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1.
Anticancer Res ; 39(9): 4877-4884, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519590

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: We investigated the effect of aspirin on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk among subgroups of women with and without risk factors for CRC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using data from the Women's Health Initiative, we estimated hazard ratios for CRC in association with aspirin use, with stratifications by cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk status, family history of CRC, and history of colorectal polypectomy. RESULTS: Aspirin was associated with a lower risk of CRC among women with low/normal or high CVD-risk status; no family history of CRC; or a history of colonoscopy with polypectomy. Aspirin was not associated with CRC among women with a family history of CRC or a history of colonoscopy without polypectomy. CONCLUSION: Aspirin was associated with a lower risk of CRC in women at all levels of CVD-risk, in those with a history of colonoscopy with polypectomy, and in those without a family history of CRC.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Colorretais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Colorretais/etiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/prevenção & controle , Comorbidade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
3.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(4): 283-291, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of aspirin as a means of primary prevention remains controversial. AIM: We have conducted a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the role of aspirin in primary prevention. METHODS: Literature search was performed via PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for all related RCTs. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular events, and bleeding events. We used a random effects model to report the risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Our analysis included 17 RCTs (164,862 patients; 83,309 received aspirin and 81,744 received placebo). Our study did not demonstrate any significant reduction in all-cause mortality for patients treated with aspirin when compared with placebo (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.93-1.01; P = 0.13). Sensitivity analysis performed by excluding healthy elderly (≥ 65) showed significant reductions in all-cause mortality in the aspirin-treated patients (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90-0.99; P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between both groups regarding cardiovascular mortality and cerebrovascular events (P > 0.05). However, aspirin-treated patients significantly reduced MACE and MI events (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.93; P < 0.001 and RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.98; P = 0.02, respectively), respectively. However, aspirin was associated with a significantly higher incidence of bleeding, including major bleeding and intracranial bleeding (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin use in primary prevention has resulted in a lower incidence of MACE and MI without significantly effecting cerebrovascular events. However, aspirin was associated with a higher bleeding risk. Use of aspirin as a means of primary prevention should be thoroughly discussed with patients and pursued based on the risk of cardiovascular disease while also considering bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31327202

RESUMO

Objective:The aim of this study is to observe the effects of asthma and aspirin asthma on chronic rhinosinusitis and to explore the corresponding clinical value. Method: Eighty-six patients with CRS and asthma who were treated in the outpatient clinic during March 2015 to January 2018 were divided into asthma group(52 cases) and aspirin asthma group(34 cases) according to asthma and aspirin asthma. The clinical symptoms of the two groups were analyzed by symptomatic VAS score, Lund-Mackay score of sinus CT, and Lund-Kennedy score by nasal endoscopy.The scores of the two groups were compared under different lung function. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay the levels of inflammatory markers IL-5,IL-17,IFN-γ and TNF-α in the sinus secretions of the two groups were detected.Result:There were no significant differences in age, gender, smoking history, allergy history, surgical history and course of disease between the two groups(P<0.05), suggesting that the data were comparable. The sinus CT results showed that compared with the aspirin asthma group, the asthmatic group had irregular turbinates and a large turbinate,as shown in Figure 1. There were significant differences between the two groups in VAS score,Lund-Mackay score of sinus CT and Lund-Kennedy score by nasal endoscopy.The difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). And the forehead and/or facial pain or pain in the symptomatic VAS score(P<0.05), the Lund-Mackay score of the sinus CT(P<0.05),and intranasal.The difference in the Lund-Kennedy score(P<0.05) was statistically significant.There were significant differences in the distribution of lung function levels between the two groups of patients with mild airway obstructive respiratory dysfunction and pulmonary ventilation obstructive disorder(P<0.05).The average levels of IL-5,IL-17,IFN-γ and TNF-α in the aspirin asthma group were significantly lower than those in the asthma group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Aspirin-induced CRS produces asthma symptoms more severely than traditional asthma symptoms, but the induced local inflammatory response is relatively weak, and the mechanism may be closely related to IL-5,IL-17,IFN-γ and TNF-α levels.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Asma/induzido quimicamente , Rinite/fisiopatologia , Sinusite/fisiopatologia , Doença Crônica , Citocinas/análise , Endoscopia , Humanos , Inflamação
6.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2414-2427, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237644

RESUMO

Importance: Very short mandatory dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a drug-eluting stent may be an attractive option. Objective: To test the hypothesis of noninferiority of 1 month of DAPT compared with standard 12 months of DAPT for a composite end point of cardiovascular and bleeding events. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolling 3045 patients who underwent PCI at 90 hospitals in Japan from December 2015 through December 2017. Final 1-year clinical follow-up was completed in January 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized either to 1 month of DAPT followed by clopidogrel monotherapy (n=1523) or to 12 months of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel (n=1522). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, definite stent thrombosis, or major or minor bleeding at 12 months, with a relative noninferiority margin of 50%. The major secondary cardiovascular end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, MI, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or definite stent thrombosis and the major secondary bleeding end point was major or minor bleeding. Results: Among 3045 patients randomized, 36 withdrew consent; of 3009 remaining, 2974 (99%) completed the trial. One-month DAPT was both noninferior and superior to 12-month DAPT for the primary end point, occurring in 2.36% with 1-month DAPT and 3.70% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -1.34% [95% CI, -2.57% to -0.11%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.98]), meeting criteria for noninferiority (P < .001) and for superiority (P = .04). The major secondary cardiovascular end point occurred in 1.96% with 1-month DAPT and 2.51% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -0.55% [95% CI, -1.62% to 0.52%]; HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.49-1.29]), meeting criteria for noninferiority (P = .005) but not for superiority (P = .34). The major secondary bleeding end point occurred in 0.41% with 1-month DAPT and 1.54% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -1.13% [95% CI, -1.84% to -0.42%]; HR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.11-0.64]; P = .004 for superiority). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing PCI, 1 month of DAPT followed by clopidogrel monotherapy, compared with 12 months of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, resulted in a significantly lower rate of a composite of cardiovascular and bleeding events, meeting criteria for both noninferiority and superiority. These findings suggest that a shorter duration of DAPT may provide benefit, although given study limitations, additional research is needed in other populations. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02619760.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2273-2279, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) identifies patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke presumed due to embolism from several unidentified sources. Among patients with recent ESUS, we sought to determine independent predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke during treatment with aspirin or rivaroxaban and to assess the relative effects of these treatments according to risk. METHODS: Exploratory analyses of 7213 participants in the NAVIGATE ESUS international trial who were randomized to aspirin 100 mg/day or rivaroxaban 15 mg/day and followed for a median of 11 months, during which time there were 309 first recurrent ischemic strokes (4.6% per year). Baseline features were correlated with recurrent stroke by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The 7 independent predictors of recurrent stroke were stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) prior to the qualifying stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03 95% confidence internal [CI] 1.58-2.60), current tobacco user (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.24-2.12), age (HR 1.02 per year increase, 95%CI 1.01-1.03), diabetes (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.64), multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.02), aspirin use prior to qualifying stroke (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), and time from qualifying stroke to randomization (HR .98, 95% CI .97-.99). The rate of recurrent stroke rate was 2.6% per year for participants without any of these risk factors, and increased by an average of 45% for each independent predictor (P < .001). There were no significant interactions between treatment effects and independent stroke predictors or stroke risk status. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of ESUS patients, several features including prior stroke or TIA, advanced age, current tobacco user, multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging, and diabetes independently identified those with an increased risk of ischemic stroke recurrence. The relative effects of rivaroxaban and aspirin were similar across the spectrum of independent stroke predictors and recurrent stroke risk status.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2302-2310, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggregation of platelets is a trigger for additional development of larger thrombi. This study aimed to identify factors that may affect platelet aggregability and their role in clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (n = 352) who were transferred within 24 hours after its onset were enrolled. Peripheral venous blood was sampled to measure platelet aggregability and other parameters. RESULTS: Mean values of spontaneous small-sized platelet aggregates and collagen- or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced large-sized aggregates were elevated in acute ischemic stroke. In atherothrombotic stroke (n = 178), collagen and ADP-induced large-sized aggregates were positively correlated with HbA1c, respectively. High incidence of the modified Rankin Scales (mRS) 5-6 at discharge was associated with diabetes complication (odds ratio [OR] 8.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-57.56). The proportion of patients who were functionally independent (the mRS 0-2) at discharge was lower in the middle tertile of collagen and ADP-induced large-sized aggregates than their low tertile (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.09-5.58; OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.05-5.59, respectively). Prestroke administration of aspirin recovered the proportion of independence at discharge (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.06-0.99), and ameliorated incidence of the mRS 5-6. On logistic regression analysis, diabetes, HbA1c, collagen-induced large-sized aggregates, and prestroke administration of aspirin remained independent predictors of clinical outcomes in atherothrombotic stroke. In cardioembolic and lacunar stroke, no relations with clinical outcomes were found. CONCLUSIONS: High plasma level of HbA1c is involved in enhanced platelet aggregability in acute atherothrombotic stroke patients, and prestroke administration of aspirin may be beneficial to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
9.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2428-2437, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237645

RESUMO

Importance: Data on P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after short-duration dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention are limited. Objective: To determine whether P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3 months of DAPT is noninferior to 12 months of DAPT in patients undergoing PCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: The SMART-CHOICE trial was an open-label, noninferiority, randomized study that was conducted in 33 hospitals in Korea and included 2993 patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. Enrollment began March 18, 2014, and follow-up was completed July 19, 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for 3 months and thereafter P2Y12 inhibitor alone (n = 1495) or DAPT for 12 months (n = 1498). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) at 12 months after the index procedure. Secondary end points included the components of the primary end point and bleeding defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2 to 5. The noninferiority margin was 1.8%. Results: Among 2993 patients who were randomized (mean age, 64 years; 795 women [26.6%]), 2912 (97.3%) completed the trial. Adherence to the study protocol was 79.3% of the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and 95.2% of the DAPT group. At 12 months, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events occurred in 42 patients in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and in 36 patients in the DAPT group (2.9% vs 2.5%; difference, 0.4% [1-sided 95% CI, -∞% to 1.3%]; P = .007 for noninferiority). There were no significant differences in all-cause death (21 [1.4%] vs 18 [1.2%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 0.63-2.21; P = .61), myocardial infarction (11 [0.8%] vs 17 [1.2%]; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.31-1.40; P = .28), or stroke (11 [0.8%] vs 5 [0.3%]; HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 0.78-6.43; P = .14) between the 2 groups. The rate of bleeding was significantly lower in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group than in the DAPT group (2.0% vs 3.4%; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3 months of DAPT compared with prolonged DAPT resulted in noninferior rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Because of limitations in the study population and adherence, further research is needed in other populations. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02079194.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos
11.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 682-691.e2, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152740

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are effective at treating acid-related disorders. These drugs are well tolerated in the short term, but long-term treatment was associated with adverse events in observational studies. We aimed to confirm these findings in an adequately powered randomized trial. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole (40 mg daily, n = 8791) or placebo (n = 8807). Participants were also randomly assigned to groups that received rivaroxaban (2.5 mg twice daily) with aspirin (100 mg once daily), rivaroxaban (5 mg twice daily), or aspirin (100 mg) alone. We collected data on development of pneumonia, Clostridium difficile infection, other enteric infections, fractures, gastric atrophy, chronic kidney disease, diabetes, chronic obstructive lung disease, dementia, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hospitalizations, and all-cause mortality every 6 months. Patients were followed up for a median of 3.01 years, with 53,152 patient-years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference between the pantoprazole and placebo groups in safety events except for enteric infections (1.4% vs 1.0% in the placebo group; odds ratio, 1.33; 95% confidence interval, 1.01-1.75). For all other safety outcomes, proportions were similar between groups except for C difficile infection, which was approximately twice as common in the pantoprazole vs the placebo group, although there were only 13 events, so this difference was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: In a large placebo-controlled randomized trial, we found that pantoprazole is not associated with any adverse event when used for 3 years, with the possible exception of an increased risk of enteric infections. ClinicalTrials.gov Number: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/induzido quimicamente , Enterocolite Pseudomembranosa/microbiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pantoprazol/efeitos adversos , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Estudos Prospectivos , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/efeitos adversos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
12.
Zhonghua Nei Ke Za Zhi ; 58(5): 382-384, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31060148

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to investigate the injury of aspirin and clopidogrel on small intestinal mucosa in rats and the protective effect of teprenone. The study found that aspirin and clopidogrel could cause intestinal mucosal injury in rats, which was even worse with dual drugs. The mechanism of mucosal injury included free radical injury induced by aspirin and decreased synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by clopidogrel. Teprenone may repair intestinal mucosa via boosting VEGF level.


Assuntos
Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Diterpenos/farmacologia , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antiulcerosos/uso terapêutico , Mucosa Intestinal/patologia , Ratos , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
13.
N Engl J Med ; 380(20): 1906-1917, 2019 05 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31091372

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cryptogenic strokes constitute 20 to 30% of ischemic strokes, and most cryptogenic strokes are considered to be embolic and of undetermined source. An earlier randomized trial showed that rivaroxaban is no more effective than aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke after a presumed embolic stroke from an undetermined source. Whether dabigatran would be effective in preventing recurrent strokes after this type of stroke was unclear. METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, randomized, double-blind trial of dabigatran at a dose of 150 mg or 110 mg twice daily as compared with aspirin at a dose of 100 mg once daily in patients who had had an embolic stroke of undetermined source. The primary outcome was recurrent stroke. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 5390 patients were enrolled at 564 sites and were randomly assigned to receive dabigatran (2695 patients) or aspirin (2695 patients). During a median follow-up of 19 months, recurrent strokes occurred in 177 patients (6.6%) in the dabigatran group (4.1% per year) and in 207 patients (7.7%) in the aspirin group (4.8% per year) (hazard ratio, 0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69 to 1.03; P = 0.10). Ischemic strokes occurred in 172 patients (4.0% per year) and 203 patients (4.7% per year), respectively (hazard ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.68 to 1.03). Major bleeding occurred in 77 patients (1.7% per year) in the dabigatran group and in 64 patients (1.4% per year) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.85 to 1.66). Clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding occurred in 70 patients (1.6% per year) and 41 patients (0.9% per year), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a recent history of embolic stroke of undetermined source, dabigatran was not superior to aspirin in preventing recurrent stroke. The incidence of major bleeding was not greater in the dabigatran group than in the aspirin group, but there were more clinically relevant nonmajor bleeding events in the dabigatran group. (Funded by Boehringer Ingelheim; RE-SPECT ESUS ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02239120.).


Assuntos
Antitrombinas/administração & dosagem , Dabigatrana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Antitrombinas/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Dabigatrana/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade
14.
J Cancer Res Clin Oncol ; 145(7): 1795-1809, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31098750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In the United States, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality, and millions more battle cancer worldwide. As such, primary prevention of cancer is a major interest globally. Aspirin has been studied as a primary prevention method for multiple diseases, mainly cardiovascular disease and various forms of cancer. The role of aspirin as a primary prevention of cancer is still controversial and may be more beneficial in certain cancers over others. With rapidly surfacing large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) studying this subject, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of aspirin as a primary prophylaxis for cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive electronic database search was conducted for all RCTs that compared aspirin versus placebo for the prevention of any type of disease, and where cancer incidence or mortality was reported. The primary outcome was cancerrelated mortality. Secondary outcomes were cancer incidence, all-cause mortality, major bleeding, any bleeding and gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding. We calculated risk ratios (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model at the longest follow-up period. RESULTS: We included 16 RCTs with 104,018 total patients, mean age of 60.51 years, mean follow-up of 5.48 years, and a male percentage of 38.72%. We found that aspirin was not associated with a significant reduction of cancer-related mortality compared with placebo (RR 0.99; 95% CI: 0.87-1.12; P = 0.85: I2 = 41%). Compared with placebo, aspirin was not associated with significant reduction of all-cause mortality (RR 0.97; 95% CI: 0.92-1.02; P = 0.19; I2 = 13%) or cancer incidence (RR: 0.98; 95% CI: 0.92-1.04; P = 0.43; I2 = 16%). However, aspirin treatment was associated with significantly increased risks of any bleeding (RR 1.63; 95% CI: 1.31-2.03; P < 0.01), major bleeding (RR 1.41; 95% CI: 1.26-1.57; P < 0.01), and GI bleeding (RR 1.85; 95% CI: 1.38-2.48; P < 0.01) compared with placebo. CONCLUSION: Our study did not find any significant reductions in cancer-related mortality or cancer incidence when compared aspirin use with placebo or no aspirin. Our study also highlights that the use of aspirin for primary prevention of cancer was found to cause higher rates of bleeding (any bleeding, major bleeding, and GI bleeding) compared to placebo or no aspirin at the longest follow-up period with no significant benefit in cancer primary prevention.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Int Heart J ; 60(3): 546-553, 2019 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105152

RESUMO

Antithrombotic strategies for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remain challenging. This study aims to explore the best antithrombotic strategy for AF patients after PCI based on a network meta-analysis. This study was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42018093928). The PubMed, Cochrane, and EMBASE databases were searched to identify clinical trials concerning antithrombotic therapy for AF patients with PCI from inception to April 2018. Pairwise and network meta-analysis were conducted to compare clinical outcomes of different antithrombotic therapy. The primary endpoint was major bleeding. Fifteen studies including 16,382 patients were identified with follow-up ranging from 3 to 12 months. Non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants (NOAC) plus P2Y12 inhibitor ranked first with a reduced risk of major bleeding compared with vitamin K antagonist (VKA) plus dual antiplatelet therapy (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.43-0.75) but with no significant difference compared with VKA plus single platelet therapy (OR: 0.85, 95% CI: 0.62-1.16). Similar thrombotic events were evident among these groups. Subgroup analysis showed that VKA plus aspirin exhibited a similar risk of major bleeding compared with VKA plus clopidogrel (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.73-1.23) but was associated with increased risks of ischaemic stroke (OR: 2.10, 95% CI: 1.33-3.32) and all-cause death (OR: 1.77, 95% CI: 1.15-2.74) versus VKA plus clopidogrel. In AF patients undergoing PCI, NOAC plus P2Y12 inhibitor and VKA plus clopidogrel, but not VKA plus aspirin, were associated with reduced risk of major bleeding compared with the recommended VKA-based triple therapy, while thrombotic events were similar among these treatments.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/cirurgia , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Estudos Observacionais como Assunto , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Vitamina K/antagonistas & inibidores
16.
Gastroenterology ; 157(2): 403-412.e5, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31054846

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Antiplatelets and anticoagulants are associated with increased upper gastrointestinal bleeding. We evaluated whether proton pump inhibitor therapy could reduce this risk. METHODS: We performed a 3 × 2 partial factorial double-blind trial of 17,598 participants with stable cardiovascular disease and peripheral artery disease. Participants were randomly assigned to groups given pantoprazole 40 mg daily or placebo, as well as rivaroxaban 2.5 mg twice daily with aspirin 100 mg once daily, rivaroxaban 5 mg twice daily, or aspirin 100 mg alone. The primary outcome was time to first upper gastrointestinal event, defined as a composite of overt bleeding, upper gastrointestinal bleeding from a gastroduodenal lesion or of unknown origin, occult bleeding, symptomatic gastroduodenal ulcer or ≥5 erosions, upper gastrointestinal obstruction, or perforation. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in upper gastrointestinal events between the pantoprazole group (102 of 8791 events) and the placebo group (116 of 8807 events) (hazard ratio, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.67-1.15). Pantoprazole significantly reduced bleeding of gastroduodenal lesions (hazard ratio, 0.52; 95% confidence interval, 0.28-0.94; P = .03); this reduction was greater when we used a post-hoc definition of bleeding gastroduodenal lesion (hazard ratio, 0.45; 95% confidence interval, 0.27-0.74), although the number needed to treat still was high (n = 982; 95% confidence interval, 609-2528). CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized placebo-controlled trial, we found that routine use of proton pump inhibitors in patients receiving low-dose anticoagulation and/or aspirin for stable cardiovascular disease does not reduce upper gastrointestinal events, but may reduce bleeding from gastroduodenal lesions. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01776424.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Pantoprazol/administração & dosagem , Úlcera Péptica/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Úlcera Péptica/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera Péptica/epidemiologia , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9379602, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073532

RESUMO

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the ninth most common cause of cancer death globally. Many studies have investigated aspirin exposure and mortality risk among PCa patients, returning inconsistent results. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore the association between aspirin exposure and mortality risk among PCa patients and to investigate potential dose/duration/frequency-response relationships. Methods and Results: Studies published from 1980 to 2018 of PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched. We included 14 studies with 110,000 participants. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using random-effect models. Potential dose/duration/frequency-response relationships were evaluated for aspirin exposure and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) risk. We did not detect an association between the highest aspirin exposure and mortality risk (PCSM of prediagnostic aspirin exposure, OR: 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-1. 07, I2= 0%; PCSM of postdiagnostic aspirin exposure, OR:0.92, 95% CI: 0.77-1.10, I2 = 56.9%; all-cause mortality [ACM] of prediagnostic aspirin exposure, OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.88-1.04, I2 = 9.4%; ACM of postdiagnostic aspirin exposure, OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.73-1.23, I2 = 88.9%). There was no significant dose/frequency-response association observed for aspirin exposure and PCSM risk. On duration-response analysis, we found that short-term postdiagnostic aspirin exposure (shorter than 2.5 years) increased the risk of PCSM. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that there is no association between aspirin exposure and PCSM risk. Nor is there an association between the highest aspirin exposure and ACM risk among PCa patients. More studies are needed for a further dose/duration/frequency-response meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Gastroenterology ; 157(3): 637-646.e4, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095949

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Enteropathy and small-intestinal ulcers are common adverse effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA). Safe, cytoprotective strategies are needed to reduce this risk. Specific bifidobacteria might have cytoprotective activities, but little is known about these effects in humans. We used serial video capsule endoscopy (VCE) to assess the efficacy of a specific Bifidobacterium strain in healthy volunteers exposed to ASA. METHODS: We performed a single-site, double-blind, parallel-group, proof-of-concept analysis of 75 heathy volunteers given ASA (300 mg) daily for 6 weeks, from July 31 through October 24, 2017. The participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to groups given oral capsules of Bifidobacterium breve (Bif195) (≥5 × 1010 colony-forming units) or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Small-intestinal damage was analyzed by serial VCE at 6 visits. The area under the curve (AUC) for intestinal damage (Lewis score) and the AUC value for ulcers were the primary and first-ranked secondary end points of the trial, respectively. RESULTS: Efficacy data were obtained from 35 participants given Bif195 and 31 given placebo. The AUC for Lewis score was significantly lower in the Bif195 group (3040 ± 1340 arbitrary units) than the placebo group (4351 ± 3195) (P = .0376). The AUC for ulcer number was significantly lower in the Bif195 group (50.4 ± 53.1 arbitrary units) than in the placebo group (75.2 ± 85.3 arbitrary units) (P = .0258). Twelve adverse events were reported from the Bif195 group and 20 from the placebo group. None of the events was determined to be related to Bif195 intake. CONCLUSIONS: In a randomized, double-blind trial of healthy volunteers, we found oral Bif195 to safely reduce the risk of small-intestinal enteropathy caused by ASA. ClinicalTrials.gov no: NCT03228589.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Bifidobacterium breve/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestino Delgado/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Úlcera/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Endoscopia por Cápsula , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Irlanda , Masculino , Probióticos/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Tempo , Úlcera/induzido quimicamente , Úlcera/microbiologia , Úlcera/patologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 12(4)2019 Apr 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30962214

RESUMO

A 92-year-old woman with previous total hip replacement presented with sudden onset of atraumatic hip pain and inability to weight bear. In the absence of radiographic signs of fracture, loosening or biochemical evidence of infection a CT scan of the pelvis and hips was performed, which showed psoas thickening. MRI identified two separate collections related to the psoas and greater trochanteric regions. Ultrasound-guided aspiration was performed to rule out infection and demonstrated a haematoma. In contrast to previously reported cases caused by anticoagulant therapy or inherited coagulopathy, this case was secondary to single antiplatelet agent treatment alone. In the increasingly co-morbid ageing population with associated polypharmacy, aspirin is a common primary and secondary prevention treatment. In patients with atraumatic hip pain, spontaneous psoas haematoma due to antiplatelet therapy should be considered and investigated appropriately.


Assuntos
Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Hematoma/etiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Músculos Psoas , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Tratamento Conservador , Drenagem , Feminino , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Hematoma/terapia , Humanos , Dor/etiologia , Músculos Psoas/diagnóstico por imagem
20.
Minerva Cardioangiol ; 67(2): 109-114, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964246

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of Aspirin, Pycnogenol®, ticlopidine, and sulodexide to reduce the incidence of new RTV (retinal vein thrombosis) after a first episode. Pycnogenol® is an anti-inflammatory, anti-edema, mild antiplatelet-antithrombotic agent. METHODS: The registry study evaluated the number of repeated episodes of RVT in 12 months. Possible managements were: standard management (SM); SM + Aspirin (100 mg/once day; if there were no tolerability problems); SM + Pycnogenol (100 mg/day); SM and ticlopidine (200 mg/day); SM + sulodexide (500 ULS/day). The number of subjects age and sex, distribution, the percent of smokers, the vision were comparable at inclusion. RESULTS: 307 subjects completed the study, 44 in the SM group, 90 in the Pycnogenol® group, 90 in the aspirin group, 45 in the ticlopidine group and 38 in the sulodexide group. At 12 months, recurrent RVT was documented in 22.7% of controls (SM), 3.3% of Pycnogenol® subjects (P<0.05 vs. SM; 19.4% difference). There were RVTs in 15.5% subjects using Aspirin (-7.2% vs. SM). Ticlopidine also reduced (P<0.05) the incidence of RVT in comparison with SM (-9.1%). Sulodexide reduced the occurrence of new RVT (-9.5% vs. SM). Edema was better controlled with the supplement than with all other treatments (P<0.05) (edema present in only 5.5% of the Pycnogenol® subjects). Pycnogenol® had a very good tolerability and safety profile (no patient had to stop treatment). CONCLUSIONS: Pycnogenol® is the only product able to control edema and this may reduce the incidence of recurrent RVT. This retrospective registry indicates that Aspirin, Pycnogenol®, ticlopidine an sulodexide reduce recurrent RVT without side effects. Larger studies should be planned to involve a wider range of conditions, diseases and risk factors associated with RVT and to its recurrence.


Assuntos
Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Oclusão da Veia Retiniana/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Flavonoides/administração & dosagem , Flavonoides/efeitos adversos , Glicosaminoglicanos/administração & dosagem , Glicosaminoglicanos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Sistema de Registros , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Ticlopidina/administração & dosagem , Ticlopidina/efeitos adversos
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