Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.760
Filtrar
1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(40): e22616, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33019482

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSDs) are inflammatory demyelinating disorders of the central nervous system; they are characterized by severe optic neuritis and transverse myelitis. Intravenous methylprednisolone pulse (IVMP) therapy is an effective treatment that is administered to patients in the acute phase of NMOSD; this therapy has achieved remarkable results in clinical practice. However, there are no reports on NMOSD patients who have experienced an acute bilateral cerebral infarction while undergoing IVMP treatment. PATIENT CONCERNS: We report on a 62-yr-old woman who was undergoing IVMP therapy for the primary diagnosis of NMOSD. Unexpectedly, the patient's existing limb weakness worsened, and she developed motor aphasia on the second day of IVMP treatment. Additionally, brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed acute bilateral cerebral infarction. DIAGNOSIS: The patient's clinical manifestations, medical imaging results, and laboratory test results were taken into consideration; the final diagnosis was acute bilateral cerebral infarction in the presence of NMOSD. INTERVENTIONS: Subsequent to the onset of acute cerebral infarction, the patient was immediately treated with oral aspirin, atorvastatin, and intravenous butylphthalide. The hormone dose was adjusted to an oral 60-mg/d dose for maintenance; this was followed by immunoadsorption plasmapheresis for 3 days, and double-filtration plasmapheresis for 2 days. OUTCOMES: Following treatment onset, the patient's ocular symptoms significantly improved, and her limb muscle strength gradually recovered. Two months after discharge, the patient's husband reported that she was able to walk with the help of others and take care of herself, and that there was no recurrence. LESSONS: Medical professionals must be aware of the possibility of NMOSD patients with cerebrovascular risk factors suffering an acute cerebral infarction while undergoing high-dose IVMP therapy, as this therapy can exacerbate existing problems.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Neuromielite Óptica/complicações , Neuromielite Óptica/tratamento farmacológico , Doença Aguda , Administração Intravenosa , Administração Oral , Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Afasia de Broca/induzido quimicamente , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Benzofuranos/administração & dosagem , Benzofuranos/uso terapêutico , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Metilprednisolona/administração & dosagem , Metilprednisolona/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/administração & dosagem , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Plasmaferese/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Crit Care Resusc ; 22(3): 227-236, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900329

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a dysregulated response that contributes to critical illness. Adjunctive acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatment may offer beneficial effects by increasing the synthesis of specialised proresolving mediators (a subset of polyunsaturated fatty acid-derived lipid mediators). DESIGN: Pilot, feasibility, multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Four interdisciplinary intensive care units (ICUs) in Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Critically ill patients with SIRS. INTERVENTIONS: ASA 100 mg 12-hourly or placebo, administered within 24 hours of ICU admission and continued until ICU day 7, discharge or death, whichever came first. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Interleukin-6 (IL-6) serum concentration at 48 hours after randomisation and, in a prespecified subgroup of patients, serum lipid mediator concentrations measured by mass spectrometry. RESULTS: The trial was discontinued in December 2017 due to slow recruitment and after the inclusion of 48 patients. Compared with placebo, ASA did not decrease IL-6 serum concentration at 48 hours. In the 32 patients with analysis of lipid mediators, low-dose ASA increased the concentration of 15-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a proresolving precursor of lipoxin A4, and reduced the concentration of the proinflammatory cytochrome P-dependent mediators 17-HETE (hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid), 18-HETE and 20-HETE. In the eicosapentaenoic acid pathway, ASA significantly increased the concentration of the anti-inflammatory mediators 17,18-DiHETE (dihydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) and 14,15-DiHETE. CONCLUSIONS: In ICU patients with SIRS, low-dose ASA did not significantly alter serum IL-6 concentrations, but it did affect plasma concentrations of certain lipid mediators. The ability to measure lipid mediators in clinical samples and to monitor the effect of ASA on their levels unlocks a potential area of biological investigation in critical care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ACTRN 12614001165673).


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Estado Terminal , Citocinas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metaboloma/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Austrália , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Interleucina-6/sangue , Lipídeos , Resultado do Tratamento
3.
Lancet ; 396(10257): 1079-1089, 2020 10 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882163

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A potent P2Y12 inhibitor-based dual antiplatelet therapy is recommended for up to 1 year in patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The greatest benefit of the potent agent is during the early phase, whereas the risk of excess bleeding continues in the chronic maintenance phase. Therefore, de-escalation of antiplatelet therapy might achieve an optimal balance between ischaemia and bleeding. We aimed to investigate the safety and efficacy of a prasugrel-based dose de-escalation therapy. METHODS: HOST-REDUCE-POLYTECH-ACS is a randomised, open-label, multicentre, non-inferiority trial done at 35 hospitals in South Korea. We enrolled patients with acute coronary syndrome receiving PCI. Patients meeting the core indication for prasugrel were randomly assigned (1:1) to the de-escalation group or conventional group using a web-based randomisation system. The assessors were masked to the treatment allocation. After 1 month of treatment with 10 mg prasugrel plus 100 mg aspirin daily, the de-escalation group received 5 mg prasugrel, while the conventional group continued to receive 10 mg. The primary endpoint was net adverse clinical events (all-cause death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, repeat revascularisation, stroke, and bleeding events of grade 2 or higher according to Bleeding Academic Research Consortium [BARC] criteria) at 1 year. The absolute non-inferiority margin for the primary endpoint was 2·5%. The key secondary endpoints were efficacy outcomes (cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and ischaemic stroke) and safety outcomes (bleeding events of BARC grade ≥2). The primary analysis was in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02193971. RESULTS: From Sept 30, 2014, to Dec 18, 2018, 3429 patients were screened, of whom 1075 patients did not meet the core indication for prasugrel and 16 were excluded due to randomisation error. 2338 patients were randomly assigned to the de-escalation group (n=1170) or the conventional group (n=1168). The primary endpoint occurred in 82 patients (Kaplan-Meier estimate 7·2%) in the de-escalation group and 116 patients (10·1%) in the conventional group (absolute risk difference -2·9%, pnon-inferiority<0·0001; hazard ratio 0·70 [95% CI 0·52-0·92], pequivalence=0·012). There was no increase in ischaemic risk in the de-escalation group compared with the conventional group (0·76 [0·40-1·45]; p=0·40), and the risk of bleeding events was significantly decreased (0·48 [0·32-0·73]; p=0·0007). INTERPRETATION: In east Asian patients with acute coronary syndrome patients receiving PCI, a prasugrel-based dose de-escalation strategy from 1 month after PCI reduced the risk of net clinical outcomes up to 1 year, mainly driven by a reduction in bleeding without an increase in ischaemia. FUNDING: Daiichi Sankyo, Boston Scientific, Terumo, Biotronik, Qualitech Korea, and Dio.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/mortalidade , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(38): e21917, 2020 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32957311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many epidemiologic studies were performed to clarify the protective effect of regular aspirin use on breast cancer risks, but the results remain inconsistent. Here, we conducted an updated meta-analysis of 38 studies to quantitatively assess the association of regular aspirin use with risk of breast cancer. METHOD: We performed a bibliographic database search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane library, Scopus, and Google Scholar from January 1939 to December 2019. Relative risk (RR) estimates were extracted from eligible case-control and cohort studies and pooled using a random effects model. Subgroup analysis was conducted based on study design, aspirin exposure assessment, hormone receptor status, menopausal status, cancer stage as well as aspirin use duration or frequency. Furthermore, sensitivity and publication bias analyses were performed. RESULTS: Thirty eight studies of 1,926,742 participants involving 97,099 breast cancer cases contributed to this meta-analysis. Compared with nonusers, the aspirin users had a reduced risk of breast cancer (RR = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-0.95, P value of significance [Psig] < .001) with heterogeneity (P value of heterogeneity [Phet] < .001, I = 82.6%). Subgroup analysis revealed a reduced risk in case-control studies (RR = 0.83, 95% CI: 0.78-0.89, Psig < .001), in hormone receptor positive tumors (RR = 0.91, 95% CI: 0.88-0.94, Psig < .001), in situ breast tumors (RR = 0.79, 95% CI: 0.71-0.88, Psig < .001), and in postmenopausal women (RR = 0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.96, Psig = .002). Furthermore, participants who use aspirin for >4 times/wk (RR = 0.88, 95% CI: 0.82-0.96, Psig = .003) or for >10 years (RR = 0.94, 95% CI: 0.89-0.99, Psig = .025) appeared to benefit more from the reduction in breast cancer caused by aspirin. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggested that aspirin use might be associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer, particularly for reducing the risk of hormone receptor positive tumors or in situ breast tumors, and the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Pós-Menopausa , Medição de Risco
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 716, 2020 Sep 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993540

