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1.
J Wound Care ; 30(Sup9a): XIVi-XIViii, 2021 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34597173

RESUMO

Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external auditory canal caused mainly by the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus luchuensis, an industrially important fungus, is a member of Aspergillus section Nigri. In this report, we present a case of otomycosis due to Aspergillus luchuensis in a 43-year-old female patient. We performed a partial PCR-sequencing of ß-tubulin and calmodulin genes to identify the isolate to the species level. Further, we determined the in vitro susceptibility of the isolate to nystatin, clotrimazole and itraconazole according to the Clinical & Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M38-A2 protocol. Accordingly, the minimum inhibitory concentrations of clotrimazole, nystatin and itraconazole were 0.25µg/mL, 0.5µg/mL and 1µg/mL, respectively. This is the first report of clinically relevant isolation of Aspergillus luchuensis identified by a molecular technique as a causative agent of otomycosis.


Assuntos
Otomicose , Adulto , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergillus/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Otomicose/diagnóstico , Otomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
2.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(suppl 3): e20200867, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586176

RESUMO

Solid state fermentation is a promising technology largely used in biotechnology process and is a suitable strategy for producing low-cost enzymatic products. At the present study, a novel enzyme obtained through solid state fermentation using Aspergillus sydowii was herein purified and characterized. The fermentations used coffee ground residue as substrate and the crude enzyme was submitted through further purification steps of: acetonic precipitation, DEAE-Sephadex and Superdex G-75 column. Both crude and purified enzymes were submitted to biochemical characterization of their thermostability, optimal temperature and pH, effects of inhibitors and metal ions. A purified protease was obtained with yield of 5.9-fold and 53% recovery, with maximal proteolytic activity of 352.0 U/mL. SDS-PAGE revealed a band of protein at 47.0 kDa. The enzyme activity was abolished in the presence of phenyl-methyl sulfonyl fluoride and partially inhibited against Triton X-100 (78.0%). The optimal activity was found in pH 8.0 at 45°C of temperature. Besides, the enzyme showed stability between 35°C and 50°C. It was possible to determine appropriate conditions to the obtainment of thermostable proteases with biotechnological interest associated with a method that concomitantly shows excellent production levels and recovery waste raw material in a very profitable process.


Assuntos
Café , Peptídeo Hidrolases , Aspergillus , Fermentação , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Peso Molecular , Temperatura
3.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(4): e20191581, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586315

RESUMO

Environmental pollution may be considered one of the main problems affecting the world population. As the effluents from textile industries are the largest representatives of sources of pollution of water bodies due to the disposal of colored compounds in the environment. Microorganisms capable of thriving in textile wastewater may exhibit metabolic machinery to synthesize a wide variety of enzymes and/or secondary metabolites of industrial interest. The present work investigated the biotechnological potential of filamentous fungi from wastewater of a textile industry for the production of laccase, cellulase, amylase and lipase enzymes and their potential for discoloration capacity of Remazol Brilliant Blue R synthetic dye. The isolate Aspergillus sydowii (ITF 30) presented the best cellulase (46.74 U mL-1), amylase, lipase and laccase (0.0273 U L-1) production, as well as RBBR dye discoloration ability in solid medium, followed by isolate Aspergillus sydowii (ITF 27) able to synthesize cellulase, amylase and laccase and had the capacity to discolor 74.7% of RBBR in liquid medium. The results of the present work encourage future studies of characterization, optimization and purification of the enzymes encountered, aiming to be used in bioremediation processes of textile industrial effluents.


Assuntos
Corantes , Lacase , Aspergillus , Indústria Têxtil , Têxteis
4.
Phytochemistry ; 191: 112910, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34481345

RESUMO

Ten sesterterpenoids, including eight undescribed ones named spectanoids A-H and two known analogs, were obtained from Aspergillus spectabilis. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined based on HRESIMS, NMR, ECD calculations and single-crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Spectanoids A-G are tricyclic sesterterpenoids with an unusual 5/12/5 ring system, while spectanoid H possesses a 5/8/6/5 ring system. All of these compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against three human cancer cells, and spectanoid A, spectanoid C and spectanoid F exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities with IC50 values ranging from 12.1 to 26.1 µM.


Assuntos
Aspergillus , Cristalografia por Raios X , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Estrutura Molecular
5.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34531238

RESUMO

Xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis is a rare condition characterised by destructive granulomatous inflammation of renal parenchyma. Primary renal Aspergillosis has been reported in patients with immunocompromised states such as diabetes, retroviral disease, organ transplant recipients, etc. We present a unique case of an older adult in his early 60s, presenting with fever and left flank pain with renal angle tenderness, diagnosed with primary renal aspergillosis with xanthogranulomatous pyelonephritis. These symptoms resolved with a long duration of antifungal (itraconazole) therapy and nephrectomy. The unique features are the development of fungal pyelonephritis in the absence of any immunocompromising conditions and the development of xanthogranulomatous changes with no risk factors.


Assuntos
Pielonefrite Xantogranulomatosa , Idoso , Aspergillus , Febre , Humanos , Rim , Nefrectomia , Pielonefrite Xantogranulomatosa/diagnóstico por imagem , Pielonefrite Xantogranulomatosa/cirurgia
6.
Water Res ; 204: 117629, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34509870

RESUMO

The formation of fungal biofilm goes through some different states, including monodisperse state, aggregated state, germinated state, hyphal and biofilm. The aggregation of spores is a primary step of fungal biofilm development in aquatic systems. Previous studies on the inactivation of fungi were mostly performed in the monodisperse state of fungal spores and biofilm state, however, the inactivation of aggregated fungal spores is still unclear. In this study, the aggregated characteristics of fungal spores (Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus) at different pH values were firstly studied, and the inactivation efficiency of fungal spores at different aggregation degree by chlorine-based disinfectants was also clarified. The results showed that the aggregation degree of Aspergillus fumigatus was the highest at pH 9.0 while it was the lowest at pH 5.0. Aggregation between fungal spores was mainly mediated by occasional adhesin-adhesin interactions and electrostatic interactions. Compared with monodisperse spores, fungal spores were more resistant to chlorine-based disinfectants with the increase of spore aggregation degree. The inactivation rate constants of Aspergillus fumigatus at 30% and 63% aggregation degree were 1.5- and 4-folds lower than that of monodisperse spores, respectively. The lower proportion of membrane damage and higher intracellular reactive oxygen species level for aggregated spores than monodisperse spores was observed according to the flow cytometric results after chlorine-based disinfectants treatment. The reasons for the lower inactivation efficiency of aggregated spores are as following: the protection of outer layer spores and signals between aggregates lead to the increase of resistance for aggregated spores. This study is meaningful for the control of the fungal spores at different states in water.


Assuntos
Cloro , Desinfetantes , Aspergillus , Biofilmes , Desinfetantes/farmacologia , Esporos Fúngicos
7.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 21(3): 495-498, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34522421

RESUMO

Co-infections or consecutive infections of mucormycosis and aspergillosis are very rare. Additionally, distinguishing between these two infections is also difficult as both these conditions have similar clinical features. We report two similar cases from Tamilnadu, who presented to a tertiary care centre in Puducherry, India in 2017 (first case) and 2019 (second case). The first case was a 70-year-old, non-diabetic male patient who presented with haemoptysis with a prior history of pulmonary tuberculosis. Computed tomography bronchial angiography revealed an air-crescent sign and the histopathological examination showed a fungal ball (aspergillus and mucor) in the right upper lobe and foci of fungal infection in the middle lobe. The second case was a 65-year-old diabetic male patient who presented with blackish expectoration and haemoptysis. A high-resolution computed tomography scan showed a reverse-halo sign in the right upper lobe. The results of the bronchoscopy-guided biopsy were consistent with a diagnosis of mixed mucormycosis and aspergillosis with angioinvasion. Both patients responded to amphotericin B with surgical excision of the affected lobe in the first case. A high degree of clinical suspicion, early surgical intervention and antifungal therapy are essential in the treatment of this rare co-infection.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Coinfecção , Mucormicose , Idoso , Aspergillus , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Mucor , Mucormicose/complicações , Mucormicose/diagnóstico
8.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109867, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489026

RESUMO

The main problem for submerged fermentation of filamentous fungi is the nutrition limitation with high cell density or cell leakage by the uncontrollable hyphae, clusters, or pellets. There are several techniques such as microparticle, immobilization, pH shifting, substrate limitation etc. for controlling filamentous fungi growth on submerged fermentation. In this research, FDM (Fused Deposition Modelling) based 3D printed cubes is used for growth control agent of recombinant Aspergillus sojae for the first time. Lattice structure sizes, number of cubes and pH were chosen to be main factors of fermentation in order to study the combine effect of the factors on A. sojae fermentation. The results revealed that specific activity values are improved from 2045.96 U/mg (the highest control activity) to 3291.67 U/mg with lower pellet sizes and controllable growth. FDM based 3D printed cubes was successfully controlled the recombinant Aspergillus sojae fermentation and enhanced ß-mannanase production. In addition, this research was also showed that FDM based 3D printed cubes also have the potential to be used as immobilization materials like SLS based 3D printed products in further research.


Assuntos
Fungos , Impressão Tridimensional , Aspergillus , Contagem de Células , Fermentação
9.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 150: 109891, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489044

RESUMO

ß-Mannanases hydrolyze lignocellulosic biomass with the release of mannan oligosaccharides, which are considered as renewable resource in higher plants. Here, we cloned, expressed and characterized a novel endo-ß-mannanase (ManAC) from Aspergillus calidoustus. Homology alignment analysis indicated that ManAC belonged to glycosyl hydrolase (GH) 5 family members. The analysis of structural homologous model revealed that five residues, Arg116, Asn231, His305, Tyr307, and Trp370, constituted the active site of ManAC. Glu232 and Glu340, proton donor and nucleophile, formed the catalytic residues of ManAC. The recombinant ManAC exhibited maximal activity at pH 2.5 and 70 °C, and it was acid tolerant at a pH range of 2.0-6.0 and thermostable under 60 °C. Meanwhile, the activity of ManAC was not significantly affected by various metal ions, except for Mg2+ and Ag2+. The recombinant ManAC exhibited the highest ß-mannanase activity towards locust bean gum (669.7 U/mg) with the Km and Vmax values of 3.4 mg/mL and 982.4 µmol/min/mg, respectively. These thermophilic and acidophilicc characteristics is better than most extreme ß-mannanase. As the first reported mannanse from Aspergillus calidoustus (ManAC), these excellent properties of ManAC strongly promote the synthesis of mannooligosaccharides which have potential for food and feed industrial applications.


Assuntos
Aspergillus , beta-Manosidase , Aspergillus/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Oligossacarídeos , beta-Manosidase/genética
10.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7695-7708, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586458

RESUMO

Fipronil is a broad-spectrum phenyl-pyrazole insecticide that is widely used in agriculture. However, in the environment, its residues are toxic to aquatic animals, crustaceans, bees, termites, rabbits, lizards, and humans, and it has been classified as a C carcinogen. Due to its residual environmental hazards, various effective approaches, such as adsorption, ozone oxidation, catalyst coupling, inorganic plasma degradation, and microbial degradation, have been developed. Biodegradation is deemed to be the most effective and environmentally friendly method, and several pure cultures of bacteria and fungi capable of degrading fipronil have been isolated and identified, including Streptomyces rochei, Paracoccus sp., Bacillus firmus, Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus spp., Stenotrophomonas acidaminiphila, and Aspergillus glaucus. The metabolic reactions of fipronil degradation appear to be the same in different bacteria and are mainly oxidation, reduction, photolysis, and hydrolysis. However, the enzymes and genes responsible for the degradation are somewhat different. The ligninolytic enzyme MnP, the cytochrome P450 enzyme, and esterase play key roles in different strains of bacteria and fungal. Many unanswered questions exist regarding the environmental fate and degradation mechanisms of this pesticide. The genes and enzymes responsible for biodegradation remain largely unexplained, and biomolecular techniques need to be applied in order to gain a comprehensive understanding of these issues. In this review, we summarize the literature on the degradation of fipronil, focusing on biodegradation pathways and identifying the main knowledge gaps that currently exist in order to inform future research. KEY POINTS: • Biodegradation is a powerful tool for the removal of fipronil. • Oxidation, reduction, photolysis, and hydrolysis play key roles in the degradation of fipronil. • Possible biochemical pathways of fipronil in the environment are described.


Assuntos
Inseticidas , Poluentes do Solo , Streptomyces , Animais , Aspergillus , Biodegradação Ambiental , Pirazóis/análise , Coelhos , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Stenotrophomonas
11.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 57(71): 8957-8960, 2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34486593

RESUMO

A series of polycyclic aromatics, naphthalene, phenanthrene, perylene, pyrene, 1-pyrenebutyric acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (pyrene NHS) and coronene, were immobilized via π stacking on carbon nanotube (CNT) electrodes and electro-oxidized in aqueous solutions. The obtained quinones were characterized and evaluated for the mediated electron transfer with FAD dependent glucose dehydrogenase during catalytic glucose oxidation.


Assuntos
Glucose Desidrogenase/química , Nanotubos de Carbono/química , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/química , Quinonas/química , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Biocatálise , Técnicas Eletroquímicas , Flavina-Adenina Dinucleotídeo/química , Proteínas Fúngicas/química , Glucose/química , Oxirredução , Quinonas/síntese química
12.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(20): 7731-7741, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34568964

RESUMO

Iridoids are widely found from species of Bignoniaceae family and exhibit several biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antitumor. Specioside is an iridoid found from Tabebuia species, mainly in Tabebuia aurea. Thus, here fungus-mediated biotransformation of the iridoid specioside was investigated by seven fungi. The fungus-mediated biotransformation reactions resulted in a total of nineteen different analogs by fungus Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus japonicus, Aspergillus terreus, Aspergillus niveus, Penicillium crustosum, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Non-glycosylated specioside was the main metabolite observed. The other analogs were yielded from ester hydrolysis, hydroxylation, methylation, and hydrogenation reactions. The non-glycosylated specioside and coumaric acid were yielded by all fungi-mediated biotransformation. Thus, fungus applied in this study showed the ability to perform hydroxylation and glycosidic, as well as ester hydrolysis reactions from glycosylated iridoid. KEY POINTS: • The biotransformation of specioside by seven fungi yielded nineteen analogs. • The non-glycosylated specioside was the main analog obtained. • Ester hydrolysis, hydroxylation, methylation, and hydrogenation reactions were observe.


Assuntos
Aspergillus niger , Iridoides , Aspergillus , Biotransformação , Glucosídeos Iridoides , Penicillium
13.
Curr Microbiol ; 78(10): 3674-3685, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34398304

RESUMO

Many agricultural products are susceptible to contamination by aflatoxin-producing species from Aspergillus section Flavi. The objectives of this study were to determine the occurrence of Aspergillus section Flavi in four agricultural products, such as pistachio, walnut, hazelnut, and dried fruits, collected from market and retail shops in various areas of Kerman County and obtain information on the relationships between isolation source and ability to produce sclerotia and potential for aflatoxin production. Aspergillus species were identified based on morphological characteristics as well as subsequent sequencing of the parts of the ß-tubulin and calmodulin genes. From 207 isolated strains, the following species were identified: A. flavus, A. tamarii A. nomius, A. parasiticus, A. arachidicola, A. caelatus, A. pseudotamarii, and A. leporis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of A. pseudotamarii and A. arachidicola with the potential to produce aflatoxins from dried apricots and hazelnuts, respectively. Sclerotial type was significantly different between isolates from different isolation sources. From 192 tested isolates, 38% were aflatoxin producer from which 5% were scored as strong aflatoxin producers and 33% as average aflatoxin producers. A significant difference in the population of aflatoxin-producing strains across the isolation sources was observed which may reflect host adaptation and thereby different vulnerabilities to aflatoxin-producing species among the examined products.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Micotoxinas , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus flavus
14.
Biomed Res Int ; 2021: 2593748, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34447850

RESUMO

Artificial intelligence technologies such as machine learning have been applied to protein engineering, with unique advantages in protein structure, function prediction, catalytic activity, and other issues in recent years. Screening better mutants is still a bottleneck in protein engineering. In this paper, a new sequence-activity relationship method was analyzed for its application in improving the thermal stability of Aspergillus terreus (R)-ω-selective amine transaminase. The experimental data from 6 single-point mutated enzymes were used as a learning dataset to build models and predict the thermostability of 26 mutants. Based on digital signal processing (DSP), this method digitized the amino acid sequence of proteins by fast Fourier transform (FFT) and then established the best model applying partial least squares regression (PLSR) to screen out all possible mutants, especially those with high performance. In protein engineering, the innovative sequence activity relationship (ISAR) method can make a reasonable prediction using limited experimental data and significantly reduce the experimental cost. The half-life (T 1/2) of (R)-ω-transaminase was fitted with the amino acid sequence by the ISAR algorithm, resulting in an R 2 of 0.8929 and a cvRMSE of 4.89. At the same time, the mutants with higher T 1/2 than the existing ones were predicted, laying the groundwork for better (R)-ω-transaminase in the later stage. The ISAR algorithm is expected to provide a new technique for protein evolution and screening.


Assuntos
Aminas/química , Aspergillus/enzimologia , Aprendizado de Máquina , Transaminases/química , Aminas/metabolismo , Aspergillus/química , Temperatura Alta , Modelos Moleculares , Engenharia de Proteínas/métodos , Estabilidade Proteica , Elementos Estruturais de Proteínas , Especificidade por Substrato , Transaminases/metabolismo
15.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361632

RESUMO

The present study focuses on the biological synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using extracellular extracts of Aspergillus japonicus PJ01.The optimal conditions of the synthesis process were: 10 mL of extracellular extracts, 1 mL of AgNO3 (0.8 mol/L), 4 mL of NaOH solution (1.5 mol/L), 30 °C, and a reaction time of 1 min. The characterizations of AgNPs were tested by UV-visible spectrophotometry, zeta potential, scanning electron microscope (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) analyses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis showed that Ag+ was reduced by the extracellular extracts, which consisted chiefly of soluble proteins and reducing sugars. In this work, AgNO3 concentration played an important role in the physicochemical properties and antibacterial properties of AgNPs. Under the AgNO3 concentration of 0.2 and 0.8 mol/L, the diameters of AgNPs were 3.8 ± 1.1 and 9.1 ± 2.9 nm, respectively. In addition, smaller-sized AgNPs showed higher antimicrobial properties, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values against both E. coli and S. aureus were 0.32 mg/mL.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Química Verde/métodos , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Prata/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia
16.
Exp Appl Acarol ; 85(1): 19-30, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34410555

RESUMO

Tetranychus urticae Koch and Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks are mite species considered capable of attaining pest levels, damaging a range of agricultural crops. The Pampa biome is characterized by the high biodiversity it houses, particularly microbial diversity, which highlights its potential for developing microorganisms that can provide biological control of arthropods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of four fungal isolates from the soil of the Pampa biome in the biological control of T. urticae (females and eggs) and P. latus (females). Experiments consisted of isolating and identifying fungal isolates for spore quantification and aspersion at 108, 106, and 104 spores/mL concentrations in arenas containing T. urticae females and eggs, and P. latus females, separately. Results indicated that only three isolates (Aspergillus brunneoviolaceus, Clonostachys chloroleuca, and Penicillium adametzii) showed high control of T. urticae females, yet they did not exhibit any control of T. urticae eggs and P. latus females. Therefore, the present study confirms the viability of some of these fungi as biological control agents of mites, which implies the importance of new prospects with other fungal species, considering the richness of resources in the Pampa biome, or even the need to test higher concentrations and other variables using the microorganisms of the present study.


Assuntos
Ácaros , Tetranychidae , Animais , Aspergillus , Ecossistema , Feminino , Fungos , Hypocreales , Penicillium , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Solo
17.
J Vet Intern Med ; 35(5): 2395-2400, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34414603

RESUMO

A 2-year-old male desexed Ragdoll cat with a 1-year history of sneezing and nasal discharge presented with a large subcutaneous cervical mass, identified as the right medial retropharyngeal lymph node on computed tomography (CT). A right orbital mass, destructive sino-nasal cavity disease and multiple pulmonary nodules were also identified. Aspergillus felis was cultured from the lymph node. After treatment with posaconazole and liposomal amphotericin B the lymph node enlargement and orbital mass resolved but left frontal sinus involvement and pulmonary lesions persisted despite additional caspofungin therapy. The cat was euthanized 14 months after diagnosis with dysphagia and chronic progressive exophthalmos. A meningeal granuloma with intravascular fungal hyphae was identified at post-mortem and A felis was cultured from the left frontal sinus and a right retrobulbar fungal granuloma. This case demonstrates that disseminated disease is a possible sequel to invasive fungal rhinosinusitis caused by A felis in cats.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Doenças do Gato , Sinusite , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Masculino , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/veterinária
18.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443685

RESUMO

Recognition of pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) by appropriate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) is a key step in activating the host immune response. The role of a fungal PAMP is attributed to ß-1,3-glucan. The role of α-1,3-glucan, another fungal cell wall polysaccharide, in modulating the host immune response is not clear. This work investigates the potential of α-1,3-glucan as a fungal PAMP by analyzing the humoral immune response of the greater wax moth Galleria mellonella to Aspergillus niger α-1,3-glucan. We demonstrated that 57-kDa and 61-kDa hemolymph proteins, identified as ß-1,3-glucan recognition proteins, bound to A. niger α-1,3-glucan. Other hemolymph proteins, i.e., apolipophorin I, apolipophorin II, prophenoloxidase, phenoloxidase activating factor, arylphorin, and serine protease, were also identified among α-1,3-glucan-interacting proteins. In response to α-1,3-glucan, a 4.5-fold and 3-fold increase in the gene expression of antifungal peptides galiomicin and gallerimycin was demonstrated, respectively. The significant increase in the level of five defense peptides, including galiomicin, corresponded well with the highest antifungal activity in hemolymph. Our results indicate that A. niger α-1,3-glucan is recognized by the insect immune system, and immune response is triggered by this cell wall component. Thus, the role of a fungal PAMP for α-1,3-glucan can be postulated.


Assuntos
Aspergillus/química , Glucanos/metabolismo , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Mariposas/microbiologia , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/metabolismo , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Peptídeos Catiônicos Antimicrobianos/farmacologia , Corpo Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Imunização , Larva , Mariposas/efeitos dos fármacos , Mariposas/genética , Ligação Proteica/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise de Sobrevida
19.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 669237, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34336710

RESUMO

Objectives: To evaluate the analytical and clinical performance of a prototype of a VIDAS® Galactomannan (GM) unitary test (bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France) and compare to that of the Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag assay (Bio-Rad, CA, USA). Methods: Repeatability, reproducibility, and freeze-thaw stability of VIDAS®GM were evaluated. Sera from patients at risk of IA were concurrently tested with both the VIDAS®GM and Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag assays. Correlations between the two assays were assessed by Passing Bablok (PB) regression and performance by ROC analysis. Results: The correlations between the VIDAS®GM indexes after one and two cycles of freezing/thawing were r=1.00 and r=0.989, respectively. The coefficients of variation for negative, low-positive, and positive sera were 13%, 6%, and 5% for repeatability and 14.4%, 7.2%, and 5.5% for reproducibility. Overall, 126 sera were tested with both assays (44 fresh and 82 frozen). The correlation between VIDAS®GM and Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag was r=0.798. The areas under the curve of the ROC analyses were 0.892 and 0.894, for VIDAS®GM and Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag, respectively. Conclusions: This new VIDAS®GM prototype assay showed adequate analytical and clinical performance and a good correlation with that of Platelia™ Aspergillus Ag with 126 sera, although these results need to be confirmed in a larger prospective and multicentric study. As for the other VIDAS® assays, VIDAS®GM is a single-sample automated test using a solid reagent strip and receptacle. It is easy to use and suitable for rapid on-demand test results.


Assuntos
Aspergilose , Aspergillus , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , França , Humanos , Mananas , Estudos Prospectivos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Tecnologia
20.
Molecules ; 26(15)2021 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34361698

RESUMO

Patulin (PAT) and citrinin (CTN) are the most common mycotoxins produced by Penicillium and Aspergillus species and are often associated with fruits and fruit by-products. Hence, simple and reliable methods for monitoring these toxins in foodstuffs are required for regular quality assessment. In this study, we aimed to establish a cost-effective method for detection and quantification of PAT and CTN in pome fruits, such as apples and pears, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with spectroscopic detectors without the need for any clean-up steps. The method showed good performance in the analysis of these mycotoxins in apple and pear fruit samples with recovery ranges of 55-97% for PAT and 84-101% for CTN, respectively. The limits of detection (LOD) of PAT and CTN in fruits were 0.006 µg/g and 0.001 µg/g, while their limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.018 µg/g and 0.003 µg/g, respectively. The present findings indicate that the newly developed HPLC method provides rapid and accurate detection of PAT and CTN in fruits.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Citrinina/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Frutas/química , Malus/química , Patulina/análise , Pyrus/química , Aspergillus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/economia , Análise Custo-Benefício , Confiabilidade dos Dados , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Limite de Detecção , Penicillium/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
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