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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444288

RESUMO

The outbreak of the COVID-19 has brought upon unprecedented challenges to nearly all people around the globe. Yet, people may differ in their risks of social, economic, and health well-being. In this research, we take a gender-difference approach to examine whether and why women suffered greater emotional and life distress than men at the early stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in China. Using a large nationwide Chinese sample, we found that compared to men, women reported higher levels of anxiety and fear, as well as greater life disturbance during the COVID-19 pandemic. Importantly, that women suffered more was partly explained by their higher level of pathogen disgust sensitivity. Our findings highlight the important consequences of gender differences in response to the threat of the COVID-19 pandemic and suggest that policymakers pay more attention to gender inequalities regarding COVID-19 responses.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Asco , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Anxiety Disord ; 83: 102450, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34340171

RESUMO

Individuals with dental anxiety show biased attentional processing of threat- and dental-related information. Disgust sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity are both associated with dental fears and attentional biases. Whereas disgust sensitivity is generally associated with attentional avoidance (Armstrong et al., 2014), anxiety sensitivity may be associated with attentional engagement (Keogh et al., 2001a). Elucidating the role of these constructs in dental anxiety-relevant attentional biases could inform theoretical models and/or intervention recommendations. Participants (N = 51) with high dental anxiety completed a Posner paradigm to assess attentional biases to dental versus neutral stimuli. We examined whether disgust sensitivity and anxiety sensitivity moderated degree of attentional bias. Results indicated that both disgust sensitivity (mutilation subscale) and anxiety sensitivity (physical concerns subscale) statistically moderated degree of attentional bias at trend level, and in opposite directions. Simple effects analyses further indicated that disgust sensitivity regarding mutilation was associated with less attentional bias toward dental relative to neutral stimuli, potentially indicating attentional avoidance, and remained so when adjusting for anxiety sensitivity. In contrast, simple effects analysis indicated that anxiety sensitivity regarding physical concerns was not associated with magnitude of attentional bias. If replicated, findings highlight the potential role of disgust in dental anxiety.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Asco , Ansiedade , Transtornos de Ansiedade , Atenção , Ansiedade ao Tratamento Odontológico , Humanos
3.
J Anxiety Disord ; 82: 102447, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34271332

RESUMO

Research has demonstrated that disgust can be installed through classical conditioning by pairing neutral conditioned stimuli (CSs) with disgusting unconditioned stimuli (USs). Disgust has been argued to play an important role in maintaining fear-related disorders. This maintaining role may be explained by conditioned disgust being less sensitive to extinction (i.e., experiencing the CS in the absence of the US). Promising alternatives to extinction training are procedures that focus on the devaluation of US memory representations. In the current study, we investigated whether such devaluation procedures can be successful to counter conditioned disgust. We conducted two laboratory studies (N = 120 and N = 51) in which disgust was conditioned using audio-visual USs. Memory representations of the USs were devalued by having participants recall these USs while they performed a taxing eye-movement task or executed one of several control tasks. The results showed successful conditioned disgust acquisition. However, no strong evidence was obtained that an US memory devaluation procedure modulates disgust memory and diminishes conditioned disgust as indicated by subjective, behavioral, or psychophysiological measures. We discuss the relevance of our results for methodological improvements regarding US memory devaluation procedures and disgust conditioning.


Assuntos
Condicionamento Clássico , Asco , Extinção Psicológica , Medo , Humanos , Laboratórios
4.
J Anxiety Disord ; 82: 102446, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34293714

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disgust is theorized to serve a unique function of motivating avoidance of noxious stimuli and setting interpersonal boundaries to prevent contamination. Research has established the relevance of disgust to OCD, posttraumatic stress, and phobias, suggesting transdiagnostic features. However, research has not always accounted for overlap of disgust with other negative emotions, obscuring unique contributions. Moreover, studies have not disentangled between-person (mean levels) and within-person (state) effects. The present study examined within- and between-person relationships of disgust, anxiety, and dysphoria with responses to daily social stressors. We expected disgust would uniquely predict cognitive avoidance and boundary-setting interpersonal behavior. METHOD: Individuals (N = 159) meeting ADIS-V anxiety/depressive disorder criteria (n = 55) and healthy controls (n = 104) completed online journals about naturalistic social stressors over five weeks (1,923 records), reporting disgust, anxiety, dysphoria, and responses to social stressors. RESULTS: As expected, disgust uniquely predicted lower acceptance, greater thought suppression, greater self-assertion, and less prosocial behavior, above and beyond anxiety and dysphoria. Several disgust effects were present at both between- and within-person levels, suggesting the relevance of both mean disgust and state fluctuations. CONCLUSIONS: Results demonstrate unique relevance of disgust for how individuals respond to social stressors.


Assuntos
Asco , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Adaptação Psicológica , Ansiedade , Emoções , Humanos
5.
PLoS One ; 16(7): e0254648, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34260657

RESUMO

In the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic, personal hygiene behaviours such as proper handwashing have gained significantly more attention and interpersonal contact is performed with great care. Disgust, as a disease-avoidance mechanism, can play an important role in the promotion of hygiene behaviour. We know from previous research that pathogen disgust can be a predictor of an individual's behaviour in the pandemic. Given that the pandemic greatly affects our food and eating behaviour, the current study aims to add to the existing evidence and to complement it by investigating the role of food-specific disgust in the pandemic. For that, we conducted an online survey in Germany in April 2020, while the pandemic was spreading in Europe. A total of 519 participants completed the survey and provided information about their COVID-19-related attitudes and behaviours and about their food disgust sensitivity. The results show that food disgust sensitivity is an important predictor for an individual's feelings, shopping behaviour, and disease-preventive behaviour related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that the success of political measures to fight the pandemic critically depends on the population to support and follow the proposed measures, a better understanding of the factors driving individual behaviour is key. Implications for pandemic management are discussed.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/virologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Asco , Comportamento Alimentar/psicologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Higiene , Internet , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 238(10): 2827-2838, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34169344

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Reduced inhibitory control is more pronounced during substance-related cue exposure among addicts. However, it is inconclusive whether smokers' inhibitory control would be impaired by smoking-related background. Furthermore, few studies explored whether the cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images would alleviate the negative effect of smoking-related cues on smokers' inhibitory control. OBJECTIVE: Experiment 1 investigated the effect of smoking-related background on inhibitory control in cigarette smokers with a modified Go/NoGo task and experiment 2 explored whether cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images would alleviate the negative effect of smoking-related background on smokers' inhibitory control. METHOD: Sixty-two male participants (32 smokers and 30 non-smokers) were recruited in experiment 1 and 51 male smokers were recruited in experiment 2. RESULTS: Experiment 1 found that compared to neutral background, smokers made more commission errors (i.e., executing a response to a no-go target) under smoking-related background, indicating that smoking-related background has a negative effect on smokers' inhibitory control. Experiment 2 found that after experiencing cigarette-specific disgust, smokers made fewer commission errors at post-mood induction than pre-mood induction, indicating that cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images alleviates the negative effect of smoking-related background on smokers' inhibitory control. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the negative effect of smoking-related cues on smokers' inhibitory control would be alleviated by cigarette-specific disgust aroused by smoking warning images, which emphasizes the important role of cigarette-specific disgust in strengthening smokers' inhibitory control towards smoking-related cues.


Assuntos
Asco , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Produtos do Tabaco , Humanos , Masculino , Fumantes , Fumar
7.
Evol Psychol ; 19(2): 14747049211021524, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112018

RESUMO

Prior research has indicated that disease threat and disgust are associated with harsher moral condemnation. We investigated the role of a specific, highly salient health concern, namely the spread of the coronavirus, and associated COVID-19 disease, on moral disapproval. We hypothesized that individuals who report greater subjective worry about COVID-19 would be more sensitive to moral transgressions. Across three studies (N = 913), conducted March-May 2020 as the pandemic started to unfold in the United States, we found that individuals who were worried about contracting the infectious disease made harsher moral judgments than those who were relatively less worried. This effect was not restricted to transgressions involving purity, but extended to transgressions involving harm, fairness, authority, and loyalty, and remained when controlling for political orientation. Furthermore, for Studies 1 and 2 the effect also was robust when taking into account the contamination subscale of the Disgust Scale-Revised. These findings add to the growing literature that concrete threats to health can play a role in abstract moral considerations, supporting the notion that judgments of wrongdoing are not based on rational thought alone.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , COVID-19 , Asco , Princípios Morais , Percepção Social , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teoria Psicológica , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13468, 2021 06 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34188198

RESUMO

The behavioral immune system posits that disgust functions to protect animals from pathogen exposure. Therefore, cues of pathogen risk should be a primary driver influencing variation in disgust. Yet, to our knowledge, neither the relationship between current pathogen risk and disgust, nor the correlation between objective and perceived pathogen risk have been addressed using ecologically valid measures in a global sample. The current article reports two studies addressing these gaps. In Study 1, we include a global sample (n = 361) and tested the influence of both perceived pathogen exposure and an objective measure of pathogen risk-local communicable infectious disease mortality rates-on individual differences in pathogen and sexual disgust sensitivities. In Study 2, we first replicate Study 1's analyses in another large sample (n = 821), targeting four countries (US, Italy, Brazil, and India); we then replaced objective and perceived pathogen risk with variables specific to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. In Study 1, both local infection mortality rates and perceived infection exposure predicted unique variance in pathogen and sexual disgust. In Study 2, we found that perceived infection exposure positively predicted sexual disgust, as predicted. When substituting perceived and objective SARS-CoV-2 risk in our models, perceived risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 positively predicted pathogen and sexual disgust, and state case rates negatively predicted pathogen disgust. Further, in both studies, objective measures of risk (i.e., local infection mortality and SARS-CoV-2 rates) positively correlated with subjective measures of risk (i.e., perceived infection exposure and perceived SARS-CoV-2 risk). Ultimately, these results provide two pieces of foundational evidence for the behavioral immune system: 1) perceptions of pathogen risk accurately assay local, objective mortality risk across countries, and 2) both perceived and objective pathogen risk explain variance in disgust levels.


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva , Asco , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Itália/epidemiologia , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Risco , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Caracteres Sexuais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
9.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0250928, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33945568

RESUMO

Taste stimuli can induce a variety of physiological reactions depending on the quality and/or hedonics (overall pleasure) of tastants, for which objective methods have long been desired. In this study, we used artificial intelligence (AI) technology to analyze facial expressions with the aim of assessing its utility as an objective method for the evaluation of food and beverage hedonics compared with conventional subjective (perceived) evaluation methods. The face of each participant (10 females; age range, 21-22 years) was photographed using a smartphone camera a few seconds after drinking 10 different solutions containing five basic tastes with different hedonic tones. Each image was then uploaded to an AI application to achieve outcomes for eight emotions (surprise, happiness, fear, neutral, disgust, sadness, anger, and embarrassment), with scores ranging from 0 to 100. For perceived evaluations, each participant also rated the hedonics of each solution from -10 (extremely unpleasant) to +10 (extremely pleasant). Based on these, we then conducted a multiple linear regression analysis to obtain a formula to predict perceived hedonic ratings. The applicability of the formula was examined by combining the emotion scores with another 11 taste solutions obtained from another 12 participants of both genders (age range, 22-59 years). The predicted hedonic ratings showed good correlation and concordance with the perceived ratings. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate a model that enables the prediction of hedonic ratings based on emotional facial expressions to food and beverage stimuli.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Paladar/fisiologia , Adulto , Ira/fisiologia , Inteligência Artificial , Asco , Expressão Facial , Medo/fisiologia , Feminino , Felicidade , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prazer/fisiologia , Tristeza/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cogn Sci ; 45(5): e12980, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018230

RESUMO

Olfaction has recently been highlighted as a sense poorly connected with language. Odor is difficult to verbalize, and it has few qualities that afford mimicry by vision or sound. At the same time, emotion is thought to be the most salient dimension of an odor, and it could therefore be an olfactory dimension more easily communicated. We investigated whether sounds imitative of an innate disgust response can be associated with unpleasant odors. In two experiments, participants were asked to make a forced choice between a pseudoword including a disgust sound and a neutral pseudoword, for pleasant and unpleasant odors. Overall, participants chose more disgust pseudowords than neutral pseudowords for unpleasant odors, but this was not the case for pleasant odors. This effect was not driven by a general association between unpleasant sounds and unpleasant odors, but specifically the sounds [x/χ] and [f], thought to reflect physical responses to disgusting odors, as seen in the Polish fu! or the English ugh!. In line with growing evidence that language can encode odor, we provide the first experimental evidence for an association between the sound of a word and odor valence.


Assuntos
Asco , Olfato , Emoções , Humanos , Odorantes , Som
11.
J Anxiety Disord ; 82: 102408, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34022510

RESUMO

Disgust may play an important role in several mental disorders, in part because disgust seems impervious to corrective information, a feature noted long before it was studied by clinical psychologists. A deeper understanding of disgust could improve not only the treatment of mental disorders, but also other societal problems involving this peculiar emotion. In this paper, we review the measurement of disgust and identify issues that hold back progress in understanding how to treat this emotion. First, self-report measures of disgust, although optimized in terms of reliability, are compromised in terms of validity due to the "lexical fallacy," that is, the assumption that vernacular usage of emotion terms reveals natural kinds. Improved self-report measures that parse disgust from neighboring states of discomfort and disapproval can address this limitation, but these approaches are absent in clinical psychology. Second, "objective" measures of disgust, although free of vernacular limitations, require greater psychometric scrutiny. In a critical review, we find that most instrument-based measures fail to demonstrate adequate reliability, rendering them unsuitable for the individual differences research crucial to clinical psychology. In light of this assessment, we provide several recommendations for improving the reliability and validity of disgust measurement, including renewed attention to theory.


Assuntos
Asco , Transtornos Mentais , Emoções , Humanos , Psicometria , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
12.
Int J Eat Disord ; 54(6): 995-1008, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34028851

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Individuals with a gastrointestinal (GI) disorder often alter their diet to manage GI symptoms, adding complexity to understanding the diverse motivations contributing to food avoidance/restriction. When a GI disorder is present, the DSM-5 states that Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder (ARFID) can be diagnosed only when eating disturbance exceeds that expected. There is limited guidance to make this determination. This study attempts to address this gap by characterizing the presentation of ARFID in adults with and without a self-reported GI disorder. METHOD: Participants were 2,610 adults ages 18-44 who self-identified as "picky eaters." Participants reported on motivations for food avoidance, affective experiences towards food, and perceived impairment. Responses were compared across four groups: GI issues and likely ARFID (L-ARFID/GI), L-ARFID-only, GI-only, and No-ARFID/No-GI. RESULTS: Groups with a GI disorder (L-ARFID/GI, GI-only) reported more fear of aversive consequences of eating than those without a GI disorder, while groups with L-ARFID (L-ARFID, L-ARFID/GI) evidenced significantly greater sensory aversion to food and indifference to food or eating, negative emotional reactions to food and overall disgust sensitivity, and eating related impairment. DISCUSSION: Consideration of the interplay of a GI disorder with ARFID can add precision to case conceptualization. Food avoidance may be attempts to manage fears of aversive consequences that are augmented by a history of GI symptoms, while sensory aversions and negative emotional reactions towards foods may be more elevated in ARFID. These findings emphasize the need to consider an ARFID diagnosis in patients with GI disorders to optimize care.


Assuntos
Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Asco , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos , Gastroenteropatias , Adolescente , Adulto , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/complicações , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Appetite ; 164: 105299, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33965435

RESUMO

Meat consumption is increasingly seen as unsustainable, unhealthy, and unethical. Understanding what factors help people reduce their meat intake is urgently needed. One such factor is meat disgust, a feeling reported by many vegetarians, and which could be a promising basis for meat reduction interventions. However, meat disgust and its impact on meat consumption is poorly understood. We examined meat disgust and its role in vegetarianism and reducing meat intake in a cross-sectional and longitudinal online study. We measured self-reported meat consumption, meat disgust (by self-report and Implicit Association Test), meat liking, self-control, and disgust sensitivity in N = 711 adults (57% omnivores, 28% flexitarians, 15% vegetarians) recruited from a community cohort. Results showed that 73% of vegetarians can be classified as 'meat disgusted', and that meat disgust predicted meat intake better than self-control in omnivores and flexitarians at baseline. Following up a sub-sample of participants (N = 197) after six months revealed that changes in meat intake over time were also associated with changes in meat disgust. This is the first study to quantify the impact of meat disgust on (changes in) meat consumption and its prevalence in the vegetarian and the general population. Our findings advance research into meat disgust and encourage the development of disgust-based interventions to reduce meat intake.


Assuntos
Asco , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Vegetariana , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Carne , Vegetarianos
14.
Nurse Educ Pract ; 54: 103090, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34049035

RESUMO

AIM: This study aimed to investigate the disgust sensitivity of nursing students, the factors affecting this sensitivity, their caring behaviors and the relationships between these components. BACKGROUND: Disgust sensitivity has been conceptualized as the degree of disgust felt in response to various stimuli. Nursing students often encounter recognized disgust triggers in clinical practice, such as feces, mucus, urine, foul-smelling wounds and contact with the dead. The nursing students' disgust sensitivity can affect the way they think and may affect their care behaviors. DESIGN: The study used a descriptive cross-sectional design and was conducted with nursing students in a Turkish university nursing program (n = 577). METHODS: The study data was collected through the Disgust Sensitivity Scale-Revised Form and the Caring Assessment Questionnaire. RESULTS: Of the students in the study, 59.6% stated that they experienced disgust while providing care. A negative relationship was found between students' total scores from the Disgust Scale and the Caring Assessment Questionnaire (p < 0.01). The students' disgust sensitivity level was high and the higher the disgust sensitivity, the fewer caring behaviors they exhibited. CONCLUSIONS: In light of these findings, it can be said that the caring behaviors of nursing students are negatively influenced by disgust sensitivity. Hence, nurse educators need to evaluate students' disgust sensitivity, help students to identify and address their disgust emotions, deal with disgust management strategies together and be aware of when students need support.


Assuntos
Asco , Bacharelado em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Estudos Transversais , Empatia , Docentes de Enfermagem , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Cogn Behav Ther ; 50(3): 185-190, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34018470

RESUMO

COVID-19 Special Issue Commentary.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Asco , Ansiedade , Humanos , Sistema Imunitário , Saúde Mental , SARS-CoV-2 , Incerteza
16.
Arch Sex Behav ; 50(6): 2563-2577, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835291

RESUMO

Sex is integral to maintaining a satisfying long-term romantic relationship such as marriage. It is thus important to identify the factors that promote sexual satisfaction in these relationships. To this end, we examined the extent to which a crucial evolved individual difference-sexual disgust sensitivity-impacts people's sexual satisfaction and relationship satisfaction. Using a two-year longitudinal study of 102 newlywed couples (204 individuals), we demonstrated that, rather than exerting main effects, the interaction of both couple members' sexual disgust sensitivities was indirectly associated with marital satisfaction through sexual satisfaction. People whose partners' sexual disgust sensitivities were relatively similar (versus dissimilar) to their own maintained higher levels of sexual satisfaction across the first two years of marriage, which was associated with similarly elevated marital satisfaction. Not only do these findings highlight the importance of integrating evolutionary perspectives and relationship science, they underscore the value of conducting dyadic research to examine the unique intersection of both couple members' characteristics for people's relationship outcomes.


Assuntos
Asco , Casamento , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Orgasmo , Satisfação Pessoal , Comportamento Sexual
17.
Evol Psychol ; 19(2): 1474704921996585, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33902359

RESUMO

Studies with adults found a memory bias for disgust, such that memory for disgusting stimuli was enhanced compared to neutral and frightening stimuli. We investigated whether this bias is more pronounced in females and whether it is already present in children. Moreover, we analyzed whether the visual exploration of disgust stimuli during encoding is associated with memory retrieval. In a first recognition experiment with intentional learning, 50 adults (mean age; M = 23 years) and 52 children (M = 11 years) were presented with disgusting, frightening, and neutral pictures. Both children and adults showed a better recognition performance for disgusting images compared to the other image categories. Males and females did not differ in their memory performance. In a second free recall experiment with eye-tracking, 50 adults (M = 22 years) viewed images from the categories disgust, fear, and neutral. Disgusting and neutral images were matched for color, complexity, brightness, and contrast. The participants, who were not instructed to remember the stimuli, showed a disgust memory bias as well as shorter fixation durations and longer scan paths for disgusting images compared to neutral images. This "hyperscanning pattern" correlated with the number of correctly recalled disgust images. In conclusion, we found a disgust-related memory bias in both children and adults regardless of sex and independently of the memorization method used (recognition/free recall; intentional/incidental).


Assuntos
Asco , Adulto , Criança , Emoções , Medo , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória , Rememoração Mental , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248219, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690707

RESUMO

We developed and examined the construct validity of the Disgust Avoidance Questionnaire (DAQ) as a measure of people's inclination to prevent experiencing disgust (disgust prevention) and to escape from the experience of disgust (disgust escape). In a stepwise item-reduction (Study 1; N = 417) using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) based on a 4-subscale distinction (behavioral prevention, cognitive prevention, behavioral escape, cognitive escape), we selected 17 items from a pool of potential items. In order to incorporate the conceptual overlap between dimensions of disgust avoidance, focus (prevention vs. escape), and strategy (behavioral avoidance vs. cognitive avoidance), we specified an adapted model. In this model, we allowed each item to load on one type of dimension and one type of strategy, resulting in four overlapping factors (prevention, escape, behavioral avoidance, cognitive avoidance). Evaluation of this overlapping 4-factor model (Study 2; N = 513) using Exploratory Structural Equation Modeling (ESEM) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) showed promising model fit indices, factor loadings, factor correlations, and reliability estimates for three of the four factors (prevention, behavioral avoidance, cognitive avoidance). Those three subscales also showed good convergent validity. In contrast, the results related to the escape factor may call the suitability of self-report to assess disgust escape into question. In light of the exploratory nature of the project, future examinations of the DAQ's validity and applicability to more diverse samples are essential. A critical next step for future research would be to examine the DAQ's criterion validity and the distinctive roles of the DAQ subscales in (clinical) psychological constructs and processes.


Assuntos
Asco , Emoções/fisiologia , Psicometria/métodos , Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Individualidade , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Psicometria/instrumentação , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Anxiety Disord ; 79: 102384, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33774559

RESUMO

Contamination-based obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is thought to develop and be maintained by excessive propensity to experience disgust, particularly in response to perceived contaminants, and dysfunctional threat appraisals pertaining to illness. The present studies attempted to integrate these lines of research by testing the degree to which contamination-based OCD is associated with individual differences in disgust propensity and sensitivity, affective distress in response to perceived contaminants, and perceived threat of illness. In Study 1, a convenience sample of 185 adults completed self-report scales assessing obsessive-compulsive symptoms, disgust propensity and sensitivity, germ aversion, and perceived infectability. Multivariate regression showed that disgust propensity and germ aversion were the only significant predictors of contamination-based obsessions and compulsions. Exploratory analyses suggested that there was a significant indirect effect of disgust propensity on contamination-based obsessions and compulsions via germ aversion. Findings from Study 1 were replicated using a sample of twenty-six obsessive-compulsive participants. Despite the substantially smaller sample, the proportion of the total effects attributable to the mediating effect of germ aversion was comparable, consistent with a significant partial mediation in both samples. These results together suggest that contamination-based OCD symptoms are likely maintained and motivated by basic affective processes.


Assuntos
Asco , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Adulto , Afeto , Comportamento Compulsivo , Emoções , Humanos
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