Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 9.283
Filtrar
1.
Trials ; 21(1): 902, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126910

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of adding statin (atorvastatin) and/or aspirin on clinical deterioration in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 who require hospitalisation. The safety of these drugs in COVID-19 patients will also be evaluated. TRIAL DESIGN: This is a single-centre, prospective, four-arm parallel design, open-label, randomized control trial. PARTICIPANTS: The study will be conducted at National Cancer Institute (NCI), Jhajjar, Haryana, which is a part of All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi, and has been converted into a dedicated COVID-19 management centre since the outbreak of the pandemic. All RT-PCR confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection with age ≥ 40 years and < 75 years requiring hospital admission (patients with WHO clinical improvement ordinal score 3 to 5) will be included in the trial. Written informed consent will be taken for all recruited patients. Patients with a critical illness (WHO clinical improvement ordinal score > 5), documented significant liver disease/dysfunction (aspartate transaminase [AST] / alanine aminotransferase [ALT] > 240), myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (creatine phosphokinase [CPK] > 5x normal), allergy or intolerance to statins or aspirin, prior statin or aspirin use within 30 days, history of active gastrointestinal bleeding in past three months, coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia (platelet count < 100000/ dl), pregnancy, active breastfeeding, or inability to take oral or nasogastric medications will be excluded. Patients refusing to give written consent and taking drugs that are known to have a significant drug interaction with statin or aspirin [including cyclosporine, HIV protease inhibitors, hepatitis C protease inhibitor, telaprevir, fibric acid derivatives (gemfibrozil), niacin, azole antifungals (itraconazole, ketoconazole), clarithromycin and colchicine] will also be excluded from the trial. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: In this study, the benefit and safety of atorvastatin (statin) and/or aspirin as adjuvant therapy will be compared with the control group receiving usual care for management of COVID-19. Atorvastatin will be prescribed as 40 mg oral tablets once daily for ten days or until discharge, whichever is earlier. The dose of aspirin will be 75 mg once daily for ten days or until discharge, whichever is earlier. All other therapies will be administered according to the institute's COVID-19 treatment protocol and the treating physician's clinical judgment. MAIN OUTCOMES: All study participants will be prospectively followed up for ten days or until hospital discharge, whichever is longer for outcomes. The primary outcome will be clinical deterioration characterized by progression to WHO clinical improvement ordinal score ≥ 6 (i.e., endotracheal intubation, non-invasive mechanical ventilation, pressor agents, renal replacement therapy, ECMO requirement, and mortality). The secondary outcomes will be change in serum inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and Interleukin-6), Troponin I, and creatine phosphokinase (CPK) from time zero to 5th day of study enrolment or 7th day after symptom onset, whichever is later. Other clinical outcomes that will be assessed include progression to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), shock, ICU admission, length of ICU admission, length of hospital admission, and in-hospital mortality. Adverse drug effects like myalgia, myopathy, rhabdomyolysis, hepatotoxicity, and bleeding will also be examined in the trial to assess the safety of the interventions. RANDOMISATION: The study will use a four-arm parallel-group design. A computer-generated permuted block randomization with mixed block size will be used to randomize the participants in a 1:1:1:1 ratio to group A (atorvastatin with conventional therapy), group B (aspirin with conventional therapy), group C (aspirin + atorvastatin with conventional therapy), and group D (control; only conventional therapy). BLINDING (MASKING): The study will be an open-label trial. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): As there is no existing study that has evaluated the role of aspirin and atorvastatin in COVID-19 patients, formal sample size calculation has not been done. Patients satisfying the inclusion and exclusion criteria will be recruited during six months of study period. Once the first 200 patients are included in each arm (i.e., total 800 patients), the final sample size calculation will be done on the basis of the interim analysis of the collected data. TRIAL STATUS: The institutional ethical committee has approved the study protocol (Protocol version 3.0 [June 2020]). Participant recruitment starting date: 28th July 2020 Participant recruitment ending date: 27th January 2021 Trial duration: 6 months TRIAL REGISTRATION: The trial has been prospectively registered in Clinical Trial Registry - India (ICMR- NIMS): Reference no. CTRI/2020/07/026791 (registered on 25 July 2020)]. FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest of expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Atorvastatina/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Atorvastatina/efeitos adversos , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/efeitos adversos , Índia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
N Engl J Med ; 383(15): 1447-1457, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32865376

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The effect of single as compared with dual antiplatelet treatment on bleeding and thromboembolic events after transcatheter aortic-valve implantation (TAVI) in patients who do not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation has not been well studied. METHODS: In a randomized, controlled trial, we assigned a subgroup of patients who were undergoing TAVI and did not have an indication for long-term anticoagulation, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive aspirin alone or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 3 months. The two primary outcomes were all bleeding (including minor, major, and life-threatening or disabling bleeding) and non-procedure-related bleeding over a period of 12 months. Most bleeding at the TAVI puncture site was counted as non-procedure-related. The two secondary outcomes were a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, non-procedure-related bleeding, stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 1) and a composite of death from cardiovascular causes, ischemic stroke, or myocardial infarction (secondary composite 2) at 1 year, with both outcomes tested sequentially for noninferiority (noninferiority margin, 7.5 percentage points) and superiority. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were assigned to receive aspirin alone and 334 were assigned to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel. A bleeding event occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) receiving aspirin alone and in 89 (26.6%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (risk ratio, 0.57; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42 to 0.77; P = 0.001). Non-procedure-related bleeding occurred in 50 patients (15.1%) and 83 patients (24.9%), respectively (risk ratio, 0.61; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.83; P = 0.005). A secondary composite 1 event occurred in 76 patients (23.0%) receiving aspirin alone and in 104 (31.1%) receiving aspirin plus clopidogrel (difference, -8.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -14.9 to -1.5; P<0.001; risk ratio, 0.74; 95% CI for superiority, 0.57 to 0.95; P = 0.04). A secondary composite 2 event occurred in 32 patients (9.7%) and 33 patients (9.9%), respectively (difference, -0.2 percentage points; 95% CI for noninferiority, -4.7 to 4.3; P = 0.004; risk ratio, 0.98; 95% CI for superiority, 0.62 to 1.55; P = 0.93). A total of 44 patients (13.3%) and 32 (9.6%), respectively, received oral anticoagulation during the trial. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients undergoing TAVI who did not have an indication for oral anticoagulation, the incidence of bleeding and the composite of bleeding or thromboembolic events at 1 year were significantly less frequent with aspirin than with aspirin plus clopidogrel administered for 3 months. (Funded by the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development; POPular TAVI EU Clinical Trials Register number, 2013-003125-28; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02247128.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Administração Oral , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Período Pós-Operatório , Trombose/epidemiologia
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237022, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764775

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major bleedings other than gastrointestinal (GI) and intracranial (ICH) and mortality rates associated with antiplatelet drugs in real-world clinical practice are unknown. The objective was to estimate major bleeding risk and mortality among new users of antiplatelet drugs in real-world clinical practice. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A population-based prospective cohort using the French national health data system (SNIIRAM), identified 69,911 adults living within five well-defined geographical areas, who were new users of antiplatelet drugs in 2013-2015 and who had not received any antithrombotics in 2012. Among them, 63,600 started a monotherapy and 6,311 a dual regimen. Clinical data for all adults referred for bleeding was collected from all emergency departments within these areas, and medically validated. Databases were linked using common key variables. The main outcome measure was time to major bleeding (GI, ICH and other bleedings). Secondary outcomes were death, and event-free survival (EFS). Hazard ratios (HR) were derived from adjusted Cox proportional hazard models. We used Inverse Propensity of Treatment Weighting as a stratified sensitivity analysis according to the antiplatelet monotherapy indication: primary prevention without cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, with CV risk factors, and secondary prevention. We observed 250 (0.36%) major haemorrhages, 81 ICH, 106 GI and 63 other types of bleeding. Incidences were twice as high in dual therapy as in monotherapy. Compared to low-dose aspirin (≤ 100 mg daily), high-dose (> 100 up to 325 mg daily) was associated with an increased risk of ICH (HR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.10 to 2.95). EFS was improved by high-dose compared to low-dose aspirin (1.41, 1.04 to 1.90 and 1.32, 1.03 to 1.68) and clopidogrel (1.30, 0.73 to 2.3 and 1.7, 1.24 to 2.34) respectively in primary prevention with and without CV risk factors. CONCLUSION: The incidence of major bleeding and mortality was low. In monotherapy, low-dose aspirin was the safest therapeutic option whatever the indication. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02886533.


Assuntos
Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/mortalidade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Bases de Dados Factuais , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/epidemiologia , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/mortalidade , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Hemorragias Intracranianas/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragias Intracranianas/epidemiologia , Hemorragias Intracranianas/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
5.
Am Heart J ; 228: 1-7, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739652

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dual antiplatelet therapy with aspirin and a P2Y12 inhibitor is the cornerstone for prevention ischemic events in patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) and undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the optimal antiplatelet strategy for ACS patients with both high bleeding and high ischemic risks is unclear. STUDY DESIGN: The OPT-BIRISK trial is a multicenter, double-blinded, placebo-controlled randomized study designed to test the superiority of extended antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel monotherapy compared with aspirin and clopidogrel for reduction of bleeding events in ACS patients with both high bleeding and high ischemic risks ("bi-risk"). A total of 7,700 patients who completed 9- to 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy after new-generation drug-eluting stent implantation for the treatment of ACS will be randomized to receive clopidogrel monotherapy or aspirin plus clopidogrel for 9 months followed by aspirin monotherapy for 3 months. The primary end point is Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2, 3, or 5 bleedings at 9 months after randomization. The key secondary end point is major adverse cardiac and cerebral events at 9 months after randomization, defined as a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, stroke, or coronary artery revascularization. CONCLUSIONS: OPT-BIRISK is the first large-scale randomized trial aimed to explore the optimal antiplatelet strategy for bi-risk ACS patients after percutaneous coronary intervention in current clinical practice. The results will add evidence regarding de-escalation antiplatelet therapy for patients at special risk.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Aspirina , Clopidogrel , Hemorragia , Risco Ajustado/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/complicações , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/cirurgia , Adulto , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Stents Farmacológicos/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/métodos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
6.
Am Heart J ; 228: 8-16, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal injury is a common complication in patients treated with antiplatelet agents after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the effects of different antiplatelet regimens on the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal injury have not been well studied, principally due to the lack of a low-risk sensitive and accurate detection system. TRIAL DESIGN: OPT-PEACE is a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Gastrointestinal injury will be evaluated with the ANKON magnetically controlled capsule endoscopy system (AMCE), a minimally invasive approach for detecting mucosal lesions in the stomach, duodenum and small intestine. Patients without AMCE-detected gastrointestinal erosions, ulceration or bleeding after drug-eluting stent implantation are enrolled and treated with open-label aspirin (100 mg/d) plus clopidogrel (75 mg/d) for 6 months. Thereafter, 480 event-free patients will undergo repeat AMCE and are randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive aspirin plus clopidogrel, aspirin plus placebo or clopidogrel plus placebo for an additional 6 months. A final AMCE is performed at 12 months. The primary endpoint is the incidence of gastric or intestinal mucosal lesions (erosions, ulceration, or bleeding) within 12 months after enrollment. CONCLUSIONS: OPT-PEACE is the first study to investigate the incidence and severity of gastrointestinal injury in patients receiving different antiplatelet therapy regimens after stent implantation. This trial will inform clinical decision-making for personalized antiplatelet therapy post-PCI.


Assuntos
Aspirina , Endoscopia por Cápsula/métodos , Clopidogrel , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Adulto , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Angiografia Coronária/métodos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/diagnóstico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Método Duplo-Cego , Stents Farmacológicos , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/métodos , Feminino , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/induzido quimicamente , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/diagnóstico , Hemorragia Gastrointestinal/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea/instrumentação , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Risco Ajustado/métodos
7.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1806-1812, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736957

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the most common microvascular complication of diabetes. Diabetic macroangiopathies, particularly cardiovascular (CV) diseases, seem closely related to diabetes microvascular complications. Aspirin represents the most prescribed compound in CV prevention. Aspirin impact on DR is still object of debate. As it is already recommended among diabetics at high CV risk, aim of this study was to assess a potential relationship between DR and aspirin therapy, in a type 2 diabetes cohort of patients screened through telemedicine. METHODS AND RESULTS: NO Blind is a cross-sectional, multicenter, observational study, which involved nine Italian outpatient clinics. Primary endpoint was the assessment of the relationship between aspirin treatment and DR. 2068 patients were enrolled in the study, subsequently split in two subpopulations according to either the presence or absence of DR. Overall, 995 subjects were under aspirin therapy. After adjusting for most common potential confounders, age and gender, aspirin reveals significantly associated with DR (OR: 1.72, 95%CI: 1.58-2.89, p = 0.002) and proliferative DR (PDR) (OR: 1.89, 95%CI: 1.24-2.84, p = 0.003). Association comes lost further adjusting for MACEs (OR: 1.28, 95%CI: 0.85-1.42, p = 0.157) (Model 4) and eGFR (OR: 0.93; 95%CI: 0.71-1.22; p = 0.591) (Model 5). CONCLUSION: In this multicenter cross-sectional study including a large sample of outpatients with T2DM, we showed that aspirin was not associated with DR after adjustment for several cardio-metabolic confounders. However, as partially confirmed by our findings, and related to the well-known pro-hemorrhagic effect of aspirin, its use should be individually tailored, even by telemedicine tools.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Retinopatia Diabética/etiologia , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0235628, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests aspirin may be an effective venous thromboembolism (VTE) prophylaxis for orthopaedic trauma patients, with fewer bleeding complications. We used a patient-centered weighted composite outcome to globally evaluate aspirin versus low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) for VTE prevention in fracture patients. METHODS: We conducted an open-label randomized clinical trial of adult patients admitted to an academic trauma center with an operative extremity fracture, or a pelvis or acetabular fracture. Patients were randomized to receive LMWH (enoxaparin 30-mg) twice daily (n = 164) or aspirin 81-mg twice daily (n = 165). The primary outcome was a composite endpoint of bleeding complications, deep surgical site infection, deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, and death within 90 days of injury. A Global Rank test and weighted time to event analysis were used to determine the probability of treatment superiority for LMWH, given a 9% patient preference margin for oral administration over skin injections. RESULTS: Overall, 18 different combinations of outcomes were experienced by patients in the study. Ninety-nine patients in the aspirin group (59.9%) and 98 patients in the LMWH group (59.4%) were event-free within 90 days of injury. Using a Global Rank test, the LMWH had a 50.4% (95% CI, 47.7-53.2%, p = 0.73) probability of treatment superiority over aspirin. In the time to event analysis, LMWH had a 60.5% probability of treatment superiority over aspirin with considerable uncertainty (95% CI, 24.3-88.0%, p = 0.59). CONCLUSION: The findings of the Global Rank test suggest no evidence of superiority between LMWH or aspirin for VTE prevention in fracture patients. LMWH demonstrated a 60.5% VTE prevention benefit in the weighted time to event analysis. However, this difference did not reach statistical significance and was similar to the elicited patient preferences for aspirin.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Enoxaparina/uso terapêutico , Fibrinolíticos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/complicações , Tromboembolia Venosa/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Enoxaparina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Resultado do Tratamento , Tromboembolia Venosa/complicações , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Cardiol ; 133: 61-70, 2020 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32811654

RESUMO

Patients who underwent complex percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) are known to be at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding complications. The risk/benefit tradeoff of extending dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) >12 months with clopidogrel and aspirin for TWILIGHT-like patients who are at high risk of bleeding or ischemic events and undergo complex PCI is unclear. Eight thousand three hundred and fifty-eight consecutive patients fulfilling the "TWILIGHT-like" criteria who underwent PCI from January 2013 to December 2013 were prospectively enrolled in Fuwai PCI Registry. We identified 2,677 of "TWILIGHT-like" complex PCI patients who were events free at 1 year after the index procedure. "TWILIGHT-like" patients were identified based on at least 1 clinical and 1 angiographic feature. Median follow-up was 29 months. Risk of primary efficacy outcome, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke), was reduced with DAPT >12 months versus DAPT≤ 12 months (hazard ratio [HR]adj 0.374, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.235 to 0.595; HRmatched 0.292 [0.151 to 0.561]; HRIPTW 0.356 [0.225 to 0.562]), with directional consistency for cardiovascular death and definite/probable stent thrombosis. In contrast, >12-month DAPT was comparable to ≤12-month DAPT for the risk of clinically relevant bleeding ([HR]adj 1.189, 95% CI 0.474 to 2.984; HRmatched 1.577 [0.577 to 4.312]; HRIPTW 1.239 [0.502 to 3.059]). Importantly, there was also a significant net benefit in favor of prolonged DAPT treatment. In conclusion, among "TWILIGHT-like" patients after complex PCI, continuing duration of DAPT> 12 months was associated with a net clinical benefit and lower rates of ischemic events without increasing the risk of clinically relevant bleeding than DAPT≤ 12 months, suggesting that long-term DAPT may have a favorable risk-benefit ratio in this high-risk population.