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A healthy 25-year-old woman developed COVID-19 disease with clinical characteristics resembling Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C), a rare form of COVID-19 described primarily in children under 21 years of age. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient presented with 1 week of weakness, dyspnea, and low-grade fevers, followed by mild cough, sore throat, vomiting, diarrhea, and lymph node swelling. She was otherwise healthy, with no prior medical history. Her hospital course was notable for profound acute kidney injury, leukocytosis, hypotension, and cardiac dysfunction requiring ICU admission and vasopressor support. MIS-C-like illness secondary to COVID-19 was suspected due to physical exam findings of conjunctivitis, mucositis, and shock. She improved following IVIG, aspirin, and supportive care, and was discharged on hospital day 5. CONCLUSION: MIS-C-like illness should be considered in adults presenting with atypical clinical findings and concern for COVID-19. Further research is needed to support the role of IVIG and aspirin in this patient population.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/complicações , Adulto , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Tosse/complicações , Diarreia/complicações , Dispneia/complicações , Feminino , Febre/complicações , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/administração & dosagem , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Faringite/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome de Resposta Inflamatória Sistêmica/virologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Vômito/complicações
6.
Am Heart J ; 228: 1-7, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor is the cornerstone for prevention ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the optimal antiplatelet strategy for ACS patients with both high bleeding and high ischemic risks is unclear. STUDY DESIGN: The OPT-BIRISK trial is a multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized study designed to test the superiority of extended antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel monotherapy compared with aspirin and clopidogrel for reduction of bleeding events in ACS patients with both high bleeding and high ischemic risks ("bi-risk"). A total of 7,700 patients who completed 9- to 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy after new-generation drug-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of ACS will be randomized to receive clopidogrel monotherapy or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 9 months followed by aspirin monotherapy for 3 months. The primary end point is Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleedings at 9 months after randomization. The key secondary end point is major adverse cardiac and cerebral events at 9 months after randomization, defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or coronary artery revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: OPT-BIRISK is the first large-scale randomized trial aimed to explore the optimal antiplatelet strategy for bi-risk ACS patients after percutaneous coronary intervention in current clinical practice. The results will add evidence regarding de-escalation antiplatelet therapy for patients at special risk.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Aspirina , Clopidogrel , Hemorragia , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Adulto , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
7.
Am Heart J ; 228: 8-16, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal injury is a common complication in patients treated with antiplatelet agents after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the effects of different antiplatelet regimens on the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal injury have not been well studied, principally due to the lack of a low-risk sensitive and accurate detection system. TRIAL DESIGN: OPT-PEACE is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointestinal injury will be evaluated with the ANKON magnetically controlled capsule endoscopy system (AMCE), a minimally invasive approach for detecting mucosal lesions in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine. Patients without AMCE-detected gastrointestinal erosions, ulceration or bleeding after drug-eluting stent implantation are enrolled and treated with open-label aspirin (100 mg/d) plus clopidogrel (75 mg/d) for 6 months. Thereafter, 480 event-free patients will undergo repeat AMCE and are randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel, aspirin plus placebo or clopidogrel plus placebo for an additional 6 months. A final AMCE is performed at 12 months. The primary endpoint is the incidence of gastric or intestinal mucosal lesions (erosions, ulceration, or bleeding) within 12 months after enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: OPT-PEACE is the first study to investigate the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal injury in patients receiving different antiplatelet therapy regimens after stent implantation. This trial will inform clinical decision-making for personalized antiplatelet therapy post-PCI.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Endoscopia por Cápsula/métodos , Clopidogrel , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adulto , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Stents Farmacológicos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco Ajustado/métodos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237022, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major bleedings other than gastrointestinal (GI) and intracranial (ICH) and mortality rates associated with antiplatelet drugs in real-world clinical practice are unknown. The objective was to estimate major bleeding risk and mortality among new users of antiplatelet drugs in real-world clinical practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based prospective cohort using the French national health data system (SNIIRAM), identified 69,911 adults living within five well-defined geographical areas, who were new users of antiplatelet drugs in 2013-2015 and who had not received any antithrombotics in 2012. Among them, 63,600 started a monotherapy and 6,311 a dual regimen. Clinical data for all adults referred for bleeding was collected from all emergency departments within these areas, and medically validated. Databases were linked using common key variables. The main outcome measure was time to major bleeding (GI, ICH and other bleedings). Secondary outcomes were death, and event-free survival (EFS). Hazard ratios (HR) were derived from adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. We used Inverse Propensity of Treatment Weighting as a stratified sensitivity analysis according to the antiplatelet monotherapy indication: primary prevention without cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, with CV risk factors, and secondary prevention. We observed 250 (0.36%) major haemorrhages, 81 ICH, 106 GI and 63 other types of bleeding. Incidences were twice as high in dual therapy as in monotherapy. Compared to low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg daily), high-dose (> 100 up to 325 mg daily) was associated with an increased risk of ICH (HR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.95). EFS was improved by high-dose compared to low-dose aspirin (1.41, 1.04 to 1.90 and 1.32, 1.03 to 1.68) and clopidogrel (1.30, 0.73 to 2.3 and 1.7, 1.24 to 2.34) respectively in primary prevention with and without CV risk factors. CONCLUSION: The incidence of major bleeding and mortality was low. In monotherapy, low-dose aspirin was the safest therapeutic option whatever the indication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02886533.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(31): e21446, 2020 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756162

RESUMO

Aspirin (ASA) exerts an anti-tumor effect via the COX pathway. Clinical studies on the chemopreventive effects of ASA on uterine cancer (UC) remain inconsistent. We used population-based retrospective cohort study to evaluate the UC in ASA users in Taiwanese women. From insurance claims data, we identified 23,342 women received ASA treatment between 2000 and 2010 and a comparison group of same sample size randomly selected from the same database matched by the propensity score. The incidence of UC in the ASA cohort was 10% of that in the comparison group (0.28 vs 2.73 per 10,000 person-years). The Poisson regression analysis estimated adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) was 0.10 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.09-0.11) for ASA users relatives to comparisons after controlling for covariates. The UC incidence in ASA users decreased with age, from 0.61 per 10,000 person-years in the 20 to 39 years old (adjusted IRR = 0.21, 95% CI = 0.15-0.29) to 0.21 per 10,000 person-years in the 65 to 80 years old (adjusted IRR = 0.15, 95% CI = 0.12-0.16). The incidence was higher in longer term users. Hormone therapy of estradiol was associated with the increase of UC risk in both cohorts, but less in ASA users than comparisons (1.34 vs 4.75 per 10,000 person-years). This study suggests that ASA use was associated with a decreased risk of UC. Further prospective randomized clinical trials are warranted to confirm the association.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/farmacologia , Aspirina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Neoplasias Uterinas/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Quimioprevenção , Estudos de Coortes , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/administração & dosagem , Estradiol/efeitos adversos , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia
10.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(4): 562-568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to study the association of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: Spine BMD was evaluated in a subset of 2028 participants from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort who were NSAID users (including aspirin) and underwent both lumbar and thoracic imaging. Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study that includes 4 ethnic groups (white, Asian, African American, and Hispanic). Trabecular BMD was evaluated by quantitative computed tomography based on cardiac computed tomography images, which were obtained during coronary calcium scans. The analyses were cross sectional using baseline examination data for exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders including age, sex, race, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a small association between trabecular BMD and baseline use of COX-2-selective NSAID was observed. COX-2-selective NSAID use was associated with 7.4 mg/cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.3; P = 0. 013) higher trabecular BMD in thoracic spine and 10.6 mg/cm higher at lumbar spine (95% CI, 5.1-16.1; P < 0.001). Among regular aspirin users, there was no association between drug use and trabecular BMD. Considering all spine fractures together, the prevalence ratio of fractures among aspirin users was 1.0 (95% CI, 0.6-1.6) and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.5-2.3) among COX-2-selective NSAID users. CONCLUSIONS: Regular use of aspirin has no significant association with trabecular BMD in either the thoracic or lumbar spine and no association with fracture prevalence. COX-2-selective NSAIDs may have modest positive association with BMD, but the mechanisms were not assessed and the observational study design makes residual confounding a possible alternate explanation. Potential pathological mechanisms warrant further longitudinal exploration.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/etnologia
13.
Am Heart J ; 227: 82-90, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32693196

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A number of trials have assessed the efficacy and safety of short-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients who undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, whether to continue aspirin or a P2Y12 inhibitor after a short course of DAPT is actively debated. METHODS: PUBMED and EMBASE were searched through March 2020 for randomized controlled trials evaluating short-term DAPT (≤6 months) when compared with longer-term (≥12 months) DAPT among patients undergoing PCI. The ischemic outcomes were all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stent thrombosis, and stroke. The safety outcome was major and/or clinically relevant bleeding. The primary objective was to investigate the outcomes with aspirin monotherapy (Aspirin group) versus P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy (P2Y12i group) after short-term DAPT. RESULTS: Our search identified 17 eligible trials enrolling a total of 54,625 patients comparing different DAPT duration. Either of the 2 monotherapy groups did not increase the risk of ischemic outcomes when compared with the long-term DAPT group, without difference between the Aspirin versus the P2Y12i groups. However, both monotherapy groups significantly reduced bleeding when compared with long-term DAPT (Aspirin group: hazard ratio [95% CI]: 0.62 [0.45-0.86], P=.004 and P2Y12i group: 0.68 [0.50-0.93], P=.015). There was no difference in bleeding between the Aspirin versus P2Y12i groups (hazard ratio=0.91 [0.58-1.43], P=.70). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing PCI, short-term DAPT with continuation of either aspirin or P2Y12i reduced bleeding without increasing ischemic outcomes when compared with long-term DAPT. The choice of antiplatelet therapy after short-term DAPT should be evaluated in well-powered trials.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Metanálise em Rede , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(7): 943-947, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612060

RESUMO

Concomitant therapy with acetaminophen (APAP) and low-dose aspirin is often used in clinical settings; however, it is unclear whether this combination is involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that concomitant therapy with APAP and low-dose aspirin may cause CKD progression. We carried out a retrospective 6-year cohort study that included all patients who received low-dose aspirin from January 2011 to December 2016 at Kaetsu Hospital. Primary outcome was defined as CKD progression at the end of the study compared with baseline. Among the 441 patients treated during the study period, we identified 89 cases of CKD progression. Multivariate regression analysis showed that exposure to APAP>50 g [odds ratio (OR), 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-6.70], age increase by 1 year (OR, 1.05, 95% CI, 1.02-1.08), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.40, 95% CI, 1.41-4.08) had positive associations with CKD progression. Our findings suggested that concomitant therapy with APAP and low-dose aspirin increased the risk of CKD progression. Therefore, we recommend more thorough monitoring of serum creatinine when patients are on such concomitant therapy. Moreover, it is important to advise users of low-dose aspirin to avoid unnecessary use of APAP, in order to reduce the risk of CKD progression.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores , Creatinina/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
15.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012129, 2020 07 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702783

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Perineal trauma, due to spontaneous tears, surgical incision (episiotomy), or in association with operative vaginal birth, is common after vaginal birth, and is often associated with postpartum perineal pain. Birth over an intact perineum may also lead to perineal pain. There are adverse health consequences associated with perineal pain for the women and their babies in the short- and long-term, and the pain may interfere with newborn care and the establishment of breastfeeding. Aspirin has been used in the management of postpartum perineal pain, and its effectiveness and safety should be assessed. This is an update of the review, last published in 2017. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of a single dose of aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid), including at different doses, in the relief of acute postpartum perineal pain. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, we searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (4 October 2019), ClinicalTrials.gov, the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (4 October 2019) and screened reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), assessing single dose aspirin compared with placebo, no treatment, a different dose of aspirin, or single dose paracetamol or acetaminophen, for women with perineal pain in the early postpartum period. We planned to include cluster-RCTs, but none were identified. We excluded quasi-RCTs and cross-over studies. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of the included RCTs. Data were checked for accuracy. The certainty of the evidence for the main comparison (aspirin versus placebo) was assessed using the GRADE approach. MAIN RESULTS: We included 17 RCTs, 16 of which randomised 1132 women to aspirin or placebo; one RCT did not report numbers of women. Two RCTs (of 16) did not contribute data to meta-analyses. All women had perineal pain post-episiotomy, and were not breastfeeding. Studies were published between 1967 and 1997, and the risk of bias was often unclear, due to poor reporting. We included four comparisons: aspirin versus placebo (15 RCTs); 300 mg versus 600 mg aspirin (1 RCT); 600 mg versus 1200 mg aspirin (2 RCTs); and 300 mg versus 1200 mg aspirin (1 RCT). Aspirin versus placebo Aspirin may result in more women reporting adequate pain relief four to eight hours after administration compared with placebo (risk ratio (RR) 2.03, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.69 to 2.42; 13 RCTs, 1001 women; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain whether aspirin compared with placebo has an effect on the need for additional pain relief (RR 0.25, 95% CI 0.17 to 0.37; 10 RCTs, 744 women; very low-certainty evidence), or maternal adverse effects (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.57 to 2.06; 14 RCTs, 1067 women; very low-certainty evidence), four to eight hours after administration. Analyses based on dose did not reveal any clear subgroup differences. 300 mg versus 600 mg aspirin It is uncertain whether over four hours after administration, 300 mg compared with 600 mg aspirin has an effect on adequate pain relief (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.86; 1 RCT, 81 women) or the need for additional pain relief (RR 0.68, 95% CI 0.12 to 3.88; 1 RCT, 81 women). There were no maternal adverse effects in either aspirin group. 600 mg versus 1200 mg aspirin It is uncertain whether over four to eight hours after administration, 600 mg compared with 1200 mg aspirin has an effect on adequate pain relief (RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.39; 2 RCTs, 121 women), the need for additional pain relief (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.30 to 5.68; 2 RCTs, 121 women), or maternal adverse effects (RR 3.00, 95% CI 0.13 to 69.52; 2 RCTs, 121 women). 300 mg versus 1200 mg aspirin It is uncertain whether over four hours after administration, 300 mg compared with 1200 mg aspirin has an effect on adequate pain relief (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.29 to 1.32; 1 RCT, 80 women) or need for additional pain relief (RR 2.00, 95% CI 0.19 to 21.18; 1 RCT, 80 women). There were no maternal adverse effects in either aspirin group. None of the included RCTs reported on neonatal adverse effects. No RCTs reported on secondary review outcomes of: prolonged hospitalisation due to perineal pain; re-hospitalisation due to perineal pain; fully breastfeeding at discharge; mixed feeding at discharge; fully breastfeeding at six weeks; mixed feeding at six weeks; perineal pain at six weeks; maternal views; or maternal postpartum depression. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Single dose aspirin may increase adequate pain relief in women with perineal pain post-episiotomy compared with placebo. It is uncertain whether aspirin has an effect on the need for additional analgesia, or on maternal adverse effects, compared with placebo. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence because of study limitations (risk of bias), imprecision, and publication bias. Aspirin may be considered for use in non-breastfeeding women with post-episiotomy perineal pain. Included RCTs excluded breastfeeding women, so there was no evidence to assess the effects of aspirin on neonatal adverse effects or breastfeeding. Future RCTs should be designed to ensure low risk of bias, and address gaps in the evidence, such as the secondary outcomes established for this review. Current research has focused on women with post-episiotomy pain; future RCTs could be extended to include women with perineal pain associated with spontaneous tears or operative birth.


Assuntos
Dor Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Complicações do Trabalho de Parto/tratamento farmacológico , Períneo , Episiotomia/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Pós-Operatória/tratamento farmacológico , Efeito Placebo , Período Pós-Parto , Gravidez , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo
16.
JAMA ; 324(3): 279-290, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692391

RESUMO

Importance: Perioperative cardiovascular complications occur in 3% of hospitalizations for noncardiac surgery in the US. This review summarizes evidence regarding cardiovascular risk assessment prior to noncardiac surgery. Observations: Preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment requires a focused history and physical examination to identify signs and symptoms of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and severe valvular disease. Risk calculators, such as the Revised Cardiac Risk Index, identify individuals with low risk (<1%) and higher risk (≥1%) for perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events during the surgical hospital admission or within 30 days of surgery. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients at low risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. Stress testing may be considered in patients at higher risk (determined by the inability to climb ≥2 flights of stairs, which is <4 metabolic equivalent tasks) if the results from the testing would change the perioperative medical, anesthesia, or surgical approaches. Routine coronary revascularization does not reduce perioperative risk and should not be performed without specific indications independent of planned surgery. Routine perioperative use of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/d) does not decrease cardiovascular events but does increase surgical bleeding. Statins are associated with fewer postoperative cardiovascular complications and lower mortality (1.8% vs 2.3% without statin use; P < .001) in observational studies, and should be considered preoperatively in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease undergoing vascular surgery. High-dose ß-blockers (eg, 100 mg of metoprolol succinate) administered 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery are associated with a higher risk of stroke (1.0% vs 0.5% without ß-blocker use; P = .005) and mortality (3.1% vs 2.3% without ß-blocker use; P = .03) and should not be routinely used. There is a greater risk of perioperative myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events in adults aged 75 years or older (9.5% vs 4.8% for younger adults; P < .001) and in patients with coronary stents (8.9% vs 1.5% for those without stents; P < .001) and these patients warrant careful preoperative consideration. Conclusions and Relevance: Comprehensive history, physical examination, and assessment of functional capacity during daily life should be performed prior to noncardiac surgery to assess cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients with a low risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, but may be useful in patients with poor functional capacity (<4 metabolic equivalent tasks) undergoing high-risk surgery if test results would change therapy independent of the planned surgery. Perioperative medical therapy should be prescribed based on patient-specific risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Cancer Causes Control ; 31(9): 827-837, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476101

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We investigated the associations of aspirin and other non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs with mammographic breast density (MBD) and their interactions in relation to breast cancer risk. METHODS: This study included 3,675 cancer-free women within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and Nurses' Health Study II (NHSII) cohorts. Percent breast density (PD), absolute dense area (DA), and non-dense area (NDA) were measured from digitized film mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding technique; all measures were square root-transformed. Information on medication use was collected in 1980 (NHS) and 1989 (NHSII) and updated biennially. Medication use was defined as none, past or current; average cumulative dose and frequency were calculated for all past or current users from all bi-annual questionnaires preceding the mammogram date. We used generalized linear regression to quantify associations of medications with MBD. Two-way interactions were examined in logistic regression models. RESULTS: In multivariate analysis, none of the anti-inflammatory medications were associated with PD, DA, and NDA. We found no interactions of any of the medications with PD with respect to breast cancer risk (all p-interactions > 0.05). However, some of the aspirin variables appeared to have positive associations with breast cancer risk limited only to women with PD 10-24% (past aspirin OR 1.56, 95% CI 1.03-2.35; current aspirin with < 5 years of use OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.01-3.28; current aspirin with ≥ 5 years of use OR 1.89, 95% CI 1.26-2.82). CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin and NSAIDs are not associated with breast density measures. We found no interactions of aspirin with MBD in relation to breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Densidade da Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Mama/citologia , Mama/efeitos dos fármacos , Mama/patologia , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Mamografia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
19.
Stroke ; 51(6): 1758-1765, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32404035

RESUMO

Background and Purpose- The RE-SPECT ESUS trial (Randomized, Double-Blind, Evaluation in Secondary Stroke Prevention Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of the Oral Thrombin Inhibitor Dabigatran Etexilate Versus Acetylsalicylic Acid in Patients With Embolic Stroke of Undetermined Source) tested the hypothesis that dabigatran would be superior to aspirin for the prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. This exploratory subgroup analysis investigates the impact of age, renal function (both predefined), and dabigatran dose (post hoc) on the rates of recurrent stroke and major bleeding. Methods- RE-SPECT ESUS was a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of dabigatran 150 or 110 mg (for patients aged ≥75 years and/or with creatinine clearance 30 to <50 mL/minute) twice daily compared with aspirin 100 mg once daily. The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. Results- The trial, which enrolled 5390 patients from December 2014 to January 2018, did not demonstrate superiority of dabigatran versus aspirin for prevention of recurrent stroke in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. However, among the population qualifying for the lower dabigatran dose, the rate of recurrent stroke was reduced with dabigatran versus aspirin (7.4% versus 13.0%; hazard ratio, 0.57 [95% CI, 0.39-0.82]; interaction P=0.01). This was driven mainly by the subgroup aged ≥75 years (7.8% versus 12.4%; hazard ratio, 0.63 [95% CI, 0.43-0.94]; interaction P=0.10). Stroke rates tended to be lower with dabigatran versus aspirin with declining renal function. Risks for major bleeding were similar between treatments, irrespective of renal function, but with a trend for lower bleeding rates with dabigatran versus aspirin in older patients. Conclusions- In subgroup analyses of RE-SPECT ESUS, dabigatran reduced the rate of recurrent stroke compared with aspirin in patients qualifying for the lower dose of dabigatran. These results are hypothesis-generating. Aspirin remains the standard antithrombotic treatment for patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source. Registration- URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique identifier: NCT02239120.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Dabigatrana , Fibrinolíticos , Embolia Intracraniana , Nefropatias , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/farmacocinética , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/farmacocinética , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/farmacocinética , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/sangue , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Nefropatias/sangue , Nefropatias/tratamento farmacológico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
20.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 5: CD005259, 2020 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374919

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Knee arthroscopy (KA) is a routine orthopedic procedure recommended to repair cruciate ligaments and meniscus injuries and in eligible patients, to assist the diagnosis of persistent knee pain. KA is associated with a small risk of thromboembolic events. This systematic review aims to assess if pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions may reduce this risk. This review is the second update of the review first published in 2007. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of interventions, whether mechanical, pharmacological, or in combination, for thromboprophylaxis in adult patients undergoing KA. SEARCH METHODS: For this update, the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist searched the Cochrane Vascular Specialised Register, the CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and CINAHL databases, and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform and ClinicalTrials.gov trials registries, on 14 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and controlled clinical trials (CCTs), whether blinded or not, of all types of interventions used to prevent deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in males and females aged 18 years and older undergoing KA. There were no restrictions on language or publication status. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently selected studies for inclusion, assessed trial quality with the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool, and extracted data. A third author addressed discrepancies. We contacted study authors for additional information when required. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of the evidence. MAIN RESULTS: This update adds four new studies, bringing the total of included studies to eight and involving 3818 adult participants with no history of thromboembolic disease undergoing KA. Studies compared daily subcutaneous (sc) low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) versus control (five studies); oral rivaroxaban 10 mg versus placebo (one study); daily sc LMWH versus graduated compression stockings (GCS) (one study); and aspirin versus control (one study). The incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE) in all trials combined was low, with seven cases in 3818 participants.There were no deaths in any of the intervention or control groups. LMWH versus control When compared with control, LMWH probably results in little to no difference in the incidence of PE in patients undergoing KA (risk ratio (RR) 1.81, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.49 to 6.65; 1820 participants; 3 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). LMWH showed no reduction of the incidence of symptomatic DVT (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.03; 1848 participants; 4 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). LMWH may reduce the risk of asymptomatic DVT but the evidence is very uncertain (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.61; 369 participants; 2 studies; very low-certainty evidence). There was no evidence of an increased risk of all adverse events combined (RR 1.85, 95% CI 0.95 to 3.59; 1978 participants; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). No evidence of a clear effect on major bleeding (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.72; 1451 participants; 1 study; moderate-certainty evidence), or minor bleeding was observed (RR 1.79, 95% CI 0.84 to 3.84; 1978 participants; 5 studies; moderate-certainty evidence). Rivaroxaban versus placebo One study with 234 participants compared oral rivaroxaban 10 mg versus placebo. No evidence of a clear impact on the risk of PE (no events in either group), symptomatic DVT (RR 0.16, 95% CI 0.02 to 1.29; moderate-certainty evidence); or asymptomatic DVT (RR 0.95, 95% CI 0.06 to 15.01; very low-certainty evidence) was detected. Only bleeding adverse events were reported. No major bleeds occurred in either group and there was no evidence of differences in minor bleeding between the groups (RR 0.63, 95% CI 0.18 to 2.19; moderate-certainty evidence). Aspirin versus control One study compared aspirin with control. No PE, DVT or asymptomatic events were detected in either group. Adverse events including pain and swelling were reported but it was not clear what groups these were in. No bleeds were reported. LMWH versus GCS One study with 1317 participants compared the use of LMWH versus GCS. There was no clear difference in the risk of PE (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.14 to 7.05; low-certainty evidence). LMWH use did reduce the risk of DVT compared to people using GCS (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.75; low-certainty evidence). No clear difference in effects was seen between the groups for asymptomatic DVT (RR 0.47, 95% CI 0.21 to 1.09; very low-certainty evidence); major bleeding (RR 3.01, 95% CI 0.61 to 14.88; moderate-certainty evidence) or minor bleeding (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.64 to 2.08; moderate-certainty evidence). Levels of thromboembolic events were higher in the GCS group than in any other group. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for imprecision resulting from overall small event numbers; risk of bias due to concerns about lack of blinding, and indirectness as we were uncertain about the direct clinical relevance of asymptomatic DVT detection. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a small risk that healthy adult patients undergoing KA will develop venous thromboembolism (PE or DVT). There is moderate- to low-certainty evidence of no benefit from the use of LMWH, aspirin or rivaroxaban in reducing this small risk of PE or symptomatic DVT. There is very low-certainty evidence that LMWH use may reduce the risk of asymptomatic DVT when compared to no treatment but it is uncertain how this directly relates to incidence of DVT or PE in healthy patients. No evidence of differences in adverse events (including major and minor bleeding) was seen, but data relating to this were limited due to low numbers of events in the studies reporting within the comparisons.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Artroscopia/efeitos adversos , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/uso terapêutico , Articulação do Joelho/cirurgia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Trombose Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Heparina de Baixo Peso Molecular/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/induzido quimicamente , Embolia Pulmonar/prevenção & controle , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Meias de Compressão
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA