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2.
Rev Med Liege ; 75(10): 682-685, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030846

RESUMO

We conducted a prospective observational study to evaluate the efficacy of yoga in poorly controlled severe asthmatic patients treated with maximal inhaled therapy and biologics. The objective of yoga was to improve breathing consciousness, exercising controlled ventilation with and without retention, abdominal breathing observation, improvement of inspiratory and expiratory muscles, opening of the chest, diaphragm exercises and relaxation. We measured exhaled nitric oxide, forced expiratory volume in one second, forced vital capacity, asthma control and quality of life questionnaires, anxiety and depression questionnaires before and after the tenth yoga course (performed twice a week). Half of the patients who were invited to participate to the study declined due to organization problems. Two patients were excluded due to bronchitis and arthralgia respectively. The analysis of the data from 12 participants revealed significant improvement in asthma control and asthma quality of life questionnaires and a reduction of anxiety.The regular practice of yoga in severe asthmatics insufficiently controlled despite maximal inhaled treatment and biotherapy seems to be an interesting complementary option to improve asthma control. Our results must be confirmed in larger randomized controlled trials.


Assuntos
Asma , Produtos Biológicos , Ioga , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(35): e21858, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32871910

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: These years, due to dissatisfaction with western medicine treatments, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) becomes a main treatment for bronchial asthma patients. Lung and kidney yang deficiency syndrome is a common type of asthma and the Chinese herbal medicine formula modified Mahuang-Fuzi-Xixin (MFX) decoction is prescribed for mild bronchial asthma patients with acute exacerbation syndrome. However, there is not obvious evidence to support the efficacy and safety of modified MFX decoction the efficacy and safety to treat mild bronchial asthma and the mechanism of this disease is still unclear. METHODS: A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial was proposed by us. After a 10-day run-in period, 180 eligible objects will be recruited in this study. These subjects will be allocated to the experimental group or control group in a 1:1 ratio. Patients in the experimental group will take modified MFX decoction. At the same time, patients in the control group will receive a matched placebo. The budesonide inhalation powder will be used as a western medicine treatment for both groups. All subjects will receive 14 days of treatment and another 6 months of follow-up. The primary outcome is the mean change in peak expiratory flow rate from the baseline to 14 days in this research. The secondary outcome includes forced expiratory volume in one second, asthma control test score, Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire score, curative effect of TCM syndrome, and salbutamol dosage. This trial will also explore the association between the change of immunoglobulin E and modified MFX decoction treatment. Any side effects of the treatment will be recorded. DISCUSSION: The results of this trial will provide the evidence for the effect of modified MFX decoction in patients with mild bronchial asthma during acute exacerbation. It also will explore the mechanism of this formula in the treatment of bronchial asthma, which will provide another treatment option for patients with mild bronchial asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Humanos , Pico do Fluxo Expiratório
4.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 213-224, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865913

RESUMO

Asthma is a chronic, serious allergic inflammatory disease in the airway. The inflammation in the airway is induced by the allergic T-helper 2 cells (Th2 cells), which leads to unfettered production of inflammatory cytokines. The accretion of inflammatory cells in the airway also speeds up the secretion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and suppresses antioxidative processes. Hence, the present work aimed to study the antiasthmatic efficacy of betulin and its effect in suppressing the inflammatory markers of ovalbumin (OVA) challenged asthmatic mice. The observed results revealed that the levels of inflammatory cells including neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and macrophages were effectively decreased by betulin treatment; furthermore, the inflammatory markers IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α levels were notably suppressed by betulin administration in OVA-challenged asthmatic mice. Similarly, the oral administration of betulin showed a reduction in IgE level and elevation in the IFN-γ level in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). The elevated levels of antioxidant enzymes like catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH), and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were observed in betulin treated mice. Furthermore, reduced levels of reactive oxygen species like NO2, NO3, and MDA were noted in the betulin treated group. Consistently, airway hyperreactivity (AHR) was depleted in the betulin administered group compared with the OVA-challenged asthmatic group. Betulin treatment was revealed to have noteworthy antiasthmatic effects mediated by the suppression of production of inflammatory cells and the expression of other inflammatory markers. Furthermore, the elevation in the level of antioxidant markers helped to disclose the original regulatory mode of betulin on asthma treatment.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Triterpenos/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Asma/imunologia , Asma/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/citologia , Feminino , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Estresse Oxidativo/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória , Triterpenos/administração & dosagem
5.
J Environ Pathol Toxicol Oncol ; 39(3): 225-234, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865914

RESUMO

Asthma is marked by chronic irritation in the airway lumen of the lungs due to the accretion of inflammatory cells that influence the regular inhalation process. An extended buildup of inflammation leads to oxidative pressure and the repression of antioxidant functions. In the current study, a potential compound, boldine, was tested for the containment of provocative markers along the path of antiasthmatic activity in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced asthmatic mice model. As an effect, the boldine (10 and 20 mg/kg) treatment suppressed inflammatory cells such as eosinophil, macrophage, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and other inflammatory markers in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of OVA-induced mice. Likewise, immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were drastically condensed in the serum of boldine-treated animals. Levels of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), were upregulated in the boldine treatment group compared to the asthmatic control group, which displays the antioxidant effects of boldine on asthmatic animals. Interestingly, the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malonaldehyde (MDA) levels were repressed in the BALF of boldine-treated mice groups. Therefore, the effects of boldine are significant for the management of asthma, reducing the accrual of inflammatory cells, along with other inflammatory markers, while improving antioxidant markers and containing ROS. Hence, boldine may be an option for clinical trials of chronic asthma management.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aporfinas/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Animais , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios/administração & dosagem , Aporfinas/administração & dosagem , Asma/imunologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/química , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/citologia , Líquido da Lavagem Broncoalveolar/imunologia , Citocinas/análise , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Eosinófilos/citologia , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Pulmão/efeitos dos fármacos , Pulmão/patologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Ovalbumina/imunologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Testes de Função Respiratória
6.
N Z Med J ; 133(1520): 61-72, 2020 08 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994594

RESUMO

AIM: In the PRACTICAL study, as-needed budesonide/formoterol reduced the rate of severe exacerbations compared with maintenance budesonide plus as-needed terbutaline. In a pre-specified analysis we analysed the efficacy in Maori and Pacific peoples, populations with worse asthma outcomes. METHOD: The PRACTICAL study was a 52-week, open-label, parallel group, randomised controlled trial of 890 adults with mild to moderate asthma, who were randomised to budesonide/formoterol Turbuhaler 200/6mcg one actuation as required or budesonide Turbuhaler 200mcg one actuation twice daily and terbutaline Turbuhaler 250mcg two actuations as required. The primary outcome was rate of severe exacerbations. The analysis strategy was to test an ethnicity-treatment interaction term for each outcome variable. RESULTS: Seventy-two participants (8%) identified as Maori, 36 participants (4%) as Pacific ethnicity. There was no evidence that ethnicity was an effect modifier for severe exacerbations (P interaction 0.70). CONCLUSION: The reduction in severe exacerbation risk with budesonide-formoterol reliever compared with maintenance budesonide was similar in Maori and Pacific adults compared with New Zealand European/Other.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapêutico , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Administração por Inalação , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Asma/fisiopatologia , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Budesonida/administração & dosagem , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Combinação Budesonida e Fumarato de Formoterol/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Progressão da Doença , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores/normas , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Terbutalina/administração & dosagem , Terbutalina/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 1032-1044, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910897

RESUMO

Severe asthma in children is rare, accounting for only a small proportion of childhood asthma. After addressing modifiable factors such as adherence to treatment, comorbidities, and adverse exposures, children whose disease is not well controlled on high doses of medication form a heterogeneous group of severe asthma phenotypes. Over the past decade, considerable advances have been made in understanding the pathophysiology of severe therapy-resistant asthma in children. However, asthma attacks and hospital admissions are frequent and mortality is still unacceptably high. Strategies to modify the natural history of asthma, prevent severe exacerbations, and prevent lung function decline are needed. Mechanistic studies have led to the development of several biologics targeting type 2 inflammation. This growing pipeline has the potential to reduce the burden of severe asthma; however, detailed assessment and characterisation of each child with seemingly severe asthma is necessary so that the most effective and appropriate management strategy can be implemented. Risk stratification, remote monitoring, and the integration of multiple data sources could help to tailor management for the individual child with severe asthma.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Asma/complicações , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Progressão da Doença , Hospitalização , Humanos
8.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 117(25): 434-444, 2020 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that usually causes variable airway obstruction. It affects 5-10% of the German population. METHODS: This review is based on relevant publications retrieved by a selective search, as well as on national and international guidelines on the treatment of mild and moderate asthma in adults. RESULTS: The goal of treatment is to attain optimal asthma control with a minimal risk of exacerbations and mortality, loss of pulmonary function, and drug side effects. This can be achieved with a combination of pharmacotherapy and non-drug treatment including patient education, exercise, smoking cessation, and rehabilitation. Pharmacohterapy is based on inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and bronchodilators. It is recommended that mild asthma should be treated only when needed, either with a fixed combination of ICS and formoterol or with short-acting bronchodilators. For moderate asthma, maintenance treatment is recommended, with an inhaled fixed combinations of ICS and long-acting beta-mimetics, possibly supplemented with longacting anticholinergic agents. Allergen immunotherapy, i.e., desensitization treatment, should be considered if the allergic component of asthma is well documented and the patient is not suffering from uncontrolled asthma. Asthma control should be monitored at regular intervals, and the treatment should be adapted accordingly. CONCLUSION: The treatment of asthma in adults should be individually tailored, with anti-inflammatory treatment as its main component.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos , Asma , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Combinada , Fumarato de Formoterol , Humanos
9.
JAMA ; 324(8): 752-760, 2020 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32840597

RESUMO

Importance: Severe asthma exacerbations cause significant morbidity and costs. Whether vitamin D3 supplementation reduces severe childhood asthma exacerbations is unclear. Objective: To determine whether vitamin D3 supplementation improves the time to a severe exacerbation in children with asthma and low vitamin D levels. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Vitamin D to Prevent Severe Asthma Exacerbations (VDKA) Study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial of vitamin D3 supplementation to improve the time to severe exacerbations in high-risk children with asthma aged 6 to 16 years taking low-dose inhaled corticosteroids and with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels less than 30 ng/mL. Participants were recruited from 7 US centers. Enrollment started in February 2016, with a goal of 400 participants; the trial was terminated early (March 2019) due to futility, and follow-up ended in September 2019. Interventions: Participants were randomized to vitamin D3, 4000 IU/d (n = 96), or placebo (n = 96) for 48 weeks and maintained with fluticasone propionate, 176 µg/d (6-11 years old), or 220 µg/d (12-16 years old). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the time to a severe asthma exacerbation. Secondary outcomes included the time to a viral-induced severe exacerbation, the proportion of participants in whom the dose of inhaled corticosteroid was reduced halfway through the trial, and the cumulative fluticasone dose during the trial. Results: Among 192 randomized participants (mean age, 9.8 years; 77 girls [40%]), 180 (93.8%) completed the trial. A total of 36 participants (37.5%) in the vitamin D3 group and 33 (34.4%) in the placebo group had 1 or more severe exacerbations. Compared with placebo, vitamin D3 supplementation did not significantly improve the time to a severe exacerbation: the mean time to exacerbation was 240 days in the vitamin D3 group vs 253 days in the placebo group (mean group difference, -13.1 days [95% CI, -42.6 to 16.4]; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.13 [95% CI, 0.69 to 1.85]; P = .63). Vitamin D3 supplementation, compared with placebo, likewise did not significantly improve the time to a viral-induced severe exacerbation, the proportion of participants whose dose of inhaled corticosteroid was reduced, or the cumulative fluticasone dose during the trial. Serious adverse events were similar in both groups (vitamin D3 group, n = 11; placebo group, n = 9). Conclusions and Relevance: Among children with persistent asthma and low vitamin D levels, vitamin D3 supplementation, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve the time to a severe asthma exacerbation. The findings do not support the use of vitamin D3 supplementation to prevent severe asthma exacerbations in this group of patients. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02687815.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Colecalciferol/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Deficiência de Vitamina D/tratamento farmacológico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Asma/sangue , Asma/complicações , Criança , Colecalciferol/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Exacerbação dos Sintomas , Falha de Tratamento , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Vitaminas/efeitos adversos
10.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(8): 1033-1038, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32788477

RESUMO

Background: Inhaler corticosteroids (ICS) are the most commonly used antiinflammatory drugs in the treatment of asthma. Although systemic adverse effects are minimal, patients hesitate to use ICS for a long time because of corticophobia. There is no study evaluating corticophobia via Likert-type appendix among the asthmatic patients. Aim: In this study, it was aimed to evaluate the fears and beliefs about ICS in asthmatic patients. Subjects and Methods: Between December 2017 and January 2018, 150 stable asthmatic patients were included in the study. Demographic data (age, education, smoking history, etc.) and asthma-related data (pulmonary function test, drug use) were recorded. The appendix of TOPICOP study applied to the patients with asthma which was composed of 10 questions (five questions about fear of ICS and five questions about beliefs of ICS). Results: The rate of ICS maintain in stable asthmatic patients was found to be 66.6%. According to the survey results, 68% of the patients believed that ICS may lead to weight gain, 52% believed that ICS may lead to infection, 73% believed that ICS may pass into bloodstream, and 67.3% believed that ICS may damage the lungs. It was also found that 90.7% needed to be informed about ICS and 67.3% wanted to cut the ICS drug as soon as possible. Conclusion: We found that treatment adherence may increase, if physicians allocate more time to asthma patients to inform about ICS beneficial effects at the initiating of ICS treatment and control visits.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Medo , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/psicologia , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Antiasmáticos/efeitos adversos , Asma/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Fóbicos/epidemiologia , Transtornos Fóbicos/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Respir Med ; 170: 106045, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32843175

RESUMO

The potential detrimental effects of steroids on the immune system to fight viral infections had always been a concern for patients on long term steroids in chronic conditions. A recent warning from WHO on systemic corticosteroid use amid COVID-19 raised suspicion among public and healthcare professionals regarding the safety of steroid use during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The corticosteroids (inhaled and oral) are commonly prescribed in the management of asthma and COPD patients and any unsolicited changes in medications use may lead to potentially severe exacerbations and may risk patient lives. This article provides a critical review of clinical evidence and offers a detailed discussion on the safety and efficacy of corticosteroids in asthma and COPD patients, both with and without COVID-19.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus , Glucocorticoides/farmacologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Vias de Administração de Medicamentos , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD012977, 2020 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767571

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Asthma is an illness that commonly affects adults and children, and it serves as a common reason for children to attend emergency departments. An asthma exacerbation is characterised by acute or subacute worsening of shortness of breath, cough, wheezing, and chest tightness and may be triggered by viral respiratory infection, poor compliance with usual medication, a change in the weather, or exposure to allergens or irritants. Most children with asthma have mild or moderate exacerbations and respond well to first-line therapy (inhaled short-acting beta-agonists and systemic corticosteroids). However, the best treatment for the small proportion of seriously ill children who do not respond to first-line therapy is not well understood. Currently, a large number of treatment options are available and there is wide variation in management. OBJECTIVES: Main objective - To summarise Cochrane Reviews with or without meta-analyses of randomised controlled trials on the efficacy and safety of second-line treatment for children with acute exacerbations of asthma (i.e. after first-line treatments, titrated oxygen delivery, and administration of intermittent inhaled short-acting beta2-agonists and oral corticosteroids have been tried and have failed) Secondary objectives - To identify gaps in the current evidence base that will inform recommendations for future research and subsequent Cochrane Reviews - To categorise information on reported outcome measures used in trials of escalation of treatment for acute exacerbations of asthma in children, and to make recommendations for development and reporting of standard outcomes in future trials and reviews - To identify relevant randomised controlled trials that have been published since the date of publication of each included review METHODS: We included Cochrane Reviews assessing interventions for children with acute exacerbations of asthma. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. The search is current to 28 December 2019. We also identified trials that were potentially eligible for, but were not currently included in, published reviews. We assessed the quality of included reviews using the ROBIS criteria (tool used to assess risk of bias in systematic reviews). We presented an evidence synthesis of data from reviews alongside an evidence map of clinical trials. Primary outcomes were length of stay, hospital admission, intensive care unit admission, and adverse effects. We summarised all findings in the text and reported data for each outcome in 'Additional tables'. MAIN RESULTS: We identified 17 potentially eligible Cochrane Reviews but extracted data from, and rated the quality of, 13 reviews that reported results for children alone. We excluded four reviews as one did not include any randomised controlled trials (RCTs), one did not provide subgroup data for children, and the last two had been updated and replaced by subsequent reviews. The 13 reviews included 67 trials; the number of trials in each review ranged from a single trial up to 27 trials. The vast majority of comparisons included between one and three trials, involving fewer than 100 participants. The total number of participants included in reviews ranged from 40 to 2630. All studies included children; 16 (24%) included children younger than two years of age. Most of the reviews reported search dates older than four years. We have summarised the published evidence as outlined in Cochrane Reviews. Key findings, in terms of our primary outcomes, are that (1) intravenous magnesium sulfate was the only intervention shown to reduce hospital length of stay (high-certainty evidence); (2) no evidence suggested that any intervention reduced the risk of intensive care admission (low- to very low-certainty evidence); (3) the risk of hospital admission was reduced by the addition of inhaled anticholinergic agents to inhaled beta2-agonists (moderate-certainty evidence), the use of intravenous magnesium sulfate (high-certainty evidence), and the use of inhaled heliox (low-certainty evidence); (4) the addition of inhaled magnesium sulfate to usual bronchodilator therapy appears to reduce serious adverse events during hospital admission (moderate-certainty evidence); (5) aminophylline increased vomiting compared to placebo (moderate-certainty evidence) and increased nausea and nausea/vomiting compared to intravenous beta2-agonists (low-certainty evidence); and (6) the addition of anticholinergic therapy to short-acting beta2-agonists appeared to reduce the risk of nausea (high-certainty evidence) and tremor (moderate-certainty evidence) but not vomiting (low-certainty evidence). We considered 4 of the 13 reviews to be at high risk of bias based on the ROBIS framework. In all cases, this was due to concerns regarding identification and selection of studies. The certainty of evidence varied widely (by review and also by outcome) and ranged from very low to high. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This overview provides the most up-to-date evidence on interventions for escalation of therapy for acute exacerbations of asthma in children from Cochrane Reviews of randomised controlled trials. A vast majority of comparisons involved between one and three trials and fewer than 100 participants, making it difficult to assess the balance between benefits and potential harms. Due to the lack of comparative studies between various treatment options, we are unable to make firm practice recommendations. Intravenous magnesium sulfate appears to reduce both hospital length of stay and the risk of hospital admission. Hospital admission is also reduced with the addition of inhaled anticholinergic agents to inhaled beta2-agonists. However, further research is required to determine which patients are most likely to benefit from these therapies. Due to the relatively rare incidence of acute severe paediatric asthma, multi-centre research will be required to generate high-quality evidence. A number of existing Cochrane Reviews should be updated, and we recommend that a new review be conducted on the use of high-flow nasal oxygen therapy. Important priorities include development of an internationally agreed core outcome set for future trials in acute severe asthma exacerbations and determination of clinically important differences in these outcomes, which can then inform adequately powered future trials.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/uso terapêutico , Asma/terapia , Broncodilatadores/uso terapêutico , Progressão da Doença , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Doença Aguda , Administração por Inalação , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Aminofilina/administração & dosagem , Aminofilina/efeitos adversos , Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Viés , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/uso terapêutico , Hélio , Humanos , Lactente , Tempo de Internação , Antagonistas de Leucotrienos/uso terapêutico , Sulfato de Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Sulfato de Magnésio/efeitos adversos , Sulfato de Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Náusea/induzido quimicamente , Náusea/prevenção & controle , Oxigênio/administração & dosagem , Respiração com Pressão Positiva , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vômito/induzido quimicamente , Trabalho Respiratório/efeitos dos fármacos
14.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 22(8): 834-838, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32800029

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of intermittent versus daily inhalation of budesonide on pulmonary function and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in children with mild persistent asthma. METHODS: A total of 120 children, aged 6-14 years, with mild persistent asthma who attended the hospital from January 2016 to January 2018 were enrolled. The children were divided into an intermittent inhalation group with 60 children (inhalation of budesonide 200 µg/day for 6 weeks when symptoms of asthma appeared) and a daily inhalation group with 60 children (continuous inhalation of budesonide 200 µg/day) by stratified randomization. The children were followed up at months 3, 6, 9, and 12 of treatment. The two groups were compared in terms of baseline data, changes in FeNO and pulmonary function parameters, amount of glucocorticoid used, number of asthma attacks, and asthma control. RESULTS: At the start of treatment, there were no significant differences in baseline data, FeNO, and pulmonary function between the two groups (P>0.05). Over the time of treatment, FeNO gradually decreased and pulmonary function parameters were gradually improved in both groups (P<0.001). Compared with the intermittent inhalation group, the daily inhalation group had a better effect in reducing FeNO and increasing the predicted percentage of forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%pred) (P<0.001). The inhalation method and treatment time had an interaction effect on FeNO and pulmonary function parameters (P<0.001). In the daily inhalation group, FeNO and lung function parameters were improved rapidly and stabilized after 3 months of treatment, while those in the intermittent inhalation group stabilized after 6 months. After 12 months of treatment, there were no significant differences in the increases in body height and body weight and the degree of disease control between the two groups (P>0.05). Compared with the daily inhalation group, the intermittent inhalation group had a significantly lower amount of budesonide inhaled (P<0.05) and a significantly higher number of asthma attacks (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Intermittent inhalation and daily inhalation of budesonide can achieve the same level of asthma control in children with mild persistent asthma and both have no influence on the increases in body height and body weight. Daily inhalation of budesonide can produce a better efficiency in reduing FeNO and increasing FEV1%pred. Although intermittent inhalation can reduce the amount of glucocorticoid used, it may lead to a higher risk of asthma attacks.


Assuntos
Asma , Budesonida/uso terapêutico , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Criança , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Humanos , Óxido Nítrico
17.
PLoS Med ; 17(7): e1003145, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692744

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend stepping down asthma treatment to the minimum effective dose to achieve symptom control, prevent adverse side effects, and reduce costs. Limited data exist on asthma prescription patterns in a real-world setting. We aimed to evaluate the appropriateness of doses prescribed to a UK general asthma population and assess whether stepping down medication increased exacerbations or reliever use, as well as its impact on costs. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used nationwide UK primary care medical records, 2001-2017, to identify 508,459 adult asthma patients managed with preventer medication. Prescriptions of higher-level medication: medium/high-dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) or ICSs + add-on medication (long-acting ß2-agonist [LABA], leukotriene receptor antagonist [LTRA], theophylline, or long-acting muscarinic antagonist [LAMA]) steadily increased over time (2001 = 49.8%, 2017 = 68.3%). Of those prescribed their first preventer, one-third were prescribed a higher-level medication, of whom half had no reliever prescription or exacerbation in the year prior. Of patients first prescribed ICSs + 1 add-on, 70.4% remained on the same medication during a mean follow-up of 6.6 years. Of those prescribed medium/high-dose ICSs as their first preventer, 13.0% already had documented diabetes, cataracts, glaucoma, or osteopenia/osteoporosis. A cohort of 125,341 patients were drawn to assess the impact of stepping down medication: mean age 50.4 years, 39.4% males, 39,881 stepped down. Exposed patients were stepped down by dropping their LABAs or another add-on or by halving their ICS dose (halving their mean-daily dose or their inhaler dose). The primary and secondary outcomes were, respectively, exacerbations and an increase in reliever prescriptions. Multivariable regression was used to assess outcomes and determine the prognostic factors for initiating stepdown. There was no increased exacerbation risk for each possible medication stepdown (adjusted hazard ratio, 95% CI, p-value: ICS inhaler dose = 0.86, 0.77-0.93, p < 0.001; ICS mean daily = 0.80, 0.74-0.87, p < 0.001; LABA = 1.01, 0.92-1.11, p = 0.87, other add-on = 1.00, 0.91-1.09, p = 0.79) and no increase in reliever prescriptions (adjusted odds ratio, 95% CI, p-value: ICS inhaler dose = 0.99, 0.98-1.00, p = 0.59; ICS mean daily = 0.78, 0.76-0.79, p < 0.001; LABA = 0.83, 0.82-0.85, p < 0.001; other add-on = 0.86, 0.85-0.87, p < 0.001). Prognostic factors to initiate stepdown included medication burden, but not medication side effects. National Health Service (NHS) indicative prices were used for cost estimates. Stepping down medication, either LABAs or ICSs, could save annually around £17,000,000 or £8,600,000, respectively. Study limitations include the possibility that prescribed medication may not have been dispensed or adhered to and the reason for stepdown was not documented. CONCLUSION: In this UK study, we observed that asthma patients were increasingly prescribed higher levels of treatment, often without clear clinical indication for such high doses. Stepping down medication did not adversely affect outcomes and was associated with substantial cost savings.


Assuntos
Antiasmáticos/administração & dosagem , Antiasmáticos/economia , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Administração por Inalação , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/economia , Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/economia , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Asma/prevenção & controle , Custos de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
18.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 8(8): 2600-2607, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603901

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Viral infections are known to exacerbate asthma in adults. Previous studies have found few patients with asthma among severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pneumonia cases. However, the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe asthma exacerbation is not known. OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of asthma exacerbation in patients with asthma hospitalized for SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia and compare symptoms and laboratory and radiological findings in patients with and without asthma with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. METHODS: We included 106 patients between March 4 and April 6, 2020, who were hospitalized in the Chest Diseases Department of Strasbourg University Hospital; 23 had asthma. To assess the patients' asthma status, 3 periods were defined: the last month before the onset of COVID-19 symptoms (p1), prehospitalization (p2), and during hospitalization (p3). Severe asthma exacerbations were defined according to Global INitiative for Asthma guidelines during p1 and p2. During p3, we defined severe asthma deterioration as the onset of breathlessness and wheezing requiring systemic corticosteroids and inhaled ß2 agonist. RESULTS: We found no significant difference between patients with and without asthma in terms of severity (length of stay, maximal oxygen flow needed, noninvasive ventilation requirement, and intensive care unit transfer); 52.2% of the patients with asthma had Global INitiative for Asthma step 1 asthma. One patient had a severe exacerbation during p1, 2 patients during p2, and 5 patients were treated with systemic corticosteroids and inhaled ß2 agonist during p3. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that patients with asthma appeared not to be at risk for severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia did not induce severe asthma exacerbation.


Assuntos
Asma/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Agonistas Adrenérgicos beta/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Asma/fisiopatologia , Betacoronavirus , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Respiração Artificial , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos
19.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 41(4): 296-300, 2020 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32605700

RESUMO

Underlying lung disease, especially asthma, has recently been found to be associated with a higher risk of hospitalization with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most commonly used controller medications in patients with asthma. It is unclear whether ICS use increases the risk for severe COVID-19 infection. At the current time, asthma organizations are still recommending the continued use of ICS and other asthma medications to minimize the risk of uncontrolled asthma. However, for patients with asthma and who have recovered from COVID-19 infection, the timing of resumption of asthma therapy is equally uncertain. Pulmonary function testing and exhaled oral nitric oxide testing are aerosol-generating procedures and are currently being severely restricted at most health-care facilities. We presented a case of a patient with cough-variant asthma who developed severe COVID-19 associated acute respiratory distress syndrome with the need for intubation and prolonged mechanical ventilation. We highlighted the potential utility of using COVID-19 RNA detection as well as immunoglobulin G antibody testing to help guide the timing of resumption of asthma therapy.


Assuntos
Corticosteroides/uso terapêutico , Asma/complicações , Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Corticosteroides/administração & dosagem , Corticosteroides/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Algoritmos , Asma/diagnóstico , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/genética , Biomarcadores , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Testes de Função Respiratória , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
Lancet Respir Med ; 8(10): 1000-1012, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32653074

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma who are inadequately controlled on inhaled corticosteroid-long-acting ß2-adrenoceptor agonist (ICS-LABA) combinations might benefit from the addition of a long-acting muscarinic receptor antagonist. The aim of the IRIDIUM study was to assess the efficacy and safety of a once-daily, single-inhaler combination of mometasone furoate, indacaterol acetate, and glycopyrronium bromide (MF-IND-GLY) versus ICS-LABA in patients with inadequately controlled asthma. METHODS: In this 52-week, double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group, active-controlled phase 3 study, patients were recruited from 415 sites across 41 countries. Patients aged 18 to 75 years with symptomatic asthma despite treatment with medium-dose or high-dose ICS-LABA, at least one exacerbation in the previous year, and a percentage of predicted FEV1 of less than 80% were included. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1) via interactive response technology to receive medium-dose or high-dose MF-IND-GLY (80 µg, 150 µg, 50 µg; 160 µg, 150 µg, 50 µg) or MF-IND (160 µg, 150 µg; 320 µg, 150 µg) once daily via Breezhaler, or high-dose fluticasone-salmeterol (FLU-SAL; 500 µg, 50 µg) twice daily via Diskus. The primary outcome was change from baseline in trough FEV1 with MF-IND-GLY versus MF-IND at week 26 in patients in the full analysis set, analysed by means of a mixed model for repeated measures. Safety was assessed in all patients who received at least one dose of study drug. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02571777, and is completed. FINDINGS: Between Dec 8, 2015, and Jun 14, 2019, 3092 of 4851 patients screened were randomly assigned (medium-dose MF-IND-GLY, n=620; high-dose MF-IND-GLY, n=619; medium-dose MF-IND, n=617; high-dose MF-IND, n=618; high-dose FLU-SAL, n=618). 2747 (88·8%) patients completed the 52-week treatment and 321 (10·4%) started but discontinued study treatment prematurely. Medium-dose MF-IND-GLY (treatment difference [Δ] 76 mL [95% CI 41-111]; p<0·001) and high-dose MF-IND-GLY (Δ 65 mL [31-99]; p<0·001) showed superior improvement in trough FEV1 versus corresponding doses of MF-IND at week 26. Improvements in trough FEV1 were greater for both medium-dose MF-IND-GLY (99 mL [64-133]; p<0·001) and high-dose MF-IND-GLY (119 mL [85-154]; p<0·001) than for high-dose FLU-SAL at week 26. Overall, the incidence of adverse events was balanced across the treatment groups. Seven deaths were reported (one with medium-dose MF-IND-GLY, two with high-dose MF-IND-GLY, and four with high-dose MF-IND) during the study; none of these deaths was considered by the investigators to be caused by study drugs or other study-related factors. INTERPRETATION: Once-daily, single-inhaler MF-IND-GLY improved lung function versus ICS-LABA combinations (MF-IND and FLU-SAL) in patients with inadequately controlled asthma. The safety profile was similar across treatment groups. MF-IND-GLY therefore constitutes a good treatment option in these patients. FUNDING: Novartis Pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Asma/tratamento farmacológico , Combinação Fluticasona-Salmeterol/administração & dosagem , Glicopirrolato/administração & dosagem , Indanos/administração & dosagem , Furoato de Mometasona/administração & dosagem , Quinolonas/administração & dosagem , Administração por Inalação , Adolescente , Agonistas de Receptores Adrenérgicos beta 2/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Broncodilatadores/administração & dosagem , Criança , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas Muscarínicos/administração & dosagem , Nebulizadores e Vaporizadores , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
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