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1.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 448-454, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549578

RESUMO

A freshly dead juvenile bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), recovered from the waters near Sand Key, Clearwater, FL, was imaged postmortem using computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging prior to conventional necropsy. The pattern of imaging findings in the brain was compatible with severe multifocal meningoencephalitis with intralesional necrosis and/or hemorrhage, and the pattern of imaging findings in the lungs was compatible with severe multifocal bronchopneumonia. The subsequent investigation included necropsy, histology, culture, and molecular diagnostics and demonstrated disseminated coinfection of dolphin morbillivirus and Aspergillus fumigatus. This is the first report documenting the cross-sectional imaging findings of this important cetacean comorbidity and demonstrates advances in modern, cooperative investigations of marine mammal mortality events.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa , Coinfecção/veterinária , Infecções por Morbillivirus/veterinária , Morbillivirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/virologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética/veterinária , Infecções por Morbillivirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Morbillivirus/virologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(2): 102-106, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1098449

RESUMO

Susceptibility testing is essential to inform the correct management of Aspergillus infections. In this study we present antifungal susceptibility profile of A. fumigatus isolates recovered from lungs of birds with and without aspergillosis. Fifty three isolates were tested for their antifungal susceptibility to voriconazole (VRC), itraconazole (ITZ), amphotericin (AMB) and caspofungin (CSP) using the M38-A2 broth microdilution reference method. Five isolates were resistant to more than one antifungal drug (CSP + AMB, VRC + ITZ and AMB + ITZ). Fifteen (28%) isolates with susceptible increased exposure (I) to ITZ were sensible to VRC. Resistance to AMB (>2µg/mL) was observed in only four isolates. Eleven (21%) A. fumigatus present resistance to ITZ (13%) and VRC (8%). Fungal isolation from respiratory samples has been regarded as being of limited usefulness in the ante mortem diagnosis of aspergillosis in birds. However, the results suggest that the detection and antifungal susceptibility profile may be helpful for monitoring of therapy for avian species and where antifungal resistance might be emerging and what conditions are associated to the event.(AU)


Os testes de suscetibilidade são essenciais para informar o correto manejo das infecções por Aspergillus. Neste estudo apresentamos o perfil antifúngico de isolados de A. fumigatus provenientes de pulmões de aves com e sem aspergilose. Cinqüenta e três isolados foram testados quanto à susceptibilidade antifúngica ao voriconazol (VRC), itraconazol (ITZ), anfotericina B (AMB) e caspofungina (CSP) pelo método de referência de microdiluição do caldo M38-A2. Cinco isolados foram resistentes a mais de um antifúngico (CSP + AMB, VRC + ITZ e AMB + ITZ). Quinze (28%) isolados suscetíveis - com exposição aumentada (I) ao ITZ foram sensíveis ao VRC. A resistência ao AMB (>2µg/mL) foi observada em apenas quatro isolados. Onze (21%) A. fumigatus apresentaram resistência a ITZ (13%) e VRC (8%). O isolamento de fungos de amostras respiratórias tem sido considerado de utilidade limitada no diagnóstico ante mortem de aspergilose em aves. No entanto, os resultados sugerem que a detecção e o perfil de suscetibilidade a antifúngicos podem ser úteis para o monitoramento da terapia de espécies aviárias, assim como a emergência da resistência antifúngica e quais condições podem estar associadas ao evento.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Doenças das Aves Domésticas , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Galinhas , Farmacorresistência Fúngica/efeitos dos fármacos , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico
3.
Aust Vet J ; 98(5): 185-189, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31971255

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Disseminated mycoses other than aspergillosis are infrequently reported in dogs. CASE REPORT: A 4-year-old female Labrador retriever was evaluated because of hyperthermia, cough and intermittent lameness. Computed tomography showed a soft tissue mass in the cranioventral mediastinum, severe left and central tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy, and moderate bilateral pleural effusion. Magnetic resonance imaging identified an irregular intra-axial well-defined contrast enhancing mass extending from the right frontal lobe to the right thalamus. Fungal culture yielded growth of Chaetomium globosum. CONCLUSION: In this case, the authors report a systemic mycosis in a Labrador retriever caused by C. globosum. To the best of authors' knowledge, this is the first report of systemic disease by this species in veterinary medicine.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Chaetomium , Micoses/veterinária , Animais , Doenças do Cão , Cães , Feminino
4.
J Mycol Med ; 30(1): 100923, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31964598

RESUMO

Abortion in dairy cattle may be caused by infectious (viruses, fungi and protozoa) and non-infectious causes mostly related to bad management practices and genetic factors. Recently, the significant contribution of mycotic infection to bovine abortion has been recognized. This report describes an abortion case in a Chianina cow due to Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus luchuensis and Lichtheimia sp. diagnosed by histology, cytology, culture and molecular assays. A mixed infection due to more than one fungus in abortion is rarely demonstrated. To our knowledge, this is the first case of bovine abortion caused by co-infection with three different moulds.


Assuntos
Aborto Animal/microbiologia , Aspergilose/complicações , Coinfecção/complicações , Mucormicose/complicações , Aborto Espontâneo/microbiologia , Aborto Animal/diagnóstico , Animais , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus/classificação , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Aspergillus nidulans/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus nidulans/patogenicidade , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/diagnóstico , Doenças dos Bovinos/microbiologia , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/microbiologia , Coinfecção/veterinária , Feminino , Mucorales/isolamento & purificação , Mucorales/patogenicidade , Mucormicose/diagnóstico , Mucormicose/veterinária , Gravidez
5.
J Vet Med Sci ; 82(3): 373-375, 2020 Mar 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983704

RESUMO

Autopsy imaging (Ai) was performed for a King Penguin. Ai-computed tomography (CT) revealed air sac membrane thickening, multiple nodules in the cranial air sac, suspected abscess, lung infiltration, and air sac contraction. Based on these findings, respiratory disorder was concerned. Aspergillosis, which is the highly observed in penguins, was considered as the primary differential diagnosis. The cultured sample showed characteristic conidial head of Aspergillus spp., the DNA of which was 100% identical to that of A. fumigatus. The cause of death was determined to respiratory failure due to aspergillosis. Ai-CT findings facilitated the dissection workflow and alerted the pathologist to potential hazards during the autopsy. Ai is useful to determine the cause of death and for readiness and safe pathological dissection.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Spheniscidae/microbiologia , Sacos Aéreos/patologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Aspergilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergillus fumigatus/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Autopsia/métodos , Masculino , Insuficiência Respiratória/microbiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/veterinária , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
6.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(1): 65-70, Jan.-Feb. 2020. ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1088922

RESUMO

O presente trabalho relata o caso de aspergilose sistêmica em um cavalo da raça Quarto de Milha. O animal apresentava quadro de emagrecimento progressivo e alopecia. Os parâmetros avaliados durante o exame clínico encontravam-se de acordo com os valores normais para a espécie. No hemograma verificou-se leucocitose por neutrofilia, sem desvio à esquerda, proteínas plasmáticas totais elevadas e aumento do fibrinogênio, indicando um processo inflamatório acompanhado de desidratação. Os exames bioquímicos séricos demonstraram aumento no valor da ureia. Apesar dos exames realizados e da terapia instituída com antibióticos de amplo espectro e suporte nutricional, após 51 dias de internamento o quadro clínico evoluiu para caquexia e decúbito permanente do paciente, o qual foi submetido à eutanásia seguida de necropsia. Com base nos achados nos exames necroscópico e histopatológico, diagnosticou-se infecção sistêmica por Aspergillus sp., acometendo pulmões, fígado, rins, peritônio parietal e encéfalo. Dentre os fatores predisponentes à relatada infecção fúngica sistêmica, destaca-se o status imunológico debilitado do paciente, possivelmente proporcionado por tratamentos prolongados com antibióticos e anti-inflamatórios esteroidais. O presente trabalho relata o primeiro caso descrito de arpergilose sistêmica no Brasil. O diagnóstico definitivo só foi possível após necropsia e histopatologia, visto que os sinais clínicos inespecíficos não foram determinantes para o diagnóstico em vida.(AU)


This paper reports the case of systemic aspergillosis on a Quarter Horse. The animal had progressive weight loss and alopecia. The parameters evaluated during the clinical examination were in agreement with the normal values for the species. The hemogram showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, without left-sided, elevated total plasma proteins and an increase in fibrinogen, indicating an inflammatory process accompanied by dehydration. Serum biochemical tests showed an increase in the value of urea. Despite the performed tests and established therapy with broad spectrum antibiotics and nutritional support, after 51 days of hospitalization the clinical condition evolved into cachexia and permanent decubitus of the patient which underwent to euthanasia and necropsy. From the findings of necropsy and histopathology, systemic infection was diagnosed by Aspergillus sp., affecting the lungs, liver, kidneys, parietal peritoneum and encephalon. Among the factors predisposing to the reported systemic fungal infection, the patient's weakened immune status is highlighted, possibly due to prolonged antibiotic and steroidal anti-inflammatory treatments. This paper reports the first case described of systemic aspergillosis in Brazil. Definitive diagnosis was only possible after necropsy and histopathology, since nonspecific clinical signs were not determinant for the diagnosis in life.(AU)


Assuntos
Animais , Aspergilose/veterinária , Imunossupressão/veterinária , Cavalos , Autopsia/veterinária
7.
Avian Pathol ; 49(2): 115-118, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31766868

RESUMO

Aspergillosis is a disease of domestic and free-living birds caused by infection with a fraction of fungi within the genus Aspergillus. Species can be identified by colony morphology and microscopic characterization of conidia and conidiophores or by PCR, and isolates can be typed by microsatellite typing. Serodiagnostic options for testing are limited to antibody and antigen detection methods. The sensitivity of these tests can be enhanced through the use of protein electrophoresis. In many countries, no systemic antifungal drugs are registered for use in food-producing birds and resistance to antifungal drugs has been reported in Aspergillus strains derived from birds. The most important prevention strategy against aspergillosis is keeping the infection pressure low by adequate ventilation as well as cleaning and disinfection. Open questions about avian aspergillosis that research needs to address are related to epidemiology and serodiagnosis, as well as therapy and prevention.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Criação de Animais Domésticos , Animais , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Doenças das Aves/diagnóstico , Doenças das Aves/patologia , Aves
8.
J Wildl Dis ; 56(1): 66-81, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237822

RESUMO

Despite being the most numerous penguin species in South America, exposure of the Magellanic Penguin (Spheniscus magellanicus) to pathogens has not yet been thoroughly assessed. We collected serum from 1,058 Magellanic Penguins at 10 breeding colonies along the entire latitudinal range of this species in Argentina. The work spanned 10 breeding seasons over 15 yr (1994-2008). Sera were tested for antibodies to select infectious agents. Antibodies reacting against 16 pathogens were detected (seroprevalence): Aspergillus sp. (15.1%), Chlamydia psittaci (6.5%), Salmonella Pullorum (3.1%), Salmonella Typhimurium (81.3%), Aviadenovirus sp. (18.1%), Duck atadenovirus A (23.6%), Anatid herpesvirus 1 (0.7%), Avian orthoreovirus (3.3%), Avian coronavirus M41 (43.5%), Avian coronavirus C46 (59.8%), Avian coronavirus A99 (37.4%), Avian coronavirus JMK (40.2%), Tremovirus A (0.3%), Avian avulavirus 1 (44.0%), Avian avulavirus 2 (43.8%), and Avian avulavirus 3 (46.6%). No antibodies were detected against nine infectious agents: Gallid alphaherpesvirus 1, Gallid alphaherpesvirus 2, Infectious bursal disease virus, Avastrovirus 2, West Nile virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Western equine encephalitis virus, and Influenza A virus. While restricted by limitations inherent to serological methods, our results provide baseline knowledge for a key species in the South Atlantic Ocean. This information is valuable for adaptive conservation management in a time of increasing environmental stressors affecting the Patagonian Sea, one of the world's richest pelagic seabird communities.


Assuntos
Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Spheniscidae/microbiologia , Viroses/veterinária , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Argentina/epidemiologia , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/epidemiologia , Chlamydia/isolamento & purificação , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Salmonella/isolamento & purificação , Salmonelose Animal/epidemiologia , Salmonelose Animal/microbiologia , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Viroses/epidemiologia , Viroses/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação
9.
J Am Vet Med Assoc ; 256(1): 111-116, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31841098

RESUMO

CASE DESCRIPTION: 3 dogs with chronic sinonasal signs (sneezing, nasal discharge, or epistaxis [or a combination of signs]) were examined. CLINICAL FINDINGS: For all 3 dogs, CT revealed variable degrees of nasal turbinate destruction and frontal sinus involvement with cribriform plate lysis. Fungal plaques were detected during rhinoscopy or sinusoscopy. Results of fungal culture (2 dogs) or cytologic examination of a plaque specimen (1 dog) supported a diagnosis of sinonasal aspergillosis. TREATMENT AND OUTCOME: All dogs underwent surgical rhinotomy or sinusotomy (or both) for fungal plaque debridement followed by oral treatment with voriconazole and periodic physical examinations, clinicopathologic analyses, and assessments of serum drug concentrations for a period ≥ 22 weeks. All dogs had considerable to complete reduction of their clinical signs and tolerated voriconazole treatment with minimal adverse effects. Adverse effects included development of reversible neurotoxicosis (associated with high serum voriconazole concentration) and mildly high serum liver enzyme activities. The dosage of voriconazole administered to achieve therapeutic serum concentrations (2.5 to 3.3 mg/kg [1.1 to 1.5 mg/lb], PO, q 12 h) was substantially lower than dosages suggested by previously published studies in dogs. The 3 dogs remained clinically normal or had mild clinical signs after voriconazole discontinuation for follow-up times of 6 to 15 months. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Findings in these 3 dogs indicated that surgical fungal plaque debridement followed by oral treatment with voriconazole may be an effective treatment option for dogs with sinonasal aspergillosis and cribriform plate lysis. Further evaluation of this treatment regimen with repeated CT examinations and longer follow-up times is warranted.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Nasais/veterinária , Administração Oral , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Desbridamento/veterinária , Cães , Osso Etmoide , Voriconazol/uso terapêutico
10.
Vet Clin North Am Small Anim Pract ; 50(2): 331-357, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31866094

RESUMO

Fungal rhinosinusitis, including sinonasal aspergillosis (SNA) and sino-orbital aspergillosis (SOA), is the most common type of aspergillosis encountered in cats. Other focal forms of aspergillosis including disseminated invasive aspergillosis occur less frequently. SOA is an invasive mycosis that is increasingly recognized and is most commonly caused by Aspergillus felis, a close relative of Aspergillus fumigatus. SNA can be invasive or noninvasive and is most commonly caused by A fumigatus and Aspergillus niger. Molecular methods are required to correctly identify the fungi that cause SNA and SOA. SNA has a favorable prognosis with treatment, whereas the prognosis for SOA remains poor.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Sinusite/veterinária , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/tratamento farmacológico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus niger/isolamento & purificação , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico , Doenças do Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Gatos , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Sinusite/diagnóstico , Sinusite/tratamento farmacológico , Sinusite/microbiologia
11.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(3): 591-597, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480534

RESUMO

Fifty-eight frozen postmortem lung and air sac samples were collected from penguins housed at 21 zoological collections throughout the United Kingdom, from 2007 to 2018. Aspergillus fumigatus, a significant respiratory pathogen of penguins in captivity, was isolated from 15 of the 22 penguins with gross lesions. Of the penguins with gross lesions of aspergillosis at postmortem examination, the pathogen was cultured from 63.6% (15 of 22) of frozen samples. Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from 2.7% (1 of 36) of tissues collected from penguins without gross lesions at postmortem. Additionally, of 18 fresh samples that cultured A. fumigatus at the time of postmortem, 15 samples (83%) yielded isolates that were successfully cultured from frozen tissue. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) data demonstrated that all isolates were susceptible to terbinafine and voriconazole, and all were resistant to itraconazole, using published MIC cutoff values. Comparison isolates from fresh tissues had identical antimicrobial susceptibility to isolates from the same tissues after being frozen. This study demonstrates that A. fumigatus can be isolated from frozen respiratory tissues of penguins, even after freezing for more than 10 yr.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus fumigatus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Farmacorresistência Fúngica Múltipla , Spheniscidae , Sacos Aéreos/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Itraconazol/farmacologia , Pulmão/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Terbinafina/farmacologia , Reino Unido , Voriconazol/farmacologia
12.
Vet Res ; 50(1): 88, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666128

RESUMO

Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) in the North Sea live in an environment heavily impacted by humans, the consequences of which are a concern for their health. Autopsies carried out on stranded harbour porpoises provide an opportunity to assess health problems in this species. We performed 61 autopsies on live-stranded harbour porpoises, which died following admission to a rehabilitation centre between 2003 and 2016. The animals had stranded on the Dutch (n = 52) and adjacent coasts of Belgium (n = 2) and Germany (n = 7). We assigned probable causes for stranding based on clinical and pathological criteria. Cause of stranding was associated in the majority of cases with pathologies in multiple organs (n = 29) compared to animals with pathologies in a single organ (n = 18). Our results show that the three most probable causes of stranding were pneumonia (n = 35), separation of calves from their mother (n = 10), and aspergillosis (n = 9). Pneumonia as a consequence of pulmonary nematode infection occurred in 19 animals. Pneumonia was significantly associated with infection with Pseudalius inflexus, Halocercus sp., and Torynurus convolutus but not with Stenurus minor infection. Half of the bacterial pneumonias (6/12) could not be associated with nematode infection. Conclusions from this study are that aspergillosis is an important probable cause for stranding, while parasitic infection is not a necessary prerequisite for bacterial pneumonia, and approximately half of the animals (29/61) probably stranded due to multiple causes. An important implication of the observed high prevalence of aspergillosis is that these harbour porpoises suffered from reduced immunocompetence.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Pulmão/patologia , Infecções por Nematoides/veterinária , Phocoena , Pneumonia Bacteriana/veterinária , Pneumonia/veterinária , Animais , Aspergilose/epidemiologia , Bélgica/epidemiologia , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Imunocompetência , Infecções por Nematoides/mortalidade , Infecções por Nematoides/parasitologia , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Mar do Norte/epidemiologia , Phocoena/imunologia , Pneumonia/microbiologia , Pneumonia/mortalidade , Pneumonia/parasitologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/microbiologia , Pneumonia Bacteriana/mortalidade , Prevalência
13.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12791, 2019 09 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488879

RESUMO

Among opportunistically pathogenic filamentous fungi of the Aspergillus genus, Aspergillus fumigatus stands out as a drastically more prevalent cause of infection than others. Utilizing the zebrafish embryo model, we applied a combination of non-invasive real-time imaging and genetic approaches to compare the infectious development of A. fumigatus with that of the less pathogenic A. niger. We found that both species evoke similar immune cell migratory responses, but A. fumigatus is more efficiently phagocytized than A. niger. Though efficiently phagocytized, A. fumigatus conidia retains the ability to germinate and form hyphae from inside macrophages leading to serious infection even at relatively low infectious burdens. By contrast, A. niger appears to rely on extracellular germination, and rapid hyphal growth to establish infection. Despite these differences in the mechanism of infection between the species, galactofuranose mutant strains of both A. fumigatus and A. niger display attenuated pathogenesis. However, deficiency in this cell wall component has a stronger impact on A. niger, which is dependent on rapid extracellular hyphal growth. In conclusion, we uncover differences in the interaction of the two fungal species with innate immune cells, noticeable from very early stages of infection, which drive a divergence in their route to establishing infections.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus fumigatus/fisiologia , Aspergillus niger/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Fagocitose , Peixe-Zebra/microbiologia , Animais , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/imunologia , Aspergillus fumigatus/patogenicidade , Aspergillus niger/imunologia , Aspergillus niger/patogenicidade , Ensaios de Migração de Leucócitos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Leucócitos/imunologia , Macrófagos/microbiologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Esporos Fúngicos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Peixe-Zebra/imunologia
14.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 217: 109921, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446071

RESUMO

Fungal species in the genus Aspergillus are environmental saprophytes that can act as opportunistic pathogens of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses in humans, cats and other species. Upper respiratory tract aspergillosis (URTA) presents as non-invasive and invasive forms with the latter occurring almost exclusively in immunocompromised hosts. However, in domestic cats, invasive URTA affects apparently immunocompetent patients. A defect in innate immunity has been proposed as a predisposing factor in invasive feline URTA. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pattern recognition receptor genes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of aspergillosis in humans. The aims of this study were to identify non-synonymous SNPs in the coding regions of toll-like receptors involved in the immune response to Aspergillus spp. and to compare the frequency of these SNPs between affected and control cats. The coding and flanking regions of TLR1, TLR2 and TLR4 were sequenced in 14 cats with URTA and the sequences were compared with those in 20 control cats without aspergillosis. In total, 23 non-synonymous SNPs were identified in TLR1 (n = 11), TLR2 (n = 3) and TLR4 (n = 10). Differences in allelic frequency of non-synonymous SNPs between affected and controls were not identified either within breeds or overall or between non-invasive and invasive disease phenotypes. Although allelic frequency differed between cat breeds that are overrepresented for URTA and underrepresented breeds there was no association differences identified between affected cats and underrepresented breeds. The difference in allelic frequency of an INDEL point mutation identified in intron 1 of TLR4, between cats with non-invasive versus invasive aspergillosis approached significance (p = 0.054). While results from this study do not support a role for non-synonymous SNPs in the pathogenesis of feline URTA they do provide evidence that investigation for polymorphisms in non-coding regions of these genes and in other pattern recognition receptors are warranted.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Infecções Respiratórias/microbiologia , Receptor 1 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 2 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Animais , Aspergilose/genética , Doenças do Gato/genética , Doenças do Gato/microbiologia , Gatos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Imunidade Inata , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Infecções Respiratórias/genética
15.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(4): 652-655, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113331

RESUMO

An adult female Cape porcupine (Hystrix africaeaustralis) was presented because of marked abdominal distension, acute dyspnea, and lethargy. Physical examination and standard radiographs revealed marked and diffuse gaseous dilation of the stomach and intestines of undetermined origin. The porcupine died despite medical therapy and surgical intervention. Postmortem examination revealed chronic fungal (Aspergillus flavus) rhinitis. Given that rodents are obligate nasal breathers, the rhinitis likely resulted in substantial upper airway obstruction leading to aerophagia.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus flavus , Porcos-Espinhos , Rinite/veterinária , Doenças dos Roedores/microbiologia , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergilose/patologia , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Gases , Rinite/microbiologia , Doenças dos Roedores/patologia
16.
Vet Microbiol ; 232: 42-49, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31030843

RESUMO

Aspergillosis is a fungal infection caused by Aspergillus molds that can affect both humans and animals. Despite advances in diagnostics and therapy, medical management of this disease remains difficult. Expansion of the basic knowledge regarding its pathophysiology in animals is critical to aid in the identification of new biomarkers of infection for diagnosis and therapeutic targets. For such a purpose, proteomics can be used by addressing protein changes during various disease processes. In the present study, a mass spectrometry analysis based on isobaric tagging for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ®) was applied for direct identification and relative quantitation of proteins in blood collected from 32 Aspergillus-diseased common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus, 32 samples) in comparison with blood from 55 other dolphins (55 samples from 41 clinically-normal controls and from 14 cetaceans with miscellaneous non-Aspergillus inflammation diseases) and ten convalescent dolphins (28 samples). Sixty-six and 40 proteins were found to be ≥2.0-fold over- and underrepresented versus miscellaneous non-Aspergillus inflammatory dolphins, respectively, and most were confirmed vs. clinically-normal controls and convalescents. Many proteins which play a role in the adaptive immune response were identified, including MHC proteins and others involved in catalytic activity like the NADPH-ubiquinone oxido-reductases. Overall, iTRAQ® appears to be a convenient proteomic tool greatly suited for exploratory ex vivo studies focusing on pathophysiology. This technique should be considered as a preliminary step before validation of new diagnostic markers.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa , Aspergilose/fisiopatologia , Aspergilose/veterinária , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/imunologia , Proteínas/imunologia , Animais , Aspergillus , Biomarcadores/sangue , Golfinho Nariz-de-Garrafa/microbiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Espectrometria de Massas , Proteômica
17.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31013526

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Retrospective evaluation of the diagnostic value of bacterial culture of nasal mucosal swabs and histopathologic assessment of nasal mucosal biopsies in dogs with nasal discharge. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Medical records of dogs with the predominant clinical sign of nasal discharge that were referred to the ENT Unit of the Small Animal Department between January 2015 and December 2016 were reviewed. RESULTS: Data of 85 dogs were evaluated. On the basis of the results of computed tomography (CT), rhinoscopy, bacterial culture of a nasal mucosal swab and histopathologic examination of nasal mucosal biopsies, dogs were assigned to one of six groups of primary nasal diseases: nasal neoplasia (24/85, 28 %), oronasal defect (22/85, 26 %), idiopathic chronic rhinitis (17/85, 20 %), foreign body (8/85, 10 %), sinonasal aspergillosis (7/85, 8 %) and diseases of the planum nasale (7/85, 8 %). In brachycephalic dogs (14/85, 17 %), oronasal defects (8/14, 57 %) were the most frequent cause of nasal discharge. No cases of a primary bacterial infection of the nasal cavity were observed and, therefore, antibiotic treatment had not been successful. Nevertheless, 72 % of the dogs in this study had received prior antibiotic treatment. Secondary bacterial infec tions diagnosed via nasal mucosal swabs were not diagnostic for the underlying primary nasal diseases. Targeted biopsies of tumors obtained under endoscopic visualization may lead to a definitive diagnosis, whereas biopsies of the nasal mucosa and the type of the inflammatory infiltrate were not diagnostic. CONCLUSIONS: Nasal discharge in dogs is frequently an indicator of an underlying severe primary nasal disease possibly leading to mortality of the affected dogs. Further diagnostics under anesthesia should be performed early in the diagnostic evaluation. Rhinoscopy as the central diagnostic is supported by CT and biopsy. Bacterial culture of the nasal discharge does not provide a diagnosis for the primary nasal disease process. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Without further diagnostics, antibiotic treatment of dogs presenting with nasal discharge is considered as not appropriate and can be harmful in dogs with nasal tumors or sinonasal aspergillosis. When an intranasal malignant neoplasia is suspected, endoscopic-guided biopsies of the nasal mass should be obtained, because blind nasal biopsies are associated with a high rate of false-negative results.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Doenças do Cão/patologia , Mucosa Nasal/microbiologia , Mucosa Nasal/patologia , Doenças Nasais/veterinária , Animais , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergilose/patologia , Aspergilose/veterinária , Doença Crônica/veterinária , Cães , Endoscopia/veterinária , Corpos Estranhos/patologia , Corpos Estranhos/veterinária , Doenças Nasais/microbiologia , Doenças Nasais/patologia , Neoplasias Nasais/patologia , Neoplasias Nasais/veterinária , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite/microbiologia , Rinite/patologia , Rinite/veterinária , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X/veterinária
18.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(2): 169-173, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-989440

RESUMO

Abstract Even today, an effective diagnostic test for aspergillosis in penguins is unknown, being the gold standard post-mortem examinations. The fungal antigen galactomannan (GM) has been used as a biomarker of disease in humans and is detected by the Platelia Aspergillus EIA (BioRad)®, a commercial kit based on the sandwich ELISA technique. It is standardized for use in neutropenic patients, however studies have demonstrated its usefulness also possible for birds. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Platelia Aspergillus EIA® test (BioRad-US) in the diagnosis of aspergillosis in Magellanic penguins, determining sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for different cut-off points. Were included in the study, blood serum samples (n = 29) Magellanic penguins in captivity that died by aspergillosis. Detection of GM was performed following manufacturer's instructions and the GM index was obtained by dividing the average value of OD of the duplicate of the clinical sample by duplicate OD of the average value of the cut-off sample provided by the kit. Through information database results were obtained for the presence of anti-Aspergillus fumigatus antibodies detected by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) for all serum samples. Results were analyzed using chi-square test and Kruskal-Wallis from SPSS 20.0, IBM®. ROC curve was obtained and from this, rates of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were also calculated based on four different cutoff points (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0). The serum GM index did not differ between animals of the case and control group (pkw =0.097). In determining the ROC curve for serum GM detection the value of area under the curve was 0.635. From the values ​​determined by the coordinate of the curve, four different cut points (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0) were analyzed, resulting in sensitivity rates ranging from 86.2 to 34.5% % and specificity between 87% and 26.1%. By comparing the serum GM index in group case as the presence or absence of antibodies detected by AGID was found p=0.503. The detection of GM the Platelia Aspergillus EIA® test seems is not be useful for the diagnosis of aspergillosis in naturally infected penguins.


Resumo Ainda hoje, um teste diagnóstico eficaz para aspergilose em pinguins não é conhecido, sendo o padrão-ouro os exames post-mortem. O antígeno fúngico galactomanana (GM) tem sido utilizado como biomarcador da doença em humanos, sendo detectado pelo Platelia Aspergillus EIA (BioRad)®, um kit comercial que se baseia na técnica ELISA sanduíche. É padronizado para utilização em pacientes neutropênicos, no entanto estudos tem demonstrado sua possível utilidade também para aves.O objetivo de nosso estudo foi avaliar a eficácia do teste Platelia Aspergillus EIA® (BioRad-US) no diagnóstico da aspergilose em pinguins-de-Magalhães, determinando sensibilidade, especificidade e valores preditivos positivos e negativos em diferentes pontos de corte. Foram incluídas no estudo, amostras de soro sanguíneo (n=29) de pinguins-de-Magalhães em cativeiro que vieram a óbito por aspergilose. A detecção de GM foi realizada seguindo instruções do fabricante e o índice de GM foi obtido dividindo o valor da média da DO da duplicata da amostra clínica pelo valor da média da DO da duplicata da amostra de cut-off fornecida pelo kit. Através de informações em banco de dados foram obtidos resultados sobre a presença de anticorpos anti-Aspergillus fumigatus, detectada por Imunodifusão em gel de ágar (IDGA) em todas as amostras séricas. Os resultados foram analisados utilizando-se teste de qui-quadrado e Kruskal-Wallis a partir do programa estatístico SPSS 20.0, IBM®. Curva ROC foi obtida e a partir desta, taxas de sensibilidade, especificidade, valores preditivo positivo e negativo foram igualmente calculados considerando quatro diferentes pontos de corte (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 e 2.0). O índice de GM sérica não diferiu entre os animais do grupo caso e controle (pKW = 0.097). Na determinação da curva ROC para detecção de GM sérica o valor da área sobre a curva foi de 0.635. A partir dos valores determinados pelas coordenadas da curva, quatro diferentes pontos de corte (0.5, 1.0, 1.5 e 2.0) foram analisados, resultando em taxas de sensibilidade variando de 86.2% a 34.5%, e de especificidade entre 87% e 26.1%. Ao comparar o índice de GM sérica nos animais do grupo caso quanto a presença ou não de anticorpos detectados pela IDGA foi encontrado p=0.503. A detecção de GM pelo teste Platelia Aspergillus EIA® não parece ser útil para o diagnóstico da aspergilose em pinguins naturalmente infectados.


Assuntos
Animais , Aspergilose/diagnóstico , Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática/métodos , Spheniscidae/microbiologia , Biomarcadores/análise , Mananas/análise
19.
Mycopathologia ; 184(2): 335-339, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30706198

RESUMO

Aspergillus caninus (synonym: Phialosimplex caninus) is an anamorphic fungus species associated with systemic infections in dogs that has been transferred from the genus Phialosimplex to Aspergillus. Here, we report the first case of canine A. caninus infection in Japan. A castrated Japanese Shiba Inu (6 years old; weight, 12.5 kg) was referred to the Yamaguchi University Animal Medical Center, Yamaguchi, Japan, in June 2017 showing vitality loss and depression. Computed tomography revealed iliac and splenic hilum lymphopathies, and histologic examination of an iliac lymph node by biopsy revealed granulomatous lesions with numerous oval to round yeast-like fungal cells. Aspergillus caninus was isolated from the biopsy samples, and in vitro susceptibility tests of the isolate to the antifungal drugs amphotericin B (AMB), fluconazole (FLZ), itraconazole (ITZ), voriconazole (VRZ), and micafungin (MCF) were performed by the E-test method. The isolate from this dog exhibited a minimal inhibitory concentration of < 0.002 µg/ml to AMB, > 256 µg/ml to FLZ, < 0.002 µg/ml to ITZ, < 0.002 µg/ml to VRZ, and < 0.002 µg/ml to MCF, indicating that the isolate was not susceptible to FLZ and susceptible to AMB, ITZ, VRZ, and MCF. Since the response of the patient dog to ITZ and VRZ treatments was poor, more aggressive management using combination therapies of ITZ with other antifungals may be necessary for treating canine A. caninus infection in dogs.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/patologia , Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Linfonodos/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergilose/diagnóstico por imagem , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus/classificação , Biópsia , Testes de Sensibilidade a Antimicrobianos por Disco-Difusão , Cães , Histocitoquímica , Japão , Linfonodos/patologia , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
20.
Arch Microbiol ; 201(2): 253-257, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627760

RESUMO

Aspergillosis causes high morbidity and mortality in avian species. The main goal of this study was to use molecular techniques to identify Aspergillus species collected from different avian species with aspergillosis. A subsample of those isolates was also screened for resistance to itraconazole. Over a 2-year period, clinical samples were recovered from 44 birds with clinical signs of the disease, clinical pathology results suspicious of aspergillosis, or from birds that died from Aspergillus spp. infection. Environmental sampling was also performed in seabird rehabilitation centers and natural seabird environments. Seventy-seven isolates (43 clinical and 34 environmental) were identified as Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto. No cryptic species from the Fumigati section were detected. Two environmental isolates were identified as Aspergillus nidulans var. dentatus and Aspergillus spinulosporus. None of the Aspergillus isolates tested were resistant to itraconazole. Our study emphasizes the dominant association of Aspergillus fumigatus sensu stricto in avian mycoses and shows the lack of itraconazole resistance in the studied isolates.


Assuntos
Aspergilose/veterinária , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Aves/microbiologia , Animais , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Aspergilose/microbiologia , Aspergillus/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspergillus/genética , Aspergillus fumigatus/isolamento & purificação , Aves , Farmacorresistência Fúngica , Microbiologia Ambiental , Humanos , Itraconazol/farmacologia
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