre, which was tragically ended by his death from mesothelioma.


Assuntos
Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Agente Laranja/história , Agente Laranja/toxicidade , Asbestose/história , Austrália , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/história , África do Sul
2.
Am J Ind Med ; 60(11): 956-962, 2017 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28913871

RESUMO

The asbestos industry originated in the UK in the 1870s. By 1898, asbestos had many applications and was reported to be one of the four leading causes of severe occupational disease. In 1912, the UK government sponsored an experimental study that reported that exposure to asbestos produced no more than a modicum of pulmonary fibrosis in guinea pigs. In the 1930s, the newly established Medical Research Council, with assistance from industry, sponsored a study of the effects of exposing animals to asbestos by injection (intratracheal and subcutaneous) and by inhalation in the factory environment. Government reports, publications, and contemporary records obtained by legal discovery have been reviewed in the context of the stage of scientific development and the history of the times. Experimenters were engaged in a learning process during the 1912-1950 period, and their reports of the effects of asbestos were inconsistent. Pathologists who studied the effects of asbestos experimentally, at whole animal, tissue and cellular levels, advanced experimental methodology and mechanistic knowledge. In the hands of public relations experts, however, research was exploited to preserve an industry and perpetuate preventable diseases, a practice that continues to this day.


Assuntos
Asbestos/história , Asbestose/história , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Carcinógenos/história , Neoplasias Pulmonares/história , Mesotelioma/história , Mineração , Exposição Ocupacional/história , Animais , Asbestos/toxicidade , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Carcinógenos/toxicidade , Cobaias , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etiologia , Mesotelioma/etiologia , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Fibrose Pulmonar/etiologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/história , Ratos , Faculdades de Medicina/história , Reino Unido
6.
New Solut ; 26(4): 622-629, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27889700

RESUMO

Borel v. Fibreboard Paper Products Corporation is the 1973 landmark case that paved the way for successful litigation against the asbestos industry. Clarence Borel's granddaughter shares recollections of the reluctant man behind the court case.


Assuntos
Asbestos , Asbestose/história , Jurisprudência/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Masculino , Mesotelioma , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estados Unidos
9.
Med Lav ; 106(6): 424-30, 2015 Nov 22.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26621063

RESUMO

Between the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th numerous asbestos industries began operations in various parts of the world. At the time of the First World War there is ample evidence of the use of this mineral in shipbuilding, the aircraft industry and in the construction industry. In the years 1912-17 the writer Franz Kafka was co-proprietor of a small asbestos factory in Prague. Some of the writer's novels and journal pages were inspired by this experience. In this way asbestos entered into the history of 20th century European literature. In 1917 asbestos extraction was started at the quarry in Balangero, near Turin, Italy. Risks related to the use of asbestos were known at the beginning of the 20th century and legislation aimed at preventing the harmful effects of the mineral were approved in Italy.


Assuntos
Asbestos/história , Asbestose/história , Carcinógenos/história , Indústrias/história , Literatura Moderna/história , Exposição Ocupacional/história , I Guerra Mundial , Aeronaves/história , Indústria da Construção/história , Europa (Continente) , Pessoas Famosas , História do Século XX , Humanos , Itália , Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Navios/história
11.
New Solut ; 25(2): 172-88, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25910492

RESUMO

This paper examines the use of lawsuits against three industries that were eventually found to be selling products damaging to human heath and the environment: lead paint, asbestos, and fossil fuels. These industries are similar in that some companies tried to hide or distort information showing their products were harmful. Common law claims were eventually filed to hold the corporations accountable and compensate the injured. This paper considers the important role the lawsuits played in helping establish some accountability for the industries while also noting the limitations of the lawsuits. It will be argued that the lawsuits helped create pressure for government regulation of the industries' products but were less successful at securing compensation for the injured. Thus, the common law claims strengthened and supported administrative regulation and the adoption of industry alternatives more than they provided a means of legal redress.


Assuntos
Asbestose/prevenção & controle , Combustíveis Fósseis/efeitos adversos , Aquecimento Global/legislação & jurisprudência , Intoxicação por Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Pintura/normas , Responsabilidade Social , Asbestos/história , Asbestos/envenenamento , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/história , Qualidade de Produtos para o Consumidor/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Combustíveis Fósseis/história , Aquecimento Global/história , Aquecimento Global/prevenção & controle , Regulamentação Governamental , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Indústrias/história , Indústrias/legislação & jurisprudência , Indústrias/normas , Conhecimento , Intoxicação por Chumbo/etiologia , Intoxicação por Chumbo/história , Fibras Minerais/efeitos adversos , Fibras Minerais/história , Pintura/história , Pintura/envenenamento , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Má Conduta Científica/história , Má Conduta Científica/legislação & jurisprudência , Estados Unidos , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/história , Indenização aos Trabalhadores/legislação & jurisprudência
12.
Eur Respir Rev ; 24(135): 115-31, 2015 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25726562

RESUMO

Asbestos is the term for a family of naturally occurring minerals that have been used on a small scale since ancient times. Industrialisation demanded increased mining and refining in the 20th century, and in 1960, Wagner, Sleggs and Marchand from South Africa linked asbestos to mesothelioma, paving the way to the current knowledge of the aetiology, epidemiology and biology of malignant pleural mesothelioma. Pleural mesothelioma is one of the most lethal cancers, with increasing incidence worldwide. This review will give some snapshots of the history of pleural mesothelioma discovery, and the body of epidemiological and biological research, including some of the controversies and unresolved questions. Translational research is currently unravelling novel circulating biomarkers for earlier diagnosis and novel treatment targets. Current breakthrough discoveries of clinically promising noninvasive biomarkers, such as the 13-protein signature, microRNAs and the BAP1 mesothelioma/cancer syndrome, are highlighted. The asbestos history is a lesson to not be repeated, but here we also review recent in vivo and in vitro studies showing that manmade carbon nanofibres could pose a similar danger to human health. This should be taken seriously by regulatory bodies to ensure thorough testing of novel materials before release in the society.


Assuntos
Asbestose/história , Neoplasias Pulmonares , Mesotelioma , Neoplasias Pleurais , Animais , Asbestos , Asbestose/epidemiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XX , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/história , Neoplasias Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Mesotelioma/epidemiologia , Mesotelioma/história , Mesotelioma/fisiopatologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/história , Exposição Ocupacional , Neoplasias Pleurais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Pleurais/história , Neoplasias Pleurais/fisiopatologia , Vacinas contra Poliovirus/efeitos adversos , Vírus 40 dos Símios , Vacinas Virais/efeitos adversos
14.
Asclepio ; 64(1): 7-36, ene.-jun. 2012. graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-101231

RESUMO

El amianto o asbesto es un mineral fibroso de propiedades ignífugas y resistente a la abrasión que ha sido empleado masivamente en procesos industriales y productos manufacturados desde comienzos del siglo XX. Su uso ha provocado graves problemas de salud en los trabajadores expuestos y en la población general. La atención historiográfica a los riesgos del amianto en España ha sido casi inexistente, lo que ha contribuido a consolidar la idea de una ausencia de preocupación por este problema en nuestro país hasta la década de los ochenta. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el surgimiento de dicha preocupación durante el periodo franquista, mediante un análisis de la producción científica y de la normativa aprobada para enfrentar los riesgos del amianto(AU)


Asbestos is a fibrous mineral used since the early 20th century in a wide range of manufacturing processes and industrial products for its fireproofing and abrasion-resistant properties. Asbestos exposure has had harmful effects on the health of workers and of the general population. Asbestos risks have attracted scant historiographical attention in Spain, contributing to the idea of a lack of medical and public concerns about this issue until the 1980s. The aim of this paper was to analyze the emergence of such concerns during the Franco regime by exploring the medical literature and the legislation drafted to address asbestos hazards(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/história , Doenças Profissionais/história , História da Medicina , Espanha/epidemiologia
15.
Med Lav ; 103(1): 3-16, 2012.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22486071

RESUMO

The author proposes a reading of "Concerning incombustible flax or asbestos stone" which was published in 1696 by Giovanni Giustino Ciampini, who was a historian, a man of the church and scientist in Rome. The text, which was originally written in Latin, is an excellent and early description of the need felt by the majority of scientists in Europe at that time for a change in method: that is, to use scientific experiments to explain and control the natural phenomena observed and even perhaps mythologized right from antiquity. In the case of asbestos this was necessary to check the veracity and consistency of a series of recommendations handed down by the earliest authors but also to revive and reinvent the techniques that had largely been lost so as to be able to utilize and develop a substance that it was thought could be of great benefit to society. In the presentation of Ciampini's text an attempt is made to recall and contextualize the earliest knowledge on asbestos and follow its evolution over a long historical period, up to the first half of the nineteenth century. It can thus be seen how asbestos, once considered "a wonder of nature", became a raw material widely used in industrial applications. The most significant steps in this phase of transformation were taken thanks to Italian entrepreneurs and technicians and to the presence of asbestos in the Alpine valleys of Italy.


Assuntos
Asbestos/história , Carcinógenos/história , Indústrias/história , Asbestos/efeitos adversos , Asbestose/etiologia , Asbestose/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XVII , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Humanos , Itália , Masculino
16.
Health History ; 13(1): 1-25, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21932741

RESUMO

Twenty years before the ill-effects of exposure to asbestos dust became an issue of public concern in Victoria, medical knowledge about this occupational hazard and its management were readily available in the Industrial Hygiene Division of the Victorian Department of Health. The failure of the State Electricity Commission to incorporate this body of knowledge into the management of its power stations cannot be attributed to a callous disregard for workers' health. It was rather that the organisational structure and ethos of this semi-autonomous government agency, dominated by engineering expertise, fostered an intolerance of the expertise of other professionals-in this case, that of medical practitioners specialising in industrial hygiene. The events recounted in this paper illustrate the extent to which the perception of an occupational hazard in 'ordinary conditions' of work can be obstructed by the everyday circumstances of an organisation's operation.


Assuntos
Asbestos/toxicidade , Asbestose/história , Poeira , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Exposição Ocupacional/história , Asbestose/prevenção & controle , Monitoramento Ambiental , Órgãos Governamentais/organização & administração , História do Século XX , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/normas , Vitória
18.
Int J Health Serv ; 41(1): 121-35, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21319725

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to provide new insights into the late recognition of asbestos-related diseases in contemporary societies. It addresses the role of expert culture in the identification, management, and control of asbestos risks, and examines the contribution of these processes to the late recognition and minimization of risks. After focusing first on Spain, the article presents three historical case studies to illustrate some shortcomings of the expert explanatory model. First, the narrow definition of asbestosis forged by medical experts in interwar Britain helped shape a public perception of the asbestos issue as finite and controllable. Second, the alternative approach to asbestos hazard management proposed by the Spanish trade union Comisiones Obreras in the early 1980s, inspired by the so-called Italian workers' model, prioritized locally produced knowledge. Finally, in the changing public view of asbestos risks in France during the last third of the 20th century, cultural and social factors played a crucial role in broadening the issue beyond its conception as just an occupational health problem. The author argues that expertise itself becomes a deproblematizing agent for industrial health issues, paving the way for their social invisibility.


Assuntos
Asbestose/diagnóstico , Política de Saúde/tendências , Saúde do Trabalhador/legislação & jurisprudência , Asbestose/história , Causalidade , França , Regulamentação Governamental , História do Século XX , Humanos , Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Política , Espanha , Reino Unido
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