Assuntos
Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , China , Clopidogrel/administração & dosagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Esquema de Medicação , Stents Farmacológicos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Medição de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
Vasc Endovascular Surg ; 54(8): 712-717, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856558

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Platelet inhibitory therapy is prescribed to prevent arterial thromboembolism in patients with atherosclerotic disease. Although taken by millions of people, around 30% are resistant to the treatment they are being prescribed. AIMS: To determine whether symptoms of cerebral ischemia, or pre-operative cerebral emboli, in patients admitted for a carotid endarterectomy were associated with resistance to aspirin or clopidogrel. METHODS: Venous blood from 133 patients immediately before carotid endarterectomy (CEA) was analyzed for resistance to aspirin and clopidogrel by multiplate impedance aggregometry. The number of emboli/hour entering the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery was counted by transcranial Doppler (TCD) on the day before surgery in 33 of these patients. RESULTS: Resistance was found in 21 (26.3%) of 100 patients taking aspirin and 14 (42%) of 33 taking clopidogrel. Mean (sd) residual platelet aggregation was significantly higher at 41.9(32) Au in patients who had suffered recent symptoms of cerebral ischemia compared with 30.8(16) Au in asymptomatic patients (p = 0.012). Residual platelet aggregation also correlated significantly with the number of emboli/hour counted by TCD in the ipsilateral middle cerebral artery (r = 0.45, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Antiplatelet resistance was associated with the frequency of cerebral emboli and recent symptoms of cerebral ischemia in patients with carotid disease. Definitive clinical studies are needed to explore whether testing for antiplatelet resistance should be undertaken routinely in patients starting platelet inhibitory therapy for cardiovascular disease.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/tratamento farmacológico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Resistência a Medicamentos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/prevenção & controle , Embolia Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/sangue , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/complicações , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/etiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Masculino , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Ultrassonografia Doppler Transcraniana
11.
JAMA ; 324(3): 279-290, 2020 07 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32692391

RESUMO

Importance: Perioperative cardiovascular complications occur in 3% of hospitalizations for noncardiac surgery in the US. This review summarizes evidence regarding cardiovascular risk assessment prior to noncardiac surgery. Observations: Preoperative cardiovascular risk assessment requires a focused history and physical examination to identify signs and symptoms of ischemic heart disease, heart failure, and severe valvular disease. Risk calculators, such as the Revised Cardiac Risk Index, identify individuals with low risk (<1%) and higher risk (≥1%) for perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events during the surgical hospital admission or within 30 days of surgery. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients at low risk for major adverse cardiovascular events. Stress testing may be considered in patients at higher risk (determined by the inability to climb ≥2 flights of stairs, which is <4 metabolic equivalent tasks) if the results from the testing would change the perioperative medical, anesthesia, or surgical approaches. Routine coronary revascularization does not reduce perioperative risk and should not be performed without specific indications independent of planned surgery. Routine perioperative use of low-dose aspirin (100 mg/d) does not decrease cardiovascular events but does increase surgical bleeding. Statins are associated with fewer postoperative cardiovascular complications and lower mortality (1.8% vs 2.3% without statin use; P < .001) in observational studies, and should be considered preoperatively in patients with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease undergoing vascular surgery. High-dose ß-blockers (eg, 100 mg of metoprolol succinate) administered 2 to 4 hours prior to surgery are associated with a higher risk of stroke (1.0% vs 0.5% without ß-blocker use; P = .005) and mortality (3.1% vs 2.3% without ß-blocker use; P = .03) and should not be routinely used. There is a greater risk of perioperative myocardial infarction and major adverse cardiovascular events in adults aged 75 years or older (9.5% vs 4.8% for younger adults; P < .001) and in patients with coronary stents (8.9% vs 1.5% for those without stents; P < .001) and these patients warrant careful preoperative consideration. Conclusions and Relevance: Comprehensive history, physical examination, and assessment of functional capacity during daily life should be performed prior to noncardiac surgery to assess cardiovascular risk. Cardiovascular testing is rarely indicated in patients with a low risk of major adverse cardiovascular events, but may be useful in patients with poor functional capacity (<4 metabolic equivalent tasks) undergoing high-risk surgery if test results would change therapy independent of the planned surgery. Perioperative medical therapy should be prescribed based on patient-specific risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/administração & dosagem , Antagonistas Adrenérgicos beta/efeitos adversos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anticoagulantes/administração & dosagem , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Angiografia Coronária , Ecocardiografia Transesofagiana , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/diagnóstico , Doenças das Valvas Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Isquemia Miocárdica/diagnóstico , Revascularização Miocárdica , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/prevenção & controle , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Stents/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Fatores de Tempo , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
J Comput Assist Tomogr ; 44(4): 562-568, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article was to study the association of aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with bone mineral density (BMD). METHODS: Spine BMD was evaluated in a subset of 2028 participants from the Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis cohort who were NSAID users (including aspirin) and underwent both lumbar and thoracic imaging. Multiethnic Study of Atherosclerosis is a prospective cohort study that includes 4 ethnic groups (white, Asian, African American, and Hispanic). Trabecular BMD was evaluated by quantitative computed tomography based on cardiac computed tomography images, which were obtained during coronary calcium scans. The analyses were cross sectional using baseline examination data for exposure and outcomes. RESULTS: After adjustment for potential confounders including age, sex, race, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors, a small association between trabecular BMD and baseline use of COX-2-selective NSAID was observed. COX-2-selective NSAID use was associated with 7.4 mg/cm (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.6-13.3; P = 0. 013) higher trabecular BMD in thoracic spine and 10.6 mg/cm higher at lumbar spine (95% CI, 5.1-16.1; P < 0.001). Among regular aspirin users, there was no association between drug use and trabecular BMD. Considering all spine fractures together, the prevalence ratio of fractures among aspirin users was 1.0 (95% CI, 0.6-1.6) and 1.1 (95% CI, 0.5-2.3) among COX-2-selective NSAID users. CONCLUSIONS: Regular use of aspirin has no significant association with trabecular BMD in either the thoracic or lumbar spine and no association with fracture prevalence. COX-2-selective NSAIDs may have modest positive association with BMD, but the mechanisms were not assessed and the observational study design makes residual confounding a possible alternate explanation. Potential pathological mechanisms warrant further longitudinal exploration.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Osso Esponjoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Torácicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Idoso , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso Esponjoso/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Vértebras Torácicas/efeitos dos fármacos , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Estados Unidos/etnologia
14.
N Engl J Med ; 383(3): 207-217, 2020 07 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668111

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trials have evaluated the use of clopidogrel and aspirin to prevent stroke after an ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). In a previous trial, ticagrelor was not better than aspirin in preventing vascular events or death after stroke or TIA. The effect of the combination of ticagrelor and aspirin on prevention of stroke has not been well studied. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind trial involving patients who had had a mild-to-moderate acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke, with a National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score of 5 or less (range, 0 to 42, with higher scores indicating more severe stroke), or TIA and who were not undergoing thrombolysis or thrombectomy. The patients were assigned within 24 hours after symptom onset, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive a 30-day regimen of either ticagrelor (180-mg loading dose followed by 90 mg twice daily) plus aspirin (300 to 325 mg on the first day followed by 75 to 100 mg daily) or matching placebo plus aspirin. The primary outcome was a composite of stroke or death within 30 days. Secondary outcomes were first subsequent ischemic stroke and the incidence of disability within 30 days. The primary safety outcome was severe bleeding. RESULTS: A total of 11,016 patients underwent randomization (5523 in the ticagrelor-aspirin group and 5493 in the aspirin group). A primary-outcome event occurred in 303 patients (5.5%) in the ticagrelor-aspirin group and in 362 patients (6.6%) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.83; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 0.96; P = 0.02). Ischemic stroke occurred in 276 patients (5.0%) in the ticagrelor-aspirin group and in 345 patients (6.3%) in the aspirin group (hazard ratio, 0.79; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.93; P = 0.004). The incidence of disability did not differ significantly between the two groups. Severe bleeding occurred in 28 patients (0.5%) in the ticagrelor-aspirin group and in 7 patients (0.1%) in the aspirin group (P = 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with a mild-to-moderate acute noncardioembolic ischemic stroke (NIHSS score ≤5) or TIA who were not undergoing intravenous or endovascular thrombolysis, the risk of the composite of stroke or death within 30 days was lower with ticagrelor-aspirin than with aspirin alone, but the incidence of disability did not differ significantly between the two groups. Severe bleeding was more frequent with ticagrelor. (Funded by AstraZeneca; THALES ClinicalTrial.gov number, NCT03354429.).


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Avaliação da Deficiência , Método Duplo-Cego , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos
15.
J Cardiothorac Surg ; 15(1): 155, 2020 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32600365

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Coronary endarterectomy (CE) combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) can be the only option for complete revascularization in some patients with diffuse coronary artery disease. Unfortunately, CE can cause the lack of endothelium, resulting in increased risk of thrombotic events. Therefore, antithrombotic therapy is very important after surgery. However, there's no consistent protocol exists till now. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness and safety of dual antiplatelet therapies (DAPT) including aspirin plus clopidogrel (AC) or ticagrelor (AT) after CE + CABG. METHOD: A total of 137 continuous patients (mean age 60.0 ± 9.0 years) underwent CE + CABG from January 2016 to July 2018 in our center, and patients who received dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after surgery (n = 121) were included in this study. All of the patients received aspirin 100 mg daily therapy after surgery, and 67 of the patients received extra clopidogrel 75 mg (AC) daily therapy, whereas 54 received extra ticagrelor 90 mg (AT) twice daily. All patients continued aspirin monotherapy after 1 year. Occurrence of ischemic events and bleeding events between two groups were compared. Kaplan-Meier survival was used to compare freedom from major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) between two groups, and log-rank test was used to confirm statistical difference. RESULTS: Follow-up was completed by 99.2%, and median follow-up time was 30.0(22.5, 35.2) months. No operative death was observed, while perioperative myocardial infarction was observed in 2(1.7%) patients (AC 1.5% vs. AT 1.9%, p = ns). One patient in AC group suffered from cardiac tamponade. During the follow-up period, no death was observed. Ischemic events including nonfatal myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization and ischemic stroke were observed in 6(5.0%) patients (AC 4.5% vs. AT 5.6%, p = ns). Overt bleeding had occurred in 3(2.5%) patients (AC 3.0% vs. AT 1.9%, p = ns). Kaplan-Meier analysis indicated that MACCE-free survival of the two groups at 3 years was 97.0% in the AC group versus 94.1% in the AT group (p = ns). CONCLUSION: In patients undergoing CE + CABG, DAPT therapy can be effective and safe with comparable results between AC and AT therapy in terms of ischemic and bleeding events. Further studies are needed.


Assuntos
Ponte de Artéria Coronária , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/terapia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Endarterectomia , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Ponte de Artéria Coronária/efeitos adversos , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/cirurgia , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/induzido quimicamente , Ticagrelor/efeitos adversos , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(10): 1795-1799, 2020 09 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32723580

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes mellitus is associated with aging and shortened telomere length. Telomerase replaces lost telomeric repeats at the ends of chromosomes and is necessary for the replicative immortality of cells. Aspirin and the n3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are commonly used therapies in people with type 2 diabetes for reducing cardiovascular disease events, though their relation to telomerase activity is not well studied. We explored the effects of aspirin, EPA + DHA, and the combined effects of aspirin and EPA + DHA treatment on telomerase activity in 30 adults with diabetes mellitus. EPA and DHA ingestion alone increased telomerase activity then a decrease occurred with the addition of aspirin consumption. Crude (F-stat = 2.09, p = 0.13) and adjusted (F-stat = 2.20, p = 0.14) analyses of this decrease showed signs of a trend. These results suggest that aspirin has an adverse effect on aging in diabetics who have relatively high EPA and DHA ingestion.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/tratamento farmacológico , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/administração & dosagem , Telomerase/metabolismo , Homeostase do Telômero/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/enzimologia , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/efeitos adversos , Ácido Eicosapentaenoico/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New York , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(7): 943-947, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32612060

RESUMO

Concomitant therapy with acetaminophen (APAP) and low-dose aspirin is often used in clinical settings; however, it is unclear whether this combination is involved in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). We hypothesized that concomitant therapy with APAP and low-dose aspirin may cause CKD progression. We carried out a retrospective 6-year cohort study that included all patients who received low-dose aspirin from January 2011 to December 2016 at Kaetsu Hospital. Primary outcome was defined as CKD progression at the end of the study compared with baseline. Among the 441 patients treated during the study period, we identified 89 cases of CKD progression. Multivariate regression analysis showed that exposure to APAP>50 g [odds ratio (OR), 2.68, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.08-6.70], age increase by 1 year (OR, 1.05, 95% CI, 1.02-1.08), and diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.40, 95% CI, 1.41-4.08) had positive associations with CKD progression. Our findings suggested that concomitant therapy with APAP and low-dose aspirin increased the risk of CKD progression. Therefore, we recommend more thorough monitoring of serum creatinine when patients are on such concomitant therapy. Moreover, it is important to advise users of low-dose aspirin to avoid unnecessary use of APAP, in order to reduce the risk of CKD progression.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/induzido quimicamente , Acetaminofen/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores , Creatinina/sangue , Complicações do Diabetes , Progressão da Doença , Quimioterapia Combinada/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/prevenção & controle , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
18.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(8): 104936, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32689594

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis are associated with ischemic stroke. We report frequency and response to anticoagulant vs. antiplatelet prophylaxis of patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) who have non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis. METHODS: Exploratory analysis of the international NAVIGATE ESUS randomized trial comparing rivaroxaban 15mg daily with aspirin 100mg daily in 7213 patients with recent ESUS. Among participants with results of intracranial arterial imaging with either computed tomographic angiography (CTA) or magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), the frequency and predictors of non-stenotic intracranial and systemic atherosclerosis and responses to antithrombotic therapy were assessed. RESULTS: Among 4723 participants with available intracranial CTA or MRA results (65% of the trial cohort), the prevalence of intracranial atherosclerosis was 16% (n=739). Patient features independently associated with intracranial atherosclerosis included East Asian region (odds ratio 2.7, 95%CI 2.2,3.3) and cervical carotid plaque (odds ratio 2.3, 95%CI 1.9,2.7), among others. The rate of recurrent ischemic stroke averaged 4.8%/year among those with intracranial atherosclerosis vs. 5.0.%/year for those without (HR 0.95, 95%CI 0.65, 1.4). Among those with intracranial atherosclerosis, the recurrent ischemic stroke rate was higher if assigned to rivaroxaban (5.8%/year) vs. aspirin (3.7%/year), but the difference was not statistically significant (HR 1.6, 95%CI 0.78, 3.3). There was trend for the effect of antithrombotic treatments to be different according to the presence or absence of intracranial atherosclerosis (pinteraction=0.09). Among participants with evidence of systemic atherosclerosis by either history or imaging (n=3820), recurrent ischemic stroke rates were similar among those assigned to rivaroxaban (5.5%/year) vs. aspirin (4.9%/year)(HR 1.1, 95%CI 0.84, 1.5). CONCLUSIONS: East Asia region was the strongest factor associated with intracranial atherosclerosis. There were no statistically significant differences between rivaroxaban and aspirin prophylaxis for recurrent ischemic stroke in patients with non-stenotic intracranial atherosclerosis and/or systemic atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aspirina/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Fibrinolíticos/administração & dosagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Embolia Intracraniana/prevenção & controle , Doença Arterial Periférica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/administração & dosagem , Rivaroxabana/administração & dosagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fibrinolíticos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico por imagem , Embolia Intracraniana/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doença Arterial Periférica/diagnóstico por imagem , Doença Arterial Periférica/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Prevalência , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA