Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 3.297
Filtrar
1.
Elife ; 102021 11 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34725038

RESUMO

In many species, within-group conflict leads to immediate avoidance of potential aggressors or increases in affiliation, but no studies have investigated delayed post-conflict management behaviour. Here, we experimentally test that possibility using a wild but habituated population of dwarf mongooses (Helogale parvula). First, we used natural and playback-simulated foraging displacements to demonstrate that bystanders take notice of the vocalisations produced during such within-group conflict events but that they do not engage in any immediate post-conflict affiliative behaviour with the protagonists or other bystanders. We then used another playback experiment to assess delayed effects of within-group conflict on grooming interactions: we examined affiliative behaviour at the evening sleeping burrow, 30-60 min after the most recent simulated foraging displacement. Overall, fewer individuals groomed on evenings following an afternoon of simulated conflict, but those that did groomed more than on control evenings. Subordinate bystanders groomed with the simulated aggressor significantly less, and groomed more with one another, on conflict compared to control evenings. Our study provides experimental evidence that dwarf mongooses acoustically obtain information about within-group contests (including protagonist identity), retain that information, and use it to inform conflict-management decisions with a temporal delay.


Assuntos
Agressão , Asseio Animal , Herpestidae/psicologia , Comportamento Social , Vocalização Animal , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , África do Sul
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 6040, 2021 10 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34654803

RESUMO

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD), characterized by intrusive thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive behaviors (compulsions), is associated with dysfunction in fronto-striatal circuits. There are currently no fast-acting pharmacological treatments for OCD. However, recent clinical studies demonstrated that an intravenous infusion of ketamine rapidly reduces OCD symptoms. To probe mechanisms underlying ketamine's therapeutic effect on OCD-like behaviors, we used the SAPAP3 knockout (KO) mouse model of compulsive grooming. Here we recapitulate the fast-acting therapeutic effect of ketamine on compulsive behavior, and show that ketamine increases activity of dorsomedial prefrontal neurons projecting to the dorsomedial striatum in KO mice. Optogenetically mimicking this increase in fronto-striatal activity reduced compulsive grooming behavior in KO mice. Conversely, inhibiting this circuit in wild-type mice increased grooming. Finally, we demonstrate that ketamine blocks the exacerbation of grooming in KO mice caused by optogenetically inhibiting fronto-striatal activity. These studies demonstrate that ketamine increases activity in a fronto-striatal circuit that causally controls compulsive grooming behavior, suggesting this circuit may be important for ketamine's therapeutic effects in OCD.


Assuntos
Comportamento Compulsivo/fisiopatologia , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Ketamina/metabolismo , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Neostriado/metabolismo , Neurônios/metabolismo , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/genética , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/fisiopatologia
3.
Behav Processes ; 192: 104501, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517089

RESUMO

Infant handling - involving affiliative behavior from non-mothers to infants - is a phenomenon that is variably present in Old World monkeys and can be granted by mothers to obtain social services, such as grooming. Here we investigated for the first time whether infant handling could influence grooming exchange in wild geladas. We gathered data on the population of Kundi highland (Ethiopia) in 2019/2020. Via sampling on 15 focal mothers from eight different One-Male Units, we video-recorded 55 grooming sessions between focal mothers and non-focal females (mothers or non-mothers). We also recorded the possible occurrence of infant handling performed by non-focal females. We found that grooming sessions were longer between mother and non-mothers and in the presence than in the absence of infant handling. Hence, our results show that infant handling can influence the grooming exchange between wild gelada females. Because grooming is used to establish and reinforce social bonds in primates, infant handling may act as a 'social bridge' in a female bonded society. From an evolutionary perspective, infant handling strategies might represent the stepping stone to more complex forms of infant care, such as allomaternal care and cooperative breeding.


Assuntos
Theropithecus , Animais , Evolução Biológica , Etiópia , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Humanos , Masculino , Mães , Comportamento Social
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 17690, 2021 09 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34480046

RESUMO

Recent evidence suggests that psychedelic drugs can exert beneficial effects on anxiety, depression, and ethanol and nicotine abuse in humans. However, their hallucinogenic side-effects often preclude their clinical use. Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a prototypical hallucinogen and its psychedelic actions are exerted through the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor (5-HT2AR). 5-HT2AR activation stimulates Gq- and ß-arrestin- (ßArr) mediated signaling. To separate these signaling modalities, we have used ßArr1 and ßArr2 mice. We find that LSD stimulates motor activities to similar extents in WT and ßArr1-KO mice, without effects in ßArr2-KOs. LSD robustly stimulates many surrogates of psychedelic drug actions including head twitches, grooming, retrograde walking, and nose-poking in WT and ßArr1-KO animals. By contrast, in ßArr2-KO mice head twitch responses are low with LSD and this psychedelic is without effects on other surrogates. The 5-HT2AR antagonist MDL100907 (MDL) blocks the LSD effects. LSD also disrupts prepulse inhibition (PPI) in WT and ßArr1-KOs, but not in ßArr2-KOs. MDL restores LSD-mediated disruption of PPI in WT mice; haloperidol is required for normalization of PPI in ßArr1-KOs. Collectively, these results reveal that LSD's psychedelic drug-like actions appear to require ßArr2.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Dietilamida do Ácido Lisérgico/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor de Serotonina/farmacologia , beta-Arrestina 1/metabolismo , beta-Arrestina 2/metabolismo , Animais , Asseio Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Atividade Motora/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Arrestina 1/genética , beta-Arrestina 2/genética
5.
Elife ; 102021 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473051

RESUMO

Videos of animal behavior are used to quantify researcher-defined behaviors of interest to study neural function, gene mutations, and pharmacological therapies. Behaviors of interest are often scored manually, which is time-consuming, limited to few behaviors, and variable across researchers. We created DeepEthogram: software that uses supervised machine learning to convert raw video pixels into an ethogram, the behaviors of interest present in each video frame. DeepEthogram is designed to be general-purpose and applicable across species, behaviors, and video-recording hardware. It uses convolutional neural networks to compute motion, extract features from motion and images, and classify features into behaviors. Behaviors are classified with above 90% accuracy on single frames in videos of mice and flies, matching expert-level human performance. DeepEthogram accurately predicts rare behaviors, requires little training data, and generalizes across subjects. A graphical interface allows beginning-to-end analysis without end-user programming. DeepEthogram's rapid, automatic, and reproducible labeling of researcher-defined behaviors of interest may accelerate and enhance supervised behavior analysis. Code is available at: https://github.com/jbohnslav/deepethogram.


Assuntos
Asseio Animal , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Atividade Motora , Redes Neurais de Computação , Comportamento Social , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado , Gravação em Vídeo , Animais , Drosophila melanogaster , Feminino , Humanos , Cinética , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Reconhecimento Automatizado de Padrão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Caminhada
6.
Primates ; 62(6): 971-980, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34546459

RESUMO

Among the Macaca species, adult male Japanese macaques are the least likely to perform male care (i.e., affiliative interactions between adult males and immatures, including holding, carrying, and grooming); however, they perform male care for infants, albeit infrequently. We examined 17 cases of male care observed for the first time when the immature was younger than 1 year of age. Eleven of the 31 adult males who remained as central males during the 30-year observation period performed male care. Their age and dominance rank did not influence the occurrence of male care. Most cases were first recorded between the last part of the mating season and the first part of the birth season (January-March), whereas male care was rarely observed during the mating season (October-December). In 12 of the 17 cases, male care ceased within 6 months after the first observation, whereas in the remaining cases, it continued for at least 1 year. In 15 of the 17 cases, males tended to perform male care for matrilineally unrelated female infants of low-ranking mothers. In some cases, the male and infant mother showed grooming interactions for 6 months both before and after the start of male care, whereas such grooming interactions were never recorded either before or after the start of male care in other cases. We also examined some hypotheses on male-immature associations and the probable benefits that males and infants might acquire through male care.


Assuntos
Macaca fuscata , Macaca , Fatores Etários , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Comportamento Social
7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 288(1958): 20211456, 2021 09 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493081

RESUMO

Social animals display a wide range of behavioural defences against infectious diseases, some of which increase social contacts with infectious individuals (e.g. mutual grooming), while others decrease them (e.g. social exclusion). These defences often rely on the detection of infectious individuals, but this can be achieved in several ways that are difficult to differentiate. Here, we combine non-pathogenic immune challenges with automated tracking in colonies of the clonal raider ant to ask whether ants can detect the immune status of their social partners and to quantify their behavioural responses to this perceived infection risk. We first show that a key behavioural response elicited by live pathogens (allogrooming) can be qualitatively recapitulated by immune challenges alone. Automated scoring of interactions between all colony members reveals that this behavioural response increases the network centrality of immune-challenged individuals through a general increase in physical contacts. These results show that ants can detect the immune status of their nest-mates and respond with a general 'caring' strategy, rather than avoidance, towards social partners that are perceived to be infectious. Finally, we find no evidence that changes in cuticular hydrocarbon profiles drive these behavioural effects.


Assuntos
Formigas , Animais , Comportamento Animal , Asseio Animal , Humanos , Hidrocarbonetos , Comportamento Social
8.
Cutis ; 108(1): 31-35, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34397355

RESUMO

Each of the US Military services imposes strict hair-grooming standards to ensure professionalism and the safety of servicemembers. Although in recent years there have been some progressive changes in grooming policies, they have not adequately accounted for the diversity within the US Armed Forces or variations in hair and skin types. Review of some antiquated grooming regulations resulted in the authorized wearing of locs across all 4 services over the last 4 years. The largest catalyst for improved grooming standards occurred in 2020 when former Defense Secretary Mark Esper requested that the Department of Defense review military policies for racial bias. To embrace diversity and inclusivity in the military services while addressing grooming-related health concerns, the US Air Force and the US Army recently authorized women to wear longer braids and ponytails. The updated hair-grooming regulations are anticipated to decrease the numbers of female servicemembers impacted by scalp symptoms and hair disease. This review highlights the history of female military hair-grooming standards and the most commonly associated scalp symptoms and disorders, including trichorrhexis nodosa (TN), extracranial headaches, and traction alopecia (TA).


Assuntos
Doenças do Cabelo , Militares , Alopecia , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Cabelo , Humanos
9.
Am J Primatol ; 83(9): e23314, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34343364

RESUMO

In captive populations of rhesus macaques, novel adult males are commonly introduced to female groups every few years to prevent inbreeding, which mimics male dispersal in wild macaque populations. However, introducing adult males is challenging because macaques are aggressive to newcomers, which can result in serious injuries. Efforts to reduce trauma risk during the introduction process and increase the probability of success are needed. Here we investigate the impact of multiple factors, including male attributes (e.g., age, weight, rank, and experience), introduction method (punctuated vs. continual exposure to females), and female behavior, on males' trauma risk and integration success. We studied eight introductions of multimale cohorts (3-7 males each; N = 36 total) into existing female groups of rhesus macaques at the Yerkes National Primate Research Center. Four cohorts were introduced using the punctuated exposure method where adult males were moved each morning from run housing to the females' indoor enclosure and returned to run housing in the afternoon, and four cohorts were introduced using the continual exposure method where adult males were moved to an introduction enclosure attached to the females' outdoor compound, allowing males to live in protected contact next to the female group continuously. Generalized linear mixed models fitted to trauma risk (e.g., latency to first trauma; total trauma count) and success or failure to integrate (i.e., continual residence within the female group for greater than 53% of days within a 28-day window after first overnight stay) showed that continual exposure to females in the introduction enclosure reduced male trauma risk and increased the likelihood of successful integration compared to punctuated exposure. Males received less trauma when they received a higher rate of grooming from females. Male attributes had no effect. These findings highlight the importance of introduction technique and female behavior in the process of males' social integration into female groups.


Assuntos
Agressão , Comportamento Social , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Abrigo para Animais , Macaca mulatta , Masculino
10.
Physiol Behav ; 241: 113560, 2021 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34454245

RESUMO

Social integration and social status can substantially affect an individual's health and survival. One route through which this occurs is by altering immune function, which can be highly sensitive to changes in the social environment. However, we currently have limited understanding of how sociality influences markers of immunity in naturalistic populations where social dynamics can be fully realized. To address this gap, we asked if social integration and social status in free-ranging rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) predict anatomical and physiological markers of immunity. We used data on agonistic interactions to determine social status, and social network analysis of grooming interactions to generate measures of individual variation in social integration. As measures of immunity, we included the size of two of the major organs involved in the immune response, the spleen and liver, and counts of three types of blood cells (red blood cells, platelets, and white blood cells). Controlling for body mass and age, we found that neither social status nor social integration predicted the size of anatomical markers of immunity. However, individuals that were more socially connected, i.e., with more grooming partners, had lower numbers of white blood cells than their socially isolated counterparts, indicating lower levels of inflammation with increasing levels of integration. These results build upon and extend our knowledge of the relationship between sociality and the immune system in humans and captive animals to free-ranging primates, demonstrating generalizability of the beneficial role of social integration on health.


Assuntos
Comportamento Social , Meio Social , Animais , Asseio Animal , Macaca mulatta
12.
J Child Sex Abus ; 30(7): 785-805, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34425731

RESUMO

Grooming is a process whereby an individual who plans to commit a sexual crime uses deception with the victim as well as the people in the environment (such as the victim's family members, the offender's family, etc.) so that the crime goes undetected. