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1.
Life Sci ; 248: 117475, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32119963

RESUMO

AIMS: Liver fibrosis is a crucial pathological feature which could result in cirrhosis and hepatocarcinoma. But until now, there is no favourable treatment for it. Apigenin (APG) is a flavonoid, which exhibits efficient anti-liver fibrosis activity, but its underlying mechanisms were rarely studied. So this work aims to estimate the potential therapeutic action of APG on liver fibrosis rats and to gain insight into its system-level mechanisms. MAIN METHODS: Hepatic fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in Wistar rats, and APG was given in the light of the regimen. Biochemical indexes, histopathological change and immunohistochemistry of liver were evaluated. The optimal effect group of APG was selected for further transcriptomic and proteomic analysis. KEY FINDINGS: APG ameliorated liver fibrosis via reducing the levels of AST, ALT, ALP, LDH, Hyp, TP, TB, DB, HA, LN, PCIII and IV-C, mitigating fibrosis and inflammation of liver in H&E and Masson staining. Mechanistically, APG elevated the activity of ALB, SOD and GSH-PX with reducing the level of MDA. The results of microarray and TMT revealed that 4919 genes and 4876 proteins were differentially expressed in the APG and model groups. Besides, transcriptomics and proteomics analyses unfolded 120 overlapped proteins, enriched in 111 GO terms containing apoptotic process, angiogenesis, cell migration and proliferation, etc. Meanwhile, KEGG pathway analysis showed that 26 pathways containing HIF-1/MAPK/eNOS/VEGF/PI3K/Akt signaling pathway, regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion mostly. SIGNIFICANCE: APG can ameliorate CCl4-induced liver fibrosis via VEGF-mediated FAK phosphorylation through the MAPKs, PI3K/Akt, HIF-1, ROS, and eNOS pathways, which may hopefully become the anti-liver fibrosis activity of natural product.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Apigenina/farmacologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/prevenção & controle , Cirrose Hepática/prevenção & controle , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Albuminas/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Bilirrubina/sangue , Tetracloreto de Carbono/administração & dosagem , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/patologia , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/genética , Quinase 1 de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Malondialdeído/antagonistas & inibidores , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/genética , Proteínas Quinases Ativadas por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/metabolismo , Proteômica/métodos , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/genética , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
2.
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi ; 28(1): 47-52, 2020 Jan 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023699

RESUMO

Objective: To establish and evaluate diagnostic efficacy and applicability of serum Golgi protein (GP) 73 based non-invasive diagnostic model with other conventional serological indicators for compensated stage hepatitis B cirrhosis. Methods: 666 cases with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) who had visited to the Fifth Medical Center of People's Liberation Army General Hospital from January 2010 to December 2017 were selected as the study subjects, and were classified according to compensated stage cirrhosis into clinical and pathological diagnosis group based on whether or not the liver histological examination was performed. A diagnostic model of compensated stage hepatitis B cirrhosis in the clinical diagnosis group was established. The current clinically used diagnostic model of liver cirrhosis, aspartate aminotransferase/platelet ratio index (APRI), fibrosis index (FIB)-4 and liver stiffness measurement (LSM) were compared. Eventually, the diagnostic model was verified step by step by pathological diagnosis group. Results: The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of GP73 and APRI, FIB-4, and LSM for cirrhosis patients in the clinical diagnosis group were 0.842, 0.857, 0.864, and 0.832, respectively. The diagnostic efficiency of the four indicators were of similar (P value > 0.05). A diagnostic model of compensated stage hepatitis B cirrhosis (GAPA) using logistic regression analysis was established: LogitP = 1/ [1 + exp (1.614-0.054 × GP73-0.045 × Age + 0.030 × PLT-0.015 × ALP)]. The AUC of the model was as high as 0.940 and the optimal cut-off value were 0.41. The corresponding diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 0.92 and 0.82, respectively. The diagnostic efficiency was better than that of APRI, FIB-4, LSM and GP73 alone (P < 0.05). The AUC of GAPA was 0.877 in the pathological diagnosis group, which was similar to the diagnostic efficacy of LSM (0.891) and FIB-4 (0.847) (P > 0.1), but still superior to that of APRI (0.811) and GP73 alone (0.780) (P < 0.001). Conclusion: GAPA, a diagnostic model for compensated stage hepatitis B cirrhosis established in this study, has a good diagnostic efficacy in both the clinical and pathological diagnosis group, and has certain auxiliary diagnostic value in the areas where resources are relatively scarce or where LSM has not been developed.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico , Fígado/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Biópsia , Fibrose , Hepatite B , Humanos , Fígado/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/sangue , Curva ROC , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
3.
Life Sci ; 248: 117464, 2020 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32097667

RESUMO

AIMS: The present study was carried out to investigate the influences of Selenium/Zinc-Enriched probiotics (SeZnP) on growth performance, serum enzyme activity, antioxidant capability, inflammatory factors and gene expression associated with Wistar rats inflated under high ambient thermal-stress. MAIN METHODS: Sixty male rates with six-weeks of age were randomly allocated into five groups (12 per group) and fed basal diet (Control), basal diet supplemented with probiotics (P), Zinc-Enriched probiotics (ZnP, 100 mg/L), Selenium-Enriched Probiotics (SeP, 0.3 mg/L) and Selenium/Zinc-Enriched probiotics (SeZnP, 0.3 mg + 100 mg/L). The experiment lasted 30 days. Blood and Tissues samples were taken to investigate serum enzyme activity, antioxidants capability and inflammatory factors by using of commercial kits and antioxidant, heat shock and inflammatory related molecules expressions were determined by qRT-PCR. KEY FINDINGS: Data analysis revealed that thermal stress significantly increased the level of Aspartate-aminotransferase, Alanine-aminotransferase, Lactate-dehydrogenase, Creatine-kinase, blood urea nitrogen, Creatinine and Alkaline phosphatase compared to P, ZnP, SeP or SeZnP groups (P < 0.01). However, supplementation of ZnP, SeP, and SeZnP significantly enhanced glutathione content, glutathione-peroxidase & superoxide-dismutase activity, and decreased malondialdehyde content (P < 0.05). Moreover, the concentration of IL-2, IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly increased while IL-10 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the expression of GPx1 and SOD1 genes were significantly increased, but COX-2, iNOS, HSP70 and 90 mRNA levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05). Finally, the highest influence of the mentioned parameters was observed in SeZnP supplemented group. SIGNIFICANCE: Our study suggests that SeZnP supplementation serves as possible and best nutritive than ZnP or SeP for Wistar rats raising under high ambient temperature.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/administração & dosagem , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/efeitos dos fármacos , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Alanina Transaminase/genética , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/genética , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Nitrogênio da Ureia Sanguínea , Creatina Quinase/genética , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/genética , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Glutationa/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Resposta ao Choque Térmico/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/genética , L-Lactato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Superóxido Dismutase/genética , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
4.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(4): 1787-1796, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31849065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of spinach (HES) on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In the prevention phase, 18 Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus 400 mg kg-1 HES, or a chow diet for 7 weeks. For the treatment phase, after the induction of NAFLD, they were fed a high-fat diet, a high-fat diet plus 400 mg kg-1 HES, a chow diet, or chow diet plus 400 mg kg-1 HES for 4 weeks (n = 6). RESULTS: Weight gain (P = 0.01), food intake (P < 0.01), serum glucose (P = 0.01), triglyceride (TG) (P = 0.02), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (P = 0.01), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (P = 0.02), liver steatosis, and the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) activity score (NAS) (P < 0.01) in the high-fat group were statistically higher than in the other groups at the end of the prevention phase. Feeding spinach extract to rats on a high-fat diet decreased serum glucose (P = 0.01), total cholesterol (TCh) (P < 0.01), AST (P = 0.01), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) (P < 0.01), and liver steatosis (P < 0.01) in the treatment phase. CONCLUSION: Overall, spinach extract showed beneficial effects in the prevention and treatment of NAFLD. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Spinacia oleracea/química , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Glicemia/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
5.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 14: 8943-8959, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31819411

RESUMO

Objective: The study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of lactobionic acid (LA) conjugated quercetin (Q) loaded organically modified silica nanoparticles (LA-Q-ORMOSIL) with bulk quercetin to mitigate cyclophosphamide (CP) induced liver injury. Methodology: Q-ORMOSIL nanoparticles were synthesized and characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, Zeta sizer, FTIR and EDX. Further, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release kinetic study was done. Q-ORMOSIL nanoparticles surface were modified with lactobionic acid, a ligand for the asialoglycoprotein receptor on the hepatocyte surface. The hepatoprotective effects of Q-ORMOSIL and LA-Q-ORMOSIL nanoparticles were evaluated in vivo. Cyclophosphamide (20 mg/kg/day, i.p) was co-administered for seven days with bulk quercetin (50mg/kg/day) and quercetin nanoparticles (50µg/kg/day). After seven days, the number of biomarkers for liver function test and oxidative stress were determined in liver homogenate. Histopathological changes were also analyzed in control and treated liver tissues. Results: Physiochemical characterization of LA-Q-ORMOSIL nanoparticles depicts that the particles formed were of approx. 80 nm, spherical, monodispersed in nature and showed sustain drug release in in vitro study. Our results further suggested that Q-ORMOSIL and LA-Q-ORMOSIL nanoparticles significantly decreased tissue TBARS, ROS levels and ALT, AST, and ALP activities compared to CP induced group. On the other hand, tissue antioxidant levels (GSH, GST, and catalase) showed a significant increase in LA-Q-ORMOSIL treated group compared to the CP treated group confirming its high therapeutic efficacy during liver injury. Conclusion: Targeted nanoquercetin demonstrated a significant hepatoprotective effect compared to bulk quercetin against CP-induced hepatotoxicity and it considerably reduced bulk quercetin dose level to many folds. Bulk quercetin has low bioavailability and thus, from obtained data we suggest that LA-Q-ORMOSIL nanoparticles provide high therapeutic value in protecting experimental animals against CP-induced liver injury. We also propose multifunctional dye-doped LA-modified ORMOSIL nanoparticles for future studies in facilitating nanoparticles uptake to hepatocytes for liver diagnosis and treatment.


Assuntos
Ciclofosfamida/efeitos adversos , Dissacarídeos/química , Fígado/patologia , Nanopartículas/química , Quercetina/farmacologia , Dióxido de Silício/química , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Fosfatase Alcalina/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Liberação Controlada de Fármacos , Cinética , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Nanopartículas/ultraestrutura , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tamanho da Partícula , Ratos Wistar , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(45): e17851, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31702644

RESUMO

To evaluate the safety and efficacy of the novel technique, transjugular portal vein embolization (TPVE).A single-center retrospective review of 18 patients (12 males and 6 females; mean age, 62 years) who underwent TPVE between January 2012 and January 2013 was conducted. The technical success rate, future liver remnant (FLR) volume, total liver volume (TLV) and FLR/TLV ratio after PVE were analyzed. Liver function, including total bilirubin (TB), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and International Normalized Ratio (INR), was assessed before and after PVE. Any complications of TPVE and liver resection after TPVE were recorded.TPVE was performed on 18 patients before right hepatic resection for both primary and secondary hepatic malignancies (10 hepatocellular carcinomas, 4 cases of colorectal liver metastasis, and 4 cholangiocarcinomas). Technical success was achieved in 100% of patients (18 of 18). The mean FRL significantly increased to 580 ±â€Š155 mL (P < .001) after PVE. The mean FLR/TLV ratio (%) significantly increased to 34 ±â€Š4 (P < .001) after PVE. One patient suffered septicemia after TPVE. A small number patients experienced mild to moderate abdominal pain during TPVE. No other major complications occurred after TPVE in our study. The patient who developed septicemia died 3 days after the surgery as a result of this complication and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS).Transjugular portal vein embolization is a safe, efficacious, and promising novel technique to induce hypertrophy of the FLR.


Assuntos
Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/terapia , Colangiocarcinoma/terapia , Embolização Terapêutica/métodos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/terapia , Idoso , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Neoplasias dos Ductos Biliares/metabolismo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/metabolismo , Colangiocarcinoma/metabolismo , Embolização Terapêutica/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Hepáticas/metabolismo , Neoplasias Hepáticas/secundário , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Tissue Cell ; 60: 60-69, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31582019

RESUMO

This study aimed to evaluate the histopathological and ultrastructural changes in sciatic nerve barriers after exposure to different doses of nicotine. Twenty-seven adult male rats were divided into 2 groups; group I served as control (n = 9) and group II that received nicotine (n = 18) was subdivided into two equal subgroups; group IIa and group IIb that were injected subcutaneously daily for one month with nicotine at a dose of 3 mg/kg and 6 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Specimens of sciatic nerve were processed for light and electron microscopy. Immunohistochemical expression of ZO-1 and vascular endothelium growth factor (VEGF) were investigated. Abundance of mRNA for VEGF was determined via qRT-PCR. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST) were measured. Group IIb showed increased perineural fibrosis and myelin abnormalities. ZO-1 expression was significantly decreased. Schwann cells showed features of apoptosis and blood capillaries showed disrupted lining. High statistical difference in the level of mRNA expression of VEGF between group IIb and group I was found. There was decreased level of TAC and increased MDA, ALT and AST. A dose-dependent nicotine-induced oxidative stress on the sciatic nerve occurred via disruption of nerve barriers, altered VEGF and ZO-1 levels.


Assuntos
Nicotina/toxicidade , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Células de Schwann , Nervo Isquiático/metabolismo , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo , Proteína da Zônula de Oclusão-1/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratos , Células de Schwann/metabolismo , Células de Schwann/ultraestrutura , Nervo Isquiático/ultraestrutura
8.
Med Sci Monit ; 25: 7182-7190, 2019 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550244

RESUMO

BACKGROUND The role of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in liver fibrosis remains poorly understood. This study aimed to use a mouse model of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4)-induced liver fibrosis to investigate the effects of BM-MSCs during liver hypoxia and the involvement of the transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1) and SMADs pathway. MATERIAL AND METHODS Thirty C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into the control group (n=10), the model group (n=10), and the BM-MSC-treated model group (n=10). In the model group, liver fibrosis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of CCl4. BM-MSCs were transplanted after 12 weeks of CCl4 treatment. The serum biochemical parameters and histological changes in the liver, using histochemical stains, were investigated. The expression of collagen type I (collagen I), alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), TGF-ß1, SMAD3, SMAD7, hypoxia-inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1alpha), and vascular endothelial grow factor (VEGF) were assessed by immunohistochemistry and quantitative real-time polymerase chain (RT-qPCR) reaction. RESULTS Treatment with BM-MSCs reduced the expression of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) compared with the model group, and reduced liver fibrosis determined histologically using hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson's trichrome staining compared with the model group. The area of liver fibrosis decreased after BM-MSCs treatment (p<0.05). Protein expression of HIF-1alpha and VEGF were decreased after BM-MSCs treatment (p<0.05). Transplantation of BM-MSCs reduced the mRNA expression of TGF-ß1, collagen I, alpha-SMA, and SMAD3 (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS BM-MSC transplantation reduced CCl4-induced murine liver fibrosis, indicating that in a hypoxic microenvironment, BM-MSCs may inhibit the TGFß-1/SMADs pathway.


Assuntos
Fibrose/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Medula Óssea/metabolismo , Tetracloreto de Carbono/farmacologia , Hipóxia Celular/fisiologia , China , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fibrose/fisiopatologia , Hipóxia/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia , Fígado/patologia , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Cirrose Hepática/patologia , Masculino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/métodos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Smad/metabolismo , Proteínas Smad/fisiologia , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
9.
Food Funct ; 10(10): 6503-6516, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31536073

RESUMO

The nutritional function of vegetable oil is influenced by different oil extraction methods. In this study, the effects of different processing techniques on the quality of rapeseed oil and animal lipid metabolism were evaluated. Results showed that rapeseed oil obtained by the aqueous enzymatic extraction (AEE) method had the highest polyphenol (152.08 ± 11.44 mg GAE per kg), α-tocopherol (208.97 ± 15.84 mg kg-1), and ß-carotene (5.40 mg kg-1) contents and a better oxidation resistance. It was noted in an experiment on rats fed with diets containing rapeseed oils that AEE rapeseed oil reduces total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), aspartate transaminase (ALT) and alanine transaminase (AST) in high-fat diet rats by 27.09%, 11.81%, 35.52%, 31.02% and 27.61%, respectively, and the body and liver weights of rats were decreased. mRNA expression indicated that AEE could significantly down-regulate fatty acid synthase (FAS) and up-regulate acyl-CoA oxidase 1 (ACOX1) gene expression levels (P < 0.05). These results suggested that the AEE method can increase the content of trace active substances in rapeseed oil and ameliorate chronic diseases induced by a high-fat diet.


Assuntos
Óleo de Brassica napus/química , Óleo de Brassica napus/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Brassica napus/química , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Valor Nutritivo , Óleo de Brassica napus/isolamento & purificação , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Sementes/química , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31500120

RESUMO

Physical exercise strongly affects human metabolism and causes biochemical changes. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between routine plasma biomarker levels and recovery efficiency in soccer players during an entire competitive match season. The players participating in the study were divided into a midfielder/defender group (seven midfielders and seven defenders) and a goalie/substitute group (six persons-goalkeepers and players with a short cumulative match-time). The fasting capillary blood samples were taken 17-24 h after each competitive match. The blood plasma was used to determine the creatinine, urea, alkaline phosphatase, creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate and alanine aminotransferase, iron and magnesium levels of the athletes. The levels of (AST) (aspartate aminotransferase), (ALT) (alanine aminotransferase) and (Cr) creatinine were higher in the midfielder/defender group than in the control group, but only AST and Cr significantly varied over time (AST decreased, and Cr increased with time). The (LDH) (lactate dehydrogenase) activity and urea level were significantly lower in the midfielder/defender group than in the goalie/substitute group, and it significantly varied over time (LDH decreased, and urea increased with time). No differences in the (CK) creatine kinase and (ALP) alkaline phosphatase activities between the groups was found, although CK increased significantly with time in the midfielder/defender group (particularly midfielders in the spring round). In midfielders, the AST activity and the iron level were significantly lower in the spring than in the autumn round. On the contrary, ALT, CK, urea and magnesium levels were significantly higher in the spring than in autumn round. A long-term measurement of biochemical parameters in elite soccer players indicated that AST, CK, LDH and creatinine levels, when analyzed together, could constitute a useful set of markers for monitoring recovery periods.


Assuntos
Atletas , Biomarcadores/sangue , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Futebol , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
11.
Aquat Toxicol ; 215: 105284, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479758

RESUMO

Metal pollution in the environment is a serious threat to the biological sustainability of coastal ecosystems. However, our current understanding of the biological effects of metals in these ecosystems is limited. Herein, we investigated the responses of the sea slug Onchidium reevesii to persistent sublethal Cd environmental stress. Dynamic expression was analyzed using various biomarkers. The full-length cDNA of O. reevesii metallothionein (MT) was cloned and consists of 1639 nucleotides encoding a 65 amino acid polypeptide. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Or-MT has conserved Cys residues typical of MTs, including a typical Cys-X-Cys motif, implying that it can function the same as the MT of other shellfish. Expression of Or-MT in response to Cd varied in different tissues, and was highest in gastropod tissues. Thus, regiotemporal expression of MT may be useful for assessing pollution in coastal areas. Cellular immunity (in the hemolymph) and enzyme activity (in the hepatopancreas) were investigated along with hemocyte viability, hemocyte phagocytosis, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) activities. Hemocyte viability was elevated under continuous Cd exposure but hemocyte phagocytosis was decreased. SOD and AST activities in the hepatopancreas fluctuated considerably, and SOD activity was more sensitive. SOD activity was lowest at 4 h and highest at 12 h, while AST activity peaked at 2 h and was lowest at 48 h. Thus, changes in enzyme activity may reveal adaptation to stress. Furthermore, the response patterns of certain enzymes, cellular immunity, and MT expression in O. reevesii could serve as biomarkers of Cd pollution in aquatic environments.


Assuntos
Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Cádmio/toxicidade , Gastrópodes/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , Metalotioneína/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Exposição Ambiental , Gastrópodes/química , Gastrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Gastrópodes/genética , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência de Aminoácidos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
12.
Ghana Med J ; 53(2): 142-149, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481810

RESUMO

Introduction: Oesophageal variceal (OV) bleeding is a potentially fatal consequence of portal hypertension in patients with liver cirrhosis. Upper GI endoscopy is recommended for screening for varices in cirrhotics for early detection and treatment, however, this is invasive. The purpose of this study was to assess the predictive values of the noninvasive tests in detecting the presence of OV. Methods: A cross-sectional hospital-based study involving 149 patients with liver cirrhosis was carried out at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital from 1st November 2015 to 25th November 2016. Relevant clinical parameters assessed included Child-Pugh class, ascites and splenomegaly. Full blood count and liver function tests, abdominal ultrasound and gastroscopy were done for all the participants. Receiver operating characteristic curve was generated to determine the cut-off values for the best sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of the variables (serum albumin, platelet count (PC), aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase (ALT), PC/Spleen diameter( SD)) with regard to the presence of OV. Results: On gastroscopy, 135 (90.60%) had OV and 14 patients (9.40%) had no OV. One hundred and eleven of the varices (82.22%) were large varices and the rest (17.78%) small varices. The overall mean of serum albumin, PC and PC/SD were not significant predictors of the presence of OV. However, the overall mean of AST/ALT significantly predicted the presence of OV. A PC/SD cut off value of ≤833.3 had 72.62% diagnostic accuracy for diagnosing all OV. Conclusion: PC/SD cut-off could be used to screen cirrhotics for OV and treatment initiated in geographical areas lacking endoscopy facilities. Funding: None declared.


Assuntos
Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/epidemiologia , Cirrose Hepática/metabolismo , Adulto , Endoscopia do Sistema Digestório , Varizes Esofágicas e Gástricas/etiologia , Feminino , Gana , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Fígado/diagnóstico por imagem , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Cirrose Hepática/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Contagem de Plaquetas , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Curva ROC , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo , Baço/diagnóstico por imagem , Esplenomegalia/diagnóstico por imagem , Esplenomegalia/epidemiologia , Ultrassonografia
13.
Life Sci ; 235: 116835, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493480

RESUMO

Sleep is crucial to improve athlete performance and their circadian rhythm, but sleep patterns may be disturbed because athletes participate in several competitions. In addition, intensive training programs can cause muscle pain and psychological stress in athletes, resulting in a lack of sleep. Sleep also plays a critical role in the recovery of muscle injury induced by exercise. The current study evaluated the effect of sleep deprivation on the recovery of muscle injury induced by high-intensity exercise in a mouse model. In this study, 28 mice were randomly assigned to four groups (N = 7): control (Control), exercise (EX), sleep deprivation (SD), and sleep deprivation with exercise (EX+SD). The mice from the EX and EX+SD groups were subjected to high-intensity swimming. The results showed that 72-h sleep deprivation increased food intake and reduced body weight. However, the manipulation of 8-week exercise and/or 72-h sleep deprivation did not have any effect in the elevated plus maze task and tail suspension test. Interestingly, the EX+SD group exhibited improved memory performance in the Morris water maze and impaired motor activity in the open field test. According to the TNF-α level and aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and creatine phosphokinase (CK) activities, only the EX+SD group exhibited muscle impairment. Overall, high-intensity exercise may cause muscle injury, and adequate sleep can recover muscle damage. However, sleep deprivation reduces protein synthesis, which decreases the ability to restore muscle damage and aggravates the harmful effect of high-intensity exercise.


Assuntos
Músculos/lesões , Músculos/fisiopatologia , Condicionamento Físico Animal/fisiologia , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/fisiopatologia , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Creatina Quinase/metabolismo , Resposta de Imobilidade Tônica/fisiologia , Masculino , Aprendizagem em Labirinto/fisiologia , Camundongos , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Músculos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
14.
Transplant Proc ; 51(8): 2823-2827, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493918

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hepatic ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is regarded as a serious concern in clinical practice. Citric acid reduces oxidative stress and inflammation during hypoxia and reoxygenation. Our objective was to investigate the protective effect of citric acid against hepatic I/R injury in rats. METHODS: We fed Sprague-Dawley rats either citric acid (100 mg/kg/d) or saline. One week later, ischemia was induced by clamping the rats' common hepatic artery and portal vein for 30 minutes. The rats were randomly divided into 3 major groups that were treated as follows: 1. the sham operated group; 2. the I/R group; and 3. the I/R-citric acid group. RESULTS: Compared to the sham group, the I/R group had higher expression of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase and lower expression of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, antioxidant, nitric oxide, and albumin. Compared to the I/R group, the I/R-citric acid group had higher expression of catalase, superoxide dismutase, antioxidants, and nitric oxide, and lower expression of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that citric acid therapy has significant therapeutic potential in ischemic liver injury.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Ácido Cítrico/uso terapêutico , Hepatopatias/prevenção & controle , Fígado/irrigação sanguínea , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/prevenção & controle , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Ácido Cítrico/farmacologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hepatopatias/metabolismo , Masculino , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
15.
World J Gastroenterol ; 25(28): 3664-3668, 2019 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391764

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most prevalent cause of chronic liver disease worldwide. NAFLD is considerably more frequent in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) than in the general population and is also more severe histologically in this group. Sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, the newest class of antidiabetic agents, appear to represent a promising option for the management of NAFLD in patients with T2DM. In a number of studies, treatment with SGLT2 inhibitors resulted in a reduction in hepatic steatosis and in transaminase levels. However, existing studies are small, their follow-up period was short and none evaluated the effects of SGLT2 inhibitors on liver histology. Accordingly, larger studies are needed to verify these preliminary results and define the role of SGLT2 inhibitors in the treatment of NAFLD in patients with T2DM.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico , Alanina Transaminase/análise , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/análise , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Humanos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Testes de Função Hepática , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/complicações , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/farmacologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109083, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387169

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial dysfunction is an important mechanism of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Developing mitochondrial regulators/nutrients from natural products to remedy mitochondrial dysfunction represent attractive strategies for NAFLD therapy. In China, Polygonatum kingianum (PK) has been used as a herb and food nutrient for centuries. So far, studies in which the effects of PK on NAFLD are evaluated are lacking. Our study aims at identifying the effects and mechanism of action of PK on NAFLD based on mitochondrial regulation. METHODS: A NAFLD rat model was induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and rats were intragastrically given PK (1, 2 and 4 g/kg) for 14 weeks. Changes in body weight, food intake, histological parameters, organ indexes, biochemical parameters and mitochondrial indicators involved in oxidative stress, energy metabolism, fatty acid metabolism, and apoptosis were investigated. RESULTS: PK significantly inhibited the HFD-induced increase of alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, total cholesterol (TC), and low density lipoprotein cholesterol in serum, and TC and triglyceride in the liver. In addition, PK reduced high density lipoprotein cholesterol and liver enlargement without affecting food intake. PK also remarkably inhibited the HFD-induced increase of malondialdehyde and the reduction of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, ATP synthase, and complex I and II, in mitochondria. Moreover, mRNA expression of carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1 and uncoupling protein-2 was significantly up-regulated and down-regulated after PK treatment, respectively. Finally, PK notably inhibited the HFD-induced increase of caspase 9, caspase 3 and Bax expression in hepatocytes, and the decrease of expression of Bcl-2 in hepatocytes and cytchrome c in mitochondria. CONCLUSION: PK alleviated HFD-induced NAFLD by promoting mitochondrial functions. Thus, PK may be useful mitochondrial regulators/nutrients to remedy mitochondrial dysfunction and alleviate NAFLD.


Assuntos
Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Mitocondriais/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/tratamento farmacológico , Preparações de Plantas/farmacologia , Polygonatum/química , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Caspases/metabolismo , China , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Hepatócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hepatócitos/patologia , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/patologia , Doenças Mitocondriais/metabolismo , Doenças Mitocondriais/patologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109204, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387177

RESUMO

We wished to investigate the role of a tilapia skin collagen polypeptide (TSCP; molecular weight <3 kDa) in alleviating liver and kidney injuries in aging mice induced by d-galactose (d-gal) and its underlying mechanism of action. First, we characterized TSCP. TSCP was passed through a 3-kDa ultrafiltration membrane, desalted in water by a solid-phase extraction column, purified further by reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography, and analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. TSCP contained 17 types of amino acids (AAs) and 41 peptide chains of length 7 AAs to 22 AAs. The content of free AAs and total AAs of TSCP was 13.5% and 93.79%, respectively. Next, we undertook animal experiments. Mice were injected once-daily with D-gal (300 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 8 weeks, and TSCP was administered simultaneously once-daily by intragastric gavage. TSCP could visibly improve the decreased body weight, depressed appetite, and mental deterioration of mice triggered by d-gal. TSCP could also alleviate d-gal-induced damage to the liver and kidneys according to histopathology (especially high-dose TSCP). Consistent with these macroscopic and pathologic changes, TSCP could also prevent d-gal-induced increases in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, lipid peroxidation, creatinine and uric acid, as well as decreases in serum levels of immunoglobulin (Ig)G and IgM. Moreover, TSCP improved the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, but also inhibited the increases in the levels of malondialdehyde and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the liver and kidneys of d-gal-treated mice. These results suggest that TSCP can alleviate the injuries to the liver and kidneys in aging mice induced by d-gal, and that its mechanism of action might be, at least partially, associated with attenuation of oxidative stress and enhancement of immune function.


Assuntos
Colágeno/farmacologia , Galactose/efeitos adversos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Peptídeos/farmacologia , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , Tilápia/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdeído/metabolismo , Camundongos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 117: 109140, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387195

RESUMO

Previously non-isolated compounds (scopoletin and ß-D-Glucopyranoside, (1R)-O-isopropyl 6-O-(2,3,4-tri-O-acetyl-ß-D-xylopyranosyl)-2,3,4-triacetate) were isolated from an organic extract of the Cnidoscolus chayamansa stem. Also, lupeol acetate (main compound, 49.7 mg/g of dry extract) and scopoletin (0.19 mg/g of dry extract) were quantified by HPLC analysis from this organic extract. The protective activity of the C. chayamansa organic extract against hepatotoxicity induced by antitubercular drugs [Rifampicin (50 mg/kg), Isoniazid (50 mg/kg), and Pyrazinamide (100 mg/kg)] are reported. The extract was tested at 200 and 400 mg/kg in Balb/C mice during 85 days, using silymarin (2.5 mg/kg) as positive control. Liver damage was determined using biochemical parameters (AST, ALT, ALP, CHOL, HDL TG, Urea, and CREA), histological analysis, and evaluation of oxidative stress (SOD, CAT, Gpx, Lpx and POx). The extract at both doses favored body weight gain with respect to the anti-TB group; the dose of 200 mg/kg was better. Also, the extract at both doses decreased the values of transaminases (AST, ALT) enzymes (p < 0.05) vs. anti-TB group. In oxidative stress parameters, the SOD value was decreased, as were the levels of peroxidation of lipids and oxidative protein in the group with C. chayamansa extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg vs. the anti-TB group. Histological analyses from liver showed the absence of steatosis in the extract group at 400 mg/kg, and moderate steatosis in the silymarin and extract (at 200 mg/kg) groups with respect to anti-TB group, which demonstrated a steatosis. It should be noted that during the study period, none of the treated mice died. In conclusion, the CHCl3: MeOH extract of C. chayamansa has a hepatoprotective effect against hepatotoxicity induced by anti-TB drugs.


Assuntos
Antituberculosos/efeitos adversos , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/tratamento farmacológico , Euphorbiaceae/química , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Testes de Função Hepática/métodos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
J Sci Food Agric ; 99(15): 6822-6832, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385307

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides were found to alleviate acute hepatitis significantly. In this study, we purified and identified ACE inhibitory peptide from cashew to evaluate its protective role on alcohol-induced acute hepatitis in mice. RESULTS: The ACE inhibitory peptides were purified by using consecutive chromatographic techniques. One of these peptides (FETISFK) exhibited the highest ACE inhibition rate (91.04 ± 0.31%). In vivo, the results showed that ACE inhibitory peptide decreased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) caused by alcohol exposure. Moreover, it could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH), and decrease the level of malondialdehyde (MDA). It was also found to down-regulate markedly the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α). It could also decrease the expression of ACE, angiotensin II (AngII) and angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R). CONCLUSION: These findings support the view that the ACE inhibitory peptide alleviated acute hepatitis by down-regulating the ACE-AngII-AT1 R axis, broadening the research approach to prevent acute hepatitis, and providing experimental data for the development and utilization of cashews. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Anacardium/química , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/química , Hepatite/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Doença Aguda/terapia , Álcoois/efeitos adversos , Angiotensina II/genética , Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Aspartato Aminotransferases/genética , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Hepatite/enzimologia , Hepatite/etiologia , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Nozes/química , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/isolamento & purificação , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(3): e20180646, 2019 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411259

RESUMO

The hepatoprotective effects of the ethanolic extracts of propolis (EEP) on alcohol-induced liver steatosis were investigated in Wistar rats. Chronic alcoholic fatty liver was induced by administration of 52% alcohol to male Wistar rats at the dose of 1% body weight for 7 weeks. Then animals were simultaneously treated with 50% ethanol solutions of EEP or normal saline at the dose of 0.1% body weight for 4 further weeks. Serological analyses and liver histopathology studies were performed to investigate the development of steatosis. Microarray analysis was conducted to investigate the alterations of hepatic gene expression profiling. Our results showed that 4-week treatment of EEP helped to restore the levels of various blood indices, liver function enzymes and the histopathology of liver tissue to normal levels. Results from the microarray analysis revealed that the hepatic expressions of genes involved in lipogenesis were significantly down-regulated by EEP treatment, while the transcriptional expressions of functional genes participating in fatty acids oxidation were markedly increased. The ability of EEP to reduce the negative effects of alcohol on liver makes propolis a potential natural product for the alternative treatment of alcoholic fatty liver.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/metabolismo , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Própole/metabolismo , Substâncias Protetoras/metabolismo , Alanina Transaminase/metabolismo , Animais , Apiterapia/métodos , Aspartato Aminotransferases/metabolismo , Colesterol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Ácidos Graxos/biossíntese , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/tratamento farmacológico , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/genética , Fígado Gorduroso Alcoólico/patologia , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/genética , Hepatopatias Alcoólicas/patologia , Masculino , Oxirredução , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Própole/química , Própole/uso terapêutico , Substâncias Protetoras/química , Substâncias Protetoras/uso terapêutico , Ratos Wistar , Análise Serial de Tecidos/métodos , Transcrição Genética/genética , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
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