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1.
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi ; 21(8): 801-805, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the clinical effect and safety of clopidogrel combined with aspirin in antithrombotic therapy for children with Kawasaki disease (KD) complicated by coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). METHODS: A total of 77 KD children who were diagnosed with multiple small/medium-sized CAAs by echocardiography between January 2013 and June 2018 were enrolled. They were randomly divided into observation group with 38 children (treated with clopidogrel and aspirin) and control group with 39 children (treated with low-molecular-weight heparin and aspirin). All children were followed up regularly, and the first 3 months of the course of the disease was the observation period. The children were observed in terms of the change of the coronary artery and the incidence of complications. RESULTS: At month 3 of follow-up, among the children in the observation group, 6 had normal coronary artery, 11 had coronary artery retraction, 19 had stable coronary artery, and 2 progressed to giant coronary aneurysm; among the children in the control group, 7 had normal coronary artery, 12 had coronary artery retraction, 19 had stable coronary artery, and 1 progressed to giant coronary aneurysm; there was no significant difference in the change of the coronary artery between the two groups (P>0.05). There were 2 cases of epistaxis and 6 cases of skin ecchymosis in the observation group, and 1 case of epistaxis and 7 cases of petechiae and ecchymosis at the injection site in the control group, and no other serious bleeding events were observed in either group. CONCLUSIONS: Clopidogrel combined with low-dose aspirin is safe and effective in antithrombotic therapy for children with KD complicated by CAA.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Aneurisma Coronário , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos , Criança , Clopidogrel , Aneurisma Coronário/tratamento farmacológico , Aneurisma Coronário/etiologia , Vasos Coronários , Fibrinolíticos , Humanos , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações
2.
S D Med ; 72(6): 260-266, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31461231

RESUMO

Antiplatelet agents are the mainstay of treatment for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable ischemic heart disease (SIHD). The most commonly used antiplatelet agents are aspirin and clopidogrel. Newer agents such as ticagrelor are becoming more commonplace as new studies have shown more cardiovascular benefits with these group of medications. The duration of use of these agents in setting of stable disease versus ACS is variable. We have tried to delineate the usage and duration of these agents in patients with the history of ACS or SIHD in numerous medical conditions. We have delved into available guidelines from American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association, Society of Thoracic Surgeons, and American College of Gastroenterology for our review article.


Assuntos
Síndrome Coronariana Aguda , Doença da Artéria Coronariana , Isquemia Miocárdica , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(32): e16806, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393411

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) especially aspirin has been gained increasing attention due to its potential therapy against to lung cancer. Previous investigations have showed different findings in this issue. We studied the safety profile and efficacy of NSAIDs in treating lung cancer. METHOD: Embase, Pubmed, and Cochrane Library databases were searched from January 2011 to February 2019. We identified the studies meeting a priori inclusion criteria and it also conducted a secondary review. This meta-analysis of 5 prospective studies was launched to evaluate the effect of NSAIDs for patients with lung cancer on the hazard risk (HR). We used the Random-Effect Model to assess pooled HR and between-study heterogeneity. Application of subgroup analysis, meta-regression, as well as sensitivity analysis was to pinpoint the exact sources of the observed heterogeneity. RESULTS: 5 Prospective Cohorts Studies, including 6017 patients with lung cancer were recruited in the final meta-analysis. In general, using of NSAIDs especially aspirin is not associated with mortality of lung cancer: pooled hazard ratio (HR) of 0.88 [95% confidence intervals (CI): 0.73-1.05] with low heterogeneity (Q = 6.95; I = 42.4%, P = .139). Egger (P = .665) and Begg (P = 1.000) test also showed little trial error in this meta-analysis. CONCLUSION: NSAIDs did not increase the risk of mortality in patients with lung cancer.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/administração & dosagem , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Estudos Prospectivos
4.
High Blood Press Cardiovasc Prev ; 26(4): 283-291, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280451

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The role of aspirin as a means of primary prevention remains controversial. AIM: We have conducted a meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the role of aspirin in primary prevention. METHODS: Literature search was performed via PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for all related RCTs. All-cause mortality was the primary endpoint. Secondary endpoints included major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE), myocardial infarction (MI), cardiovascular mortality, cerebrovascular events, and bleeding events. We used a random effects model to report the risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS: Our analysis included 17 RCTs (164,862 patients; 83,309 received aspirin and 81,744 received placebo). Our study did not demonstrate any significant reduction in all-cause mortality for patients treated with aspirin when compared with placebo (RR 0.97; 95% CI 0.93-1.01; P = 0.13). Sensitivity analysis performed by excluding healthy elderly (≥ 65) showed significant reductions in all-cause mortality in the aspirin-treated patients (RR 0.94; 95% CI 0.90-0.99; P = 0.01). There were no significant differences between both groups regarding cardiovascular mortality and cerebrovascular events (P > 0.05). However, aspirin-treated patients significantly reduced MACE and MI events (RR 0.89; 95% CI 0.85-0.93; P < 0.001 and RR 0.88; 95% CI 0.78-0.98; P = 0.02, respectively), respectively. However, aspirin was associated with a significantly higher incidence of bleeding, including major bleeding and intracranial bleeding (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Aspirin use in primary prevention has resulted in a lower incidence of MACE and MI without significantly effecting cerebrovascular events. However, aspirin was associated with a higher bleeding risk. Use of aspirin as a means of primary prevention should be thoroughly discussed with patients and pursued based on the risk of cardiovascular disease while also considering bleeding risk.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária/métodos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Fármacos Cardiovasculares/efeitos adversos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Proteção , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(27): e16183, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277123

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (AHCM) is a rare form of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which affects predominantly the apex of the left ventricle. Generally, left ventricular enlargement is not present in AHCM; additionally, endomyocardial fibrosis, and calcification are also rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 61-year-old female (Case 1) and a 60-year-old female (Case 2) both presented with the symptoms of atypical chest pain, dyspnoea, exercise intolerance, palpitations. DIAGNOSIS: Magnetic resonance and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) revealed apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Furthermore, 2D-transthoracic echocardiogram showed left atrium and ventricular enlargement, as well as endomyocardial fibrosis and calcification. Based on these findings, the patients were diagnosed with AHCM. INTERVENTIONS: Both the patients were treated with ACEI, metoprolol, and aspirin. Additionally, both these patient underwent genetic test. OUTCOMES: The results of the genetic test of the 2 cases for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) were negative. However, the gene mutation for dilated cardiomyopathy (TMPO) was detected in one of the cases. No change in condition during follow-up. LESSONS: In past reports, Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy has been shown to have a benign prognosis. But in this case report, the imaging studies of the 2 patients suggest a poor prognosis. Furthermore, diagnosing cardiomyopathy should require multimodality imaging examinations to rule out differential diagnoses.


Assuntos
Calcinose/complicações , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/complicações , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/complicações , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/tratamento farmacológico , Calcinose/patologia , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/tratamento farmacológico , Cardiomiopatia Hipertrófica/patologia , Ecocardiografia , Eletrocardiografia , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibrose Endomiocárdica/tratamento farmacológico , Feminino , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Metoprolol/uso terapêutico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada de Emissão de Fóton Único
7.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2273-2279, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31160218

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Embolic stroke of undetermined source (ESUS) identifies patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke presumed due to embolism from several unidentified sources. Among patients with recent ESUS, we sought to determine independent predictors of recurrent ischemic stroke during treatment with aspirin or rivaroxaban and to assess the relative effects of these treatments according to risk. METHODS: Exploratory analyses of 7213 participants in the NAVIGATE ESUS international trial who were randomized to aspirin 100 mg/day or rivaroxaban 15 mg/day and followed for a median of 11 months, during which time there were 309 first recurrent ischemic strokes (4.6% per year). Baseline features were correlated with recurrent stroke by multivariate analysis. RESULTS: The 7 independent predictors of recurrent stroke were stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) prior to the qualifying stroke (hazard ratio [HR] 2.03 95% confidence internal [CI] 1.58-2.60), current tobacco user (HR 1.62, 95% CI 1.24-2.12), age (HR 1.02 per year increase, 95%CI 1.01-1.03), diabetes (HR 1.28, 95% CI 1.01-1.64), multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging (HR 1.49, 95% CI 1.09-2.02), aspirin use prior to qualifying stroke (HR 1.34, 95% CI 1.02-1.70), and time from qualifying stroke to randomization (HR .98, 95% CI .97-.99). The rate of recurrent stroke rate was 2.6% per year for participants without any of these risk factors, and increased by an average of 45% for each independent predictor (P < .001). There were no significant interactions between treatment effects and independent stroke predictors or stroke risk status. CONCLUSIONS: In this large cohort of ESUS patients, several features including prior stroke or TIA, advanced age, current tobacco user, multiple acute infarcts on neuroimaging, and diabetes independently identified those with an increased risk of ischemic stroke recurrence. The relative effects of rivaroxaban and aspirin were similar across the spectrum of independent stroke predictors and recurrent stroke risk status.


Assuntos
Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/uso terapêutico , Embolia Intracraniana/tratamento farmacológico , Rivaroxabana/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticoagulantes/efeitos adversos , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Embolia Intracraniana/diagnóstico , Embolia Intracraniana/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Rivaroxabana/efeitos adversos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2428-2437, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237645

RESUMO

Importance: Data on P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after short-duration dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention are limited. Objective: To determine whether P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3 months of DAPT is noninferior to 12 months of DAPT in patients undergoing PCI. Design, Setting, and Participants: The SMART-CHOICE trial was an open-label, noninferiority, randomized study that was conducted in 33 hospitals in Korea and included 2993 patients undergoing PCI with drug-eluting stents. Enrollment began March 18, 2014, and follow-up was completed July 19, 2018. Interventions: Patients were randomly assigned to receive aspirin plus a P2Y12 inhibitor for 3 months and thereafter P2Y12 inhibitor alone (n = 1495) or DAPT for 12 months (n = 1498). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (a composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, or stroke) at 12 months after the index procedure. Secondary end points included the components of the primary end point and bleeding defined as Bleeding Academic Research Consortium type 2 to 5. The noninferiority margin was 1.8%. Results: Among 2993 patients who were randomized (mean age, 64 years; 795 women [26.6%]), 2912 (97.3%) completed the trial. Adherence to the study protocol was 79.3% of the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and 95.2% of the DAPT group. At 12 months, major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events occurred in 42 patients in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group and in 36 patients in the DAPT group (2.9% vs 2.5%; difference, 0.4% [1-sided 95% CI, -∞% to 1.3%]; P = .007 for noninferiority). There were no significant differences in all-cause death (21 [1.4%] vs 18 [1.2%]; hazard ratio [HR], 1.18; 95% CI, 0.63-2.21; P = .61), myocardial infarction (11 [0.8%] vs 17 [1.2%]; HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.31-1.40; P = .28), or stroke (11 [0.8%] vs 5 [0.3%]; HR, 2.23; 95% CI, 0.78-6.43; P = .14) between the 2 groups. The rate of bleeding was significantly lower in the P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy group than in the DAPT group (2.0% vs 3.4%; HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.36-0.92; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention, P2Y12 inhibitor monotherapy after 3 months of DAPT compared with prolonged DAPT resulted in noninferior rates of major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events. Because of limitations in the study population and adherence, further research is needed in other populations. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02079194.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/efeitos adversos
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): 2302-2310, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174954

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aggregation of platelets is a trigger for additional development of larger thrombi. This study aimed to identify factors that may affect platelet aggregability and their role in clinical outcomes in acute ischemic stroke. METHODS: Consecutive acute ischemic stroke patients (n = 352) who were transferred within 24 hours after its onset were enrolled. Peripheral venous blood was sampled to measure platelet aggregability and other parameters. RESULTS: Mean values of spontaneous small-sized platelet aggregates and collagen- or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-induced large-sized aggregates were elevated in acute ischemic stroke. In atherothrombotic stroke (n = 178), collagen and ADP-induced large-sized aggregates were positively correlated with HbA1c, respectively. High incidence of the modified Rankin Scales (mRS) 5-6 at discharge was associated with diabetes complication (odds ratio [OR] 8.77, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-57.56). The proportion of patients who were functionally independent (the mRS 0-2) at discharge was lower in the middle tertile of collagen and ADP-induced large-sized aggregates than their low tertile (OR 2.46, 95% CI 1.09-5.58; OR 2.43, 95% CI 1.05-5.59, respectively). Prestroke administration of aspirin recovered the proportion of independence at discharge (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.06-0.99), and ameliorated incidence of the mRS 5-6. On logistic regression analysis, diabetes, HbA1c, collagen-induced large-sized aggregates, and prestroke administration of aspirin remained independent predictors of clinical outcomes in atherothrombotic stroke. In cardioembolic and lacunar stroke, no relations with clinical outcomes were found. CONCLUSIONS: High plasma level of HbA1c is involved in enhanced platelet aggregability in acute atherothrombotic stroke patients, and prestroke administration of aspirin may be beneficial to clinical outcomes.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , Isquemia Encefálica/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/sangue , Hemoglobina A Glicada/metabolismo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Agregação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Testes de Função Plaquetária/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Plaquetas/metabolismo , Isquemia Encefálica/sangue , Isquemia Encefálica/diagnóstico , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus/diagnóstico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/sangue , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Regulação para Cima
11.
Lancet ; 393(10186): 2155-2167, 2019 05 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31226053

RESUMO

Aspirin is one of the most frequently used drugs worldwide and is generally considered effective for the secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. By contrast, the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease is controversial. Early trials evaluating aspirin for primary prevention, done before the turn of the millennium, suggested reductions in myocardial infarction and stroke (although not mortality), and an increased risk of bleeding. In an effort to balance the risks and benefits of aspirin, international guidelines on primary prevention of cardiovascular disease have typically recommended aspirin only when a substantial 10-year risk of cardiovascular events exists. However, in 2018, three large randomised clinical trials of aspirin for the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease showed little or no benefit and have even suggested net harm. In this narrative Review, we reappraise the role of aspirin in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease, contextualising data from historical and contemporary trials.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aspirina/farmacologia , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Inibidores de Ciclo-Oxigenase/farmacologia , Angiopatias Diabéticas/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/farmacologia , Prevenção Primária , Fatores Sexuais
12.
JAMA ; 321(24): 2414-2427, 2019 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31237644

RESUMO

Importance: Very short mandatory dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with a drug-eluting stent may be an attractive option. Objective: To test the hypothesis of noninferiority of 1 month of DAPT compared with standard 12 months of DAPT for a composite end point of cardiovascular and bleeding events. Design, Setting, and Participants: Multicenter, open-label, randomized clinical trial enrolling 3045 patients who underwent PCI at 90 hospitals in Japan from December 2015 through December 2017. Final 1-year clinical follow-up was completed in January 2019. Interventions: Patients were randomized either to 1 month of DAPT followed by clopidogrel monotherapy (n=1523) or to 12 months of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel (n=1522). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, definite stent thrombosis, or major or minor bleeding at 12 months, with a relative noninferiority margin of 50%. The major secondary cardiovascular end point was a composite of cardiovascular death, MI, ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke, or definite stent thrombosis and the major secondary bleeding end point was major or minor bleeding. Results: Among 3045 patients randomized, 36 withdrew consent; of 3009 remaining, 2974 (99%) completed the trial. One-month DAPT was both noninferior and superior to 12-month DAPT for the primary end point, occurring in 2.36% with 1-month DAPT and 3.70% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -1.34% [95% CI, -2.57% to -0.11%]; hazard ratio [HR], 0.64 [95% CI, 0.42-0.98]), meeting criteria for noninferiority (P < .001) and for superiority (P = .04). The major secondary cardiovascular end point occurred in 1.96% with 1-month DAPT and 2.51% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -0.55% [95% CI, -1.62% to 0.52%]; HR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.49-1.29]), meeting criteria for noninferiority (P = .005) but not for superiority (P = .34). The major secondary bleeding end point occurred in 0.41% with 1-month DAPT and 1.54% with 12-month DAPT (absolute difference, -1.13% [95% CI, -1.84% to -0.42%]; HR, 0.26 [95% CI, 0.11-0.64]; P = .004 for superiority). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing PCI, 1 month of DAPT followed by clopidogrel monotherapy, compared with 12 months of DAPT with aspirin and clopidogrel, resulted in a significantly lower rate of a composite of cardiovascular and bleeding events, meeting criteria for both noninferiority and superiority. These findings suggest that a shorter duration of DAPT may provide benefit, although given study limitations, additional research is needed in other populations. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02619760.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Stents Farmacológicos , Intervenção Coronária Percutânea , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Clopidogrel/efeitos adversos , Esquema de Medicação , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Prasugrel/efeitos adversos , Antagonistas do Receptor Purinérgico P2Y/uso terapêutico
13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(23): e15879, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31169694

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cases of isolated septum pellucidum infarction have not yet been reported. To date, there are only 2 stroke reports involving septum pellucidum infarction. The etiology of septum pellucidum infarction was subcallosal artery (ScA) injury. The abnormalities were strictly confined to the septum pellucidum and the right cingulated gyrus, making this the first case to report such confined abnormalities. PATIENT CONCERNS: In this report, we present a case of ischemic stroke confined to the septum pellucidum and cingulated gyrus in a 48-year-old male patient who presented with transient ischemic attack-like paroxysmal lower left limb weakness. DIAGNOSIS: Even no obvious abnormalities were revealed by an emergency computed tomography, the infarction in the combined territories of the septum pellucidum and the cingulate gyrus was detected on magnetic resonance imaging. INTERVENTIONS: Aspirin with clopidogrel was administered for 3 weeks as a secondary preventive drug. Clopidogrel was selected as a long-term antiplatelet drug based on a thromboelastogram. OUTCOMES: The patient showed no positive signs related to the nervous system in the hospital, and there was no recurrence during the 3-month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: Infarction in the septum pellucidum and cingulate gyrus is rare and has atypical clinical manifestations. Physical examination may not yield obvious positive signs. False-negative computed tomography findings of the head may result in misdiagnosis. Thus, it is necessary to perform whole-brain magnetic resonance imaging in time. Moreover, ScA protection should be paid attention to during surgery for anterior communicating artery aneurysm.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/patologia , Giro do Cíngulo/patologia , Septo Pelúcido/patologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/patologia , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico
14.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 19(1): e63-e67, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198598

RESUMO

Massive hyphaema presentation after a laser iridotomy is very rare. We report a 63-year-old man with ischaemic heart disease on dual antiplatelet therapy (aspirin plus ticagrelor) who was diagnosed as a primary angle-closure suspect and was to undergo a neodymium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser iridotomy at Centro Oftalmológico Virgilio Galvis, Floridablanca, Colombia in 2016. While performing the iridotomy in the left eye, active bleeding occurred that finally filled approximately 75% of the anterior chamber. Intraocular pressure (IOP) increased to 62 mmHg. Mannitol and a topical dorzolamide/timolol were used to control the increase in IOP. The hyphaema slowly resolved over the following week without sequelae. This case revealed that massive hyphaema can complicate laser iridotomy in patients on dual antiplatelet therapy, although this is rare. Therefore, if patients are taking aspirin and ticagrelor, it would be advisable to stop the second medication if possible. In addition, sequential application of photocoagulation and photodisruption lasers might diminish the risk of significant bleeding.


Assuntos
Hifema/etiologia , Iridectomia/efeitos adversos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Colômbia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/complicações , Glaucoma de Ângulo Fechado/cirurgia , Humanos , Iridectomia/métodos , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico
15.
BMJ ; 365: l2211, 2019 06 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31171523

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that ticagrelor plus aspirin is safe and superior to clopidogrel plus aspirin for reducing high platelet reactivity at 90 days and stroke recurrence in patients with minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack, particularly in carriers of the CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele and patients with large artery atherosclerosis. DESIGN: Open label, blinded endpoint, randomised controlled phase II trial. SETTING: Prospective studies conducted at 26 centres in China, August 2015 to March 2017. PARTICIPANTS: 675 patients with acute minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack. INTERVENTION: Ticagrelor (180 mg loading dose, 90 mg twice daily thereafter) or clopidogrel (300 mg loading dose, 75 mg daily thereafter) on a background of aspirin (100 mg daily for the first 21 days) within 24 hours of symptom onset. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with high platelet reactivity at 90 days. High platelet reactivity was defined as P2Y12 reaction units of more than 208. Secondary outcomes included high platelet reactivity at 90 days (7 days either way) in patients carrying genetic variants that would affect clopidogrel metabolism, and any stroke (ischaemic or haemorrhagic) recurrence at 90 days (7 days either way), six months, and one year. RESULTS: At 90 days, high platelet reactivity occurred in 35 (12.5%) of 280 patients in the ticagrelor/aspirin group and 86 (29.7%) of 290 patients in the clopidogrel/aspirin group (risk ratio 0.40; 95% confidence interval 0.28 to 0.56; P<0.001), and in 10.8% versus 35.4% (0.31; 0.18 to 0.49; P<0.001) of patients carrying CYP2C19 loss-of-function alleles. Stroke occurred in 21 (6.3%) of 336 patients in the ticagrelor/aspirin group and 30 (8.8%) of 339 patients in the clopidogrel/aspirin group (hazard ratio 0.70; 95% confidence interval 0.40 to 1.22; P=0.20). Patients with large artery atherosclerosis in the ticagrelor/aspirin group had a lower stroke recurrence at 90 days than those in the clopidogrel/aspirin group (6.0% v 13.1%; hazard ratio 0.45, 95% confidence interval 0.20 to 0.98; P=0.04). No difference was seen in the rates of major or minor haemorrhagic events between the ticagrelor/aspirin and clopidogrel/aspirin groups (4.8% v 3.5%; P=0.42). CONCLUSION: Patients with minor stroke or transient ischaemic attack who are treated with ticagrelor plus aspirin have a lower proportion of high platelet reactivity than those who are treated with clopidogrel plus aspirin, particularly for those who are carriers of the CYP2C19 loss-of-function allele. The results of this study should be evaluated further in large scale, phase III trials and in different populations. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT02506140.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/tratamento farmacológico , Ativação Plaquetária/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Ticagrelor/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Plaquetas/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ativação Plaquetária/fisiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 28(8): e113-e115, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31129106

RESUMO

Vertebral artery (VA) dissection is one major cause of brain infarction in young and middle-aged adults. Risk factors for VA dissection are hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, trauma, and genetic factors. A 32-year-old man with familial Hirschsprung disease at the age of 2 presented cerebellar ischemic stroke due to bilateral VA dissections. A stroke recurred within 17 days despite oral dual antiplatelet therapy. Bilateral VA dissections and recurrent dissections are related to genetic mutations associated with connective tissue diseases. A part of familial Hirschsprung disease has genetic factors in common with cerebrovascular disease. There may be a common genetic background between his VA dissection and Hirschsprung disease.


Assuntos
Infarto Cerebral/etiologia , Doença de Hirschsprung/complicações , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/etiologia , Adulto , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Angiografia Cerebral/métodos , Infarto Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Infarto Cerebral/tratamento farmacológico , Cilostazol/uso terapêutico , Imagem de Difusão por Ressonância Magnética , Edaravone/uso terapêutico , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Doença de Hirschsprung/diagnóstico , Doença de Hirschsprung/genética , Humanos , Angiografia por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Fenótipo , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Recidiva , Resultado do Tratamento , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/diagnóstico por imagem , Dissecação da Artéria Vertebral/tratamento farmacológico
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 9379602, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073532

RESUMO

Background: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the ninth most common cause of cancer death globally. Many studies have investigated aspirin exposure and mortality risk among PCa patients, returning inconsistent results. We conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis to explore the association between aspirin exposure and mortality risk among PCa patients and to investigate potential dose/duration/frequency-response relationships. Methods and Results: Studies published from 1980 to 2018 of PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched. We included 14 studies with 110,000 participants. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (ORs) were pooled using random-effect models. Potential dose/duration/frequency-response relationships were evaluated for aspirin exposure and prostate cancer-specific mortality (PCSM) risk. We did not detect an association between the highest aspirin exposure and mortality risk (PCSM of prediagnostic aspirin exposure, OR: 0.96, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87-1. 07, I2= 0%; PCSM of postdiagnostic aspirin exposure, OR:0.92, 95% CI: 0.77-1.10, I2 = 56.9%; all-cause mortality [ACM] of prediagnostic aspirin exposure, OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.88-1.04, I2 = 9.4%; ACM of postdiagnostic aspirin exposure, OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.73-1.23, I2 = 88.9%). There was no significant dose/frequency-response association observed for aspirin exposure and PCSM risk. On duration-response analysis, we found that short-term postdiagnostic aspirin exposure (shorter than 2.5 years) increased the risk of PCSM. Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggests that there is no association between aspirin exposure and PCSM risk. Nor is there an association between the highest aspirin exposure and ACM risk among PCa patients. More studies are needed for a further dose/duration/frequency-response meta-analysis.


Assuntos
Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Próstata/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Próstata/mortalidade , Aspirina/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Seguimentos , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Próstata/efeitos dos fármacos , Próstata/patologia , Neoplasias da Próstata/patologia , Fatores de Risco
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(22): e15817, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145317

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Kawasaki disease affects multiple organ systems. Its typical symptoms include fever, rash, oropharyngeal mucosal erythema, bilateral non-exudative conjunctivitis, cervical lymphadenopathy, extremity changes, and membranous desquamation of the fingers and toes. In severe cases, cardiovascular, respiratory, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, neurological, and genitourinary complications may occur. In the early stage, Kawasaki disease is often manifested by uncommon symptoms, such as pyuria, meningitis, shock, and retropharyngeal or parapharyngeal abscess, which may delay diagnosis and treatment. We have reported a case of Kawasaki disease presenting with mumps and reviewed the clinical features of 14 other similar cases, in order to facilitate the early diagnosis and treatment of this unusual presentation of Kawasaki disease. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 10-year-old boy presented with persistent fever and parotitis and was diagnosed with suppurative parotitis. After antibiotic therapy, the parotid swelling reduced, but the fever persisted and other typical symptoms of Kawasaki disease appeared, including bilateral conjunctival hyperaemia, cervical lymphadenopathy, oropharyngeal mucosal erythema, membranous desquamation of the fingers, and left coronary artery widening. DIAGNOSES: The patient was diagnosed with Kawasaki disease 12 days after the onset of fever. INTERVENTIONS: The patient was administered γ-globulin 1.0 g/kg·d for 2 consecutive days and oral aspirin 5 mg/kg·d. OUTCOMES: The left coronary artery returned to a width of 3.8 mm after 1 month and of 3.1 mm after 3 months. The dose of aspirin was reduced to 3 mg/kg·d after 2 months and to 1.5 mg/kg·d after 3 months. LESSONS: Physicians should be aware that Kawasaki disease may develop after parotitis.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/complicações , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/patologia , Parotidite/complicações , Parotidite/patologia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Criança , Humanos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Síndrome de Linfonodos Mucocutâneos/tratamento farmacológico
19.
Reprod Health ; 16(1): 46, 2019 May 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Calcium and low-dose aspirin are two potential approaches for primary prevention of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (HDP). This study aimed to explore the acceptability, views and preferences of pregnant women and primary healthcare providers for a fixed-dose combined preparation of aspirin and calcium (a polypill) as primary prevention of HDP in an unselected pregnant population. METHODS: In this qualitative study eight in-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with Dutch primary care midwives and general practitioners. Seven focus group discussions were organised with women with low-risk pregnancies. Topics discussed were: perceptions of preeclampsia; information provision about preeclampsia and a polypill; views on the polypill concept; preferences and needs regarding implementation of a polypill. Thematic analysis of the data transcripts was carried out to identify emerging themes. RESULTS: Two major themes shaped medical professionals' and women's views on the polypill concept: 'Informed Choice' and 'Medicalisation'. Both could be divided into subthemes related to information provision, personal choice and discussions with regard to the balance between 'unnecessary medicalisation' and 'scientific progress'. CONCLUSIONS: In general, women and healthcare practitioners expressed a positive attitude towards a polypill intervention as primary prevention strategy with aspirin and calcium, providing some conditions are met. The most important conditions for implementation of such a strategy were safety, effectiveness and the possibility to make a well-informed autonomous decision.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Hipertensão Induzida pela Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Gestantes/psicologia , Adulto , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Clínicos Gerais/psicologia , Humanos , Gravidez , Pesquisa Qualitativa
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