Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 503
Filtrar
1.
BMJ ; 370: m2984, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878868

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relation between exposure to workplace sexual harassment and suicide, as well as suicide attempts. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: 86 451 men and women of working age in paid work across different occupations responded to a self-report questionnaire including exposure to work related sexual harassment between 1995 and 2013. The analytical sample included 85 205 people with valid data on sexual harassment, follow-up time, and age. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Suicide and suicide attempts ascertained from administrative registers (mean follow-up time 13 years). RESULTS: Among the people included in the respective analyses of suicide and suicide attempts, 125 (0.1%) died from suicide and 816 (1%) had a suicide attempt during follow-up (rate 0.1 and 0.8 cases per 1000 person years). Overall, 11 of 4095 participants exposed to workplace sexual harassment and 114 of 81 110 unexposed participants committed suicide, and 61/4043 exposed and 755/80 513 unexposed participants had a record of suicide attempt. In Cox regression analyses adjusted for a range of sociodemographic characteristics, workplace sexual harassment was associated with an excess risk of both suicide (hazard ratio 2.82, 95% confidence interval 1.49 to 5.34) and suicide attempts (1.59, 1.21 to 2.08), and risk estimates remained significantly increased after adjustment for baseline health and certain work characteristics. No obvious differences between men and women were found. CONCLUSIONS: The results support the hypothesis that workplace sexual harassment is prospectively associated with suicidal behaviour. This suggests that suicide prevention considering the social work environment may be useful. More research is, however, needed to determine causality, risk factors for workplace sexual harassment, and explanations for an association between work related sexual harassment and suicidal behaviour.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Tentativa de Suicídio/prevenção & controle , Tentativa de Suicídio/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Autorrelato , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Ideação Suicida , Tentativa de Suicídio/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia/epidemiologia
3.
Public Health Rep ; 135(5): 555-559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32762635

RESUMO

Young adults are at high risk for sexual harassment and sexual assault. Although attention has been given to prevention on college campuses, the need for prevention may be at least as high for young adults who do not attend college as for young adults who do. In October 2019, we administered a nationally representative survey of 893 adults to measure sexual harassment and sexual assault victimization during a recall period defined as "during college years" for respondents who had enrolled in college at any time or "ages 18-24" for respondents not in college. Reported rates of sexual harassment (32.7%) and sexual assault (24.6%) during early adulthood were similar for respondents who reported having ever enrolled in college and for respondents who reported never attending college. Women were more likely than men to report both sexual harassment (37.4% vs 22.4%) and sexual assault (36.0% vs 16.0%) during early adulthood. Compared with respondents aged ≥30, respondents aged 18-29 were 105% more likely to report sexual harassment and 65% more likely to report sexual assault. Moreover, sexual harassment experiences predicted sexual assault victimization (adjusted odds ratio = 18.1). This study highlights the importance of attending to sexual harassment and sexual assault risks for young adults through research, policy, and criminal justice structures beyond institutions of higher education. Evidence that sexual harassment is strongly associated with sexual assault victimization of young adults highlights the importance of naming and stemming early behavioral transgressions across the US population.


Assuntos
Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
4.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(5): 320-329, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32830008

RESUMO

PURPOSE: One in four women veteran patients report experiencing sexual and gender harassment when attending the Veterans Health Administration (VA) for health care. Bystander intervention-training community members how to intervene when witnessing inappropriate behaviors-is a common approach for addressing harassment in school and military settings. We evaluated implementation of a VA harassment awareness and bystander intervention training that teaches health care staff how to identify and intervene in the harassment of women veteran patients. METHODS: Participants included 180 VA staff, including both providers and administrative staff from one VA state health care system, who participated in harassment training during the first year of implementation. Pretest and post-test evaluation surveys included questions on acceptability of training length and relevance, staff experiences with harassment, perceptions of the training, and four short-term attitudinal outcomes: awareness of harassment, barriers to intervening, self-efficacy for intervening, and intentions to intervene. RESULTS: At pretest, most staff reported witnessing harassment, yet fewer than one-half had intervened. By post-test, staff reported significantly decreased barriers to intervening and increased awareness, self-efficacy, and intentions to intervene. Belief that harassment is a problem increased from 42.4% to 75.0%. The majority of staff found the training relevant and appropriate in length. Staff felt the most useful aspects of the training were learning how to intervene, group discussion, effective facilitation, and information on harassment. CONCLUSIONS: We found that a bystander approach was acceptable to health care staff and efficacious on short-term outcomes. Bystander intervention may be a promising strategy to address harassment among patients in medical facilities.


Assuntos
Comportamento de Ajuda , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitais de Veteranos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos , Saúde dos Veteranos
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237713, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813685

RESUMO

Germinal studies have described the prevalence of sex-based harassment in high schools and its associations with adverse outcomes in adolescents. Studies have focused on students, with little attention given to the actions of high schools themselves. Though journalists responded to the #MeToo movement by reporting on schools' betrayal of students who report misconduct, this topic remains understudied by researchers. Gender harassment is characterized by sexist remarks, sexually crude or offensive behavior, gender policing, work-family policing, and infantilization. Institutional betrayal is characterized by the failure of an institution, such as a school, to protect individuals dependent on the institution. We investigated high school gender harassment and institutional betrayal reported retrospectively by 535 current undergraduates. Our primary aim was to investigate whether institutional betrayal moderates the relationship between high school gender harassment and current trauma symptoms. In our pre-registered hypotheses (https://osf.io/3ds8k), we predicted that (1) high school gender harassment would be associated with more current trauma symptoms and (2) institutional betrayal would moderate this relationship such that high levels of institutional betrayal would be associated with a stronger association between high school gender harassment and current trauma symptoms. Consistent with our first hypothesis, high school gender harassment significantly predicted college trauma-related symptoms. An equation that included participant gender, race, age, high school gender harassment, institutional betrayal, and the interaction of gender harassment and institutional betrayal also significantly predicted trauma-related symptoms. Contrary to our second hypothesis, the interaction term was non-significant. However, institutional betrayal predicted unique variance in current trauma symptoms above and beyond the other variables. These findings indicate that both high school gender harassment and high school institutional betrayal are independently associated with trauma symptoms, suggesting that intervention should target both phenomena.


Assuntos
Ética Institucional , Má Conduta Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Trauma Psicológico/epidemiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas/ética , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Trauma Psicológico/psicologia , Psicologia do Adolescente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Instituições Acadêmicas/organização & administração , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Denúncia de Irregularidades/psicologia
6.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 95(4): 749-757, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247349

RESUMO

Sexual harassment is a particularly pernicious form of harassment that can result in long-lasting psychological damage to victims. In health care, it has deleterious effects on teamwork and communication and may affect patient care. Although concerns regarding sexual harassment in the workplace, including within health care, are not new, increased attention has been focused on this topic since late 2017 as a result of the #MeToo movement. As in other sectors, health care centers have experienced instances of sexual harassment. Evidence indicates that harassment in health care centers is not uncommon and has not decreased with time. Beyond reporting and addressing, health care institutions must establish policies that clearly outline the unacceptability of harassing behaviors. Moreover, institutions must have a systematic method to thoroughly investigate allegations of sexual harassment and to impose fair and consistent corrective actions when allegations are substantiated. This article describes Mayo Clinic's approach to this complex problem, including targeted efforts toward developing a culture intolerant of sexually harassing behavior.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Administração de Instituições de Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Minnesota , Cultura Organizacional , Política Organizacional , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
Womens Health Issues ; 30(3): 214-220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32317136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rates of smoking and related health consequences are higher for women veterans as compared with their civilian counterparts, and trauma is a known risk factor associated with smoking. Military sexual trauma is prevalent among women veterans and associated with deleterious health outcomes, including tobacco use. However, research has not examined variables that may explain this association. The purpose of the present study was to examine the association between deployment sexual trauma (DST; military sexual trauma that occurs during deployment) and nicotine dependence, and whether perceived stress is a potential explanatory variable (i.e., mediator) in this relationship. METHODS: Cross-sectional associations and Hayes mediation models were examined using baseline interview data from the Survey of Experiences of Returning Veterans sample (352 recently returned women veterans). RESULTS: DST was associated with postdeployment nicotine dependence and greater perceived stress. Further, perceived stress was a significant mediator between DST and binary nicotine dependence (indirect effect [standard error] of DST on nicotine dependence through perceived stress, 0.04 [0.01]; 95% confidence interval, 0.01-0.07; odds ratio, 1.04; p < .01) when controlling for education. CONCLUSIONS: Findings suggest that perceived stress may be a clinical target for decreasing nicotine dependence among women veterans who have experienced DST.


Assuntos
Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Percepção , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0227330, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218569

RESUMO

THIS ARTICLE USES WORDS OR LANGUAGE THAT IS CONSIDERED PROFANE, VULGAR, OR OFFENSIVE BY SOME READERS. The presence of a significant amount of harassment in user-generated content and its negative impact calls for robust automatic detection approaches. This requires the identification of different types of harassment. Earlier work has classified harassing language in terms of hurtfulness, abusiveness, sentiment, and profanity. However, to identify and understand harassment more accurately, it is essential to determine the contextual type that captures the interrelated conditions in which harassing language occurs. In this paper we introduce the notion of contextual type in harassment by distinguishing between five contextual types: (i) sexual, (ii) racial, (iii) appearance-related, (iv) intellectual and (v) political. We utilize an annotated corpus from Twitter distinguishing these types of harassment. We study the context of each kind to shed light on the linguistic meaning, interpretation, and distribution, with results from two lines of investigation: an extensive linguistic analysis, and the statistical distribution of uni-grams. We then build type- aware classifiers to automate the identification of type-specific harassment. Our experiments demonstrate that these classifiers provide competitive accuracy for identifying and analyzing harassment on social media. We present extensive discussion and significant observations about the effectiveness of type-aware classifiers using a detailed comparison setup, providing insight into the role of type-dependent features.


Assuntos
Coleta de Dados/métodos , Assédio não Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Linguística/métodos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Coleta de Dados/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Assédio não Sexual/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230312, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155232

RESUMO

What factors predict the underreporting of sexual harassment in academe? We used logistic regression and sentiment analysis to examine 2,343 reports of sexual harassment involving members of university communities. Results indicate students were 1.6 times likely to not report their experiences when compared to faculty. Respondents in the life and physical sciences were 1.7 times more likely to not report their experiences when compared to respondents in other disciplines. Men represented 90% of the reported perpetrators of sexual harassment. Analysis of respondents' written accounts show variation of overall sentiment based on discipline, student type, and the type of institution attended, particularly with regard to mental health. Our results suggest that institutional and departmental barriers driven by power asymmetries play a large role in the underreporting sexual harassment among students-especially those in STEM disciplines.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Universidades/estatística & dados numéricos , Docentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Notificação de Abuso , Assédio Sexual/legislação & jurisprudência , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Denúncia de Irregularidades
12.
Workplace Health Saf ; 68(6): 279-292, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183607

RESUMO

Background: Gender parity in the workplace-and increased representation of women at work-may reduce workplace sexual harassment, but research on this is unclear. This study assessed the associations between gender parity at work and workplace sexual harassment. Methods: We analyzed data from an online sexual harassment survey conducted with a nationally representative sample of U.S. adults in 2018 (N = 2,009; response rate 29%); current analyses were restricted to employed participants (women n = 610, men n = 690). Data on occupation and industry were each categorized as female-dominant (61%-100% female), male-dominant (0%-39% female), or at parity (40%-60% female). We used sex-stratified logistic regression models to assess associations between gender parity in industry and occupation and workplace sexual harassment. Findings: Our study of employed adults in the U.S. found that 42% women and 15% men had experienced workplace sexual harassment. Logistic regression analyses indicated that women employed in female-dominated industries (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI] = [0.33, 0.81]) and men employed in male-dominated occupations (AOR = 0.55; 95% CI = [0.33, 0.91]) were less likely to have experienced workplace sexual harassment. Women in male-dominated occupations were more likely to report harassment or assault by a supervisor (AOR = 2.41, 95% CI = [1.00, 5.80]), and men in male-dominated occupations were less likely to report harassment or assault by a supervisor (AOR = 0.26, 95% CI = [0.08, 0.89]). Conclusion/Application to Practice: Women in female-dominated industries and men in male-dominated occupations, relative to those with workplace gender parity, are at lower risk for harassment. Women in male-dominated occupations are at greater risk for harassment from supervisors. Gender parity at work is not sufficient on its own to address workplace sexual harassment; normative changes are needed.


Assuntos
Fatores Sexuais , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Local de Trabalho/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Local de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos
13.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(2): 252-260, 2020 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191183

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Gender-based discrimination and sexual harassment of female physicians are well documented. The #MeToo movement has brought renewed attention to these problems. This study examined academic emergency physicians' experiences with workplace gender discrimination and sexual harassment. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of a convenience sample of emergency medicine (EM) faculty across six programs. Survey items included the following: the Overt Gender Discrimination at Work (OGDW) Scale; the frequency and source of experienced and observed discrimination; and whether subjects had encountered unwanted sexual behaviors by a work superior or colleague in their careers. For the latter question, we asked subjects to characterize the behaviors and whether those experiences had a negative effect on their self-confidence and career advancement. We made group comparisons using t-tests or chi-square analyses, and evaluated relationships between gender and physicians' experiences using correlation analyses. RESULTS: A total of 141 out of 352 (40.1%) subjects completed at least a portion of the survey. Women reported higher mean OGDW scores than men (15.4 vs 10.2; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6-6.8). Female faculty were also more likely to report having experienced gender-based discriminatory treatment than male faculty (62.7% vs 12.5%; 95% CI, 35.1%-65.4%), although male and female faculty were equally likely to report having observed gender-based discriminatory treatment of another physician (64.7% vs 56.3%; 95% CI, 8.6%-25.5%). The three most frequent sources of experienced or observed gender-based discriminatory treatment were patients, consulting or admitting physicians, and nursing staff. The majority of women reported having encountered unwanted sexual behaviors in their careers, with a significantly greater proportion of women reporting them compared to men (52.9% vs 26.2%, 95% CI, 9.9%-43.4%). The majority of unwanted behaviors were sexist remarks and sexual advances. Of those respondents who encountered these unwanted behaviors, 22.9% and 12.5% reported at least somewhat negative effects on their self-confidence and career advancement. CONCLUSION: Female EM faculty perceived more gender-based discrimination in their workplaces than their male counterparts. The majority of female and approximately a quarter of male EM faculty encountered unwanted sexual behaviors in their careers.


Assuntos
Medicina de Emergência/educação , Docentes , Médicas , Sexismo , Assédio Sexual , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Médicas/ética , Médicas/psicologia , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Sexismo/psicologia , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
14.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 56, 2020 Feb 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32087726

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data is available on sexual discrimination and subjective perceptions of equal opportunity in medical education for many countries. Surveys focussing on sexual harassment have not yet been conducted at German medical schools. METHODS: A student initiative surveyed all medical students at the Hannover Medical School (MHH) using an anonymous online questionnaire on equal opportunity and sexual discrimination to identify potential problems in education. RESULTS: A total of 343 students (15%) participated in the survey. Over 50% reported having either witnessed sexual harassment or experienced it themselves. Female students indicated having experienced sexual harassment three times more often than their male peers; verbal forms of sexual discrimination predominate. These observations and experiences of sexual harassment demonstrated significant influences on many perceptions regarding equal opportunity and equal treatment in the MHH undergraduate medical education at MHH. CONCLUSION: This blind spot in medical education in the German-speaking countries should be scrutinized more closely. The experience of sexism in the context of undergraduate medical education, which has negative effects on students, should no longer be ignored in empirical education research.


Assuntos
Educação de Graduação em Medicina/métodos , Faculdades de Medicina/organização & administração , Sexismo/prevenção & controle , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes de Medicina/psicologia , Direitos Civis , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Percepção , Projetos Piloto , Medição de Risco , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/prevenção & controle , Estudantes de Medicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 17(4): 424-430, 2020 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32001843

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sexual harassment has received global attention and has been recognized as a public health problem with increased physical and mental health risks among the victims. This study attempted to assess understanding, experience, response and effect of sexual harassment among the secondary school female students in Kathmandu, Nepal. METHODS: It was a mixed method study conducted among 441 secondary level female students. In quantitative component, a structured questionnaire was used to collect information relating to socio-demographic characteristics, and understanding, experience, response and effect of sexual harassment from 441 participants from three clusters (schools) of Tokha Municipality, Kathmandu. For qualitative method, two focused group discussions were conducted to assess the understanding of and response to sexual harassment. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed using Chi square test and thematic analysis method respectively. RESULTS: Around 76% of the participants had experienced some forms of sexual harassment in their life. Sexual harassment was significantly associated with religion and parental occupation. Majority of participants who faced sexual harassment reported that the perpetrators were strangers and they either ignored it or did nothing at the time of events. School, roads and public places were the most common settings where participants encountered sexual harassment. CONCLUSIONS: Sexual harassment is prevalent among female secondary students in Kathmandu. However, they lacked a clear understating of and ways to respond to sexual harassment. Raising awareness to recognize and respond to different forms of harassment and to change the victim-blaming attitudes can be a potential strategy for tackling the problem in Nepalese society.


Assuntos
Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Religião , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Am Surg ; 86(1): 65-72, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32077418

RESUMO

The reality of sexual harassment is unmasking in many fields, and medical trainees constitute a vulnerable and at-risk group. We report the prevalence of sexual harassment among GI, internal medicine, and pediatric residents, with a focus on identifying underlying reasons for lack of victim reporting. A modified previously validated Department of Defense survey on sexual harassment was e-mailed to 261 GI, 132 pediatric, and 271 internal medicine program directors. Three hundred eighty-one residents responded to the survey. Female trainees were more likely to be subject to sexual harassment (83% vs 44%, P <0 .0001). Offensive and/or suggestive jokes and comments were the most common type of harassment experienced. Most residents were unlikely to report the offender (87% females, 93% males). Although 77 per cent of residents believed they would be supported by their program if they reported a sexual harassment event, only 43 per cent were aware of institutional support in place for victims at their program. Although there is a persistently high incidence of harassment in training, the avenues in which to report it are largely unknown and underused. Further research should focus on evidence-based interventions to encourage reporting and to design institutional programs for victims of sexual harassment.


Assuntos
Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina , Medicina Interna/educação , Internato e Residência , Pediatria/educação , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
17.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(7): 980-988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31905309

RESUMO

Background: As the first large numbers of female physicians complete their careers, information is needed to enable institutions and individuals to optimize the final career phase and transition to retirement of these women, as well as to help younger women physicians prepare for later phases of their careers. Materials and Methods: To identify the leading issues for older female physicians, a 34-item electronic questionnaire covering heath, finances, preparation for and attitudes about retirement, caretaking responsibilities, life-work integration, various aspects of discrimination and harassment, professional isolation, and work-related stress and burnout-incorporating standardized measures of career satisfaction was distributed through the Kansas Medical Society and nationally through the American Medical Association Senior Physicians Section newsletter to female physicians older than 60 years in 2018. A total of 155 physicians self-identified as eligible and completed at least half of the survey. Results: Respondents were 60-87 years of age, mean 70.4 (±6.4) years. The majority reported good health and being financially well prepared for retirement. Twenty percent were caretakers for grandchildren, parents, or spouses. Measures of career and job satisfaction were reasonably high, despite negative work environment and burnout scores. Problems with family/career balance, age- and gender-based discrimination and harassment, salary inequity, and professional isolation persisted throughout their careers, but diminished in frequency for senior women. Conclusions: Issues faced by younger women physicians do not disappear with age or seniority. To recruit and support female physicians, issues such as balancing family/work responsibilities, combating harassment and bias, and promoting healthy work environments must be addressed throughout their entire careers.


Assuntos
Ageismo/psicologia , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Satisfação no Emprego , Médicas/psicologia , Aposentadoria/economia , Aposentadoria/psicologia , Sexismo/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/psicologia , Equilíbrio Trabalho-Vida , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Kansas , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Preconceito , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado
18.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 23(1): 103-109, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929215

RESUMO

Background: Psychological violence is the most common form of workplace violence (WPV) that can affect job performance and health of the workers. Aims: This study sought to determine the prevalence of psychological WPV among employees working in a tertiary health institution in a South-eastern state of Nigeria. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study done in 2018 among healthcare workers at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital Enugu State using a pretested self-administered questionnaire adapted from Workplace Violence in the Health Sector Country Case Study Questionnaire. Proportionate sampling method was used to select 412 respondents. Data were analyzed with SPSS version 23 using Chi-square test of significance and P value set at 0.05. Results: Prevalence of psychological violence among the participants was 49.7%. Verbal abuse was the most form of psychological violence experienced 168 (40.8%) followed by bullying 29 (7.0%) while sexual abuse was reported by 8 (1.9%). Majority 114 (55.6%) of the perpetrators of the psychological violence were patient's relative, whereas 48 (23.4%) were staff members. In response to the violence, 58 (28.6%) of the healthcare workers took no action, while only 2 (1%) completed incident/accident form. Bullying was statistically significantly higher in healthcare workers who have spent less than 10 years (χ2 = 3.978 P = 0.046). There was a significant association between verbal abuse and frequent interaction with patients (χ2 = 4.757, P = 0.029). Conclusion: This study has shown that the prevalence of psychological WPV was high among healthcare workers in University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu State. Therefore, there is need for the hospital management to develop policy interventions specific to psychological WPV.


Assuntos
Agressão , Bullying/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência no Trabalho/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bullying/psicologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Relações Profissional-Família , Inquéritos e Questionários , Violência no Trabalho/psicologia
19.
Sex Abuse ; 32(1): 30-54, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264657

RESUMO

Sextortion is the threatened dissemination of explicit, intimate, or embarrassing images of a sexual nature without consent, usually for the purpose of procuring additional images, sexual acts, money, or something else. Despite increased public interest in this behavior, it has yet to be empirically examined among adolescents. The current study fills this gap by exploring the prevalence of sextortion behaviors among a nationally representative sample of 5,568 U.S. middle and high school students. Approximately 5% of students reported that they had been the victim of sextortion, while about 3% admitted to threatening others who had shared an image with them in confidence. Males and nonheterosexual youth were more likely to be targeted, and males were more likely to target others. Moreover, youth who threatened others with sextortion were more likely to have been victims themselves. Implications for future research, as well as the preventive role that youth-serving professionals can play, are discussed.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Coerção , Vítimas de Crime/estatística & dados numéricos , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
20.
J Womens Health (Larchmt) ; 29(1): 38-45, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31560602

RESUMO

Introduction: Military sexual trauma (MST), which includes sexual harassment or assault while in the military, is prevalent among women Veterans and associated with depression and suicide. Little is known about women Veterans' perinatal mental health, including the potential role of MST. This is the first study to investigate the impact of MST on risk of depression and suicidal ideation (SI) during and after pregnancy. Methods: Bivariate statistical tests between MST harassment and assault, measured by the two standard Veterans Health Administration screening questions, and pre- and postnatal depression and SI, measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, were examined using longitudinal data from the ongoing Center for Maternal and Infant Outcomes Research in Translation (COMFORT) study. COMFORT includes 620 Veterans interviewed during pregnancy; 452 have been reinterviewed after delivery. Hayes mediation models were employed to examine whether prenatal depression mediated the association between MST and postnatal depression. Results: MST was associated with higher pre- and postnatal symptoms of depression and SI. Further, prenatal depression mediated the association between MST and postnatal depression (indirect effect [standard error] of harassment on postnatal depression through prenatal depression: 1.11 [0.26], p < 0.001; indirect effect [standard error] of assault on postnatal depression through prenatal depression: 1.50 [0.35] p < 0.001), even after controlling for demographic variables and prenatal stress. Conclusions: Women Veterans who have experienced MST may be at higher risk of perinatal depression and SI. Findings highlight the importance of access to mental health care and trauma-informed obstetrical care for these Veterans.


Assuntos
Depressão/epidemiologia , Período Periparto/psicologia , Delitos Sexuais/estatística & dados numéricos , Assédio Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Veteranos/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Militares/psicologia , Prevalência , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica , Fatores de Risco , Ideação Suicida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , United States Department of Veterans Affairs , Saúde dos Veteranos/estatística & dados numéricos
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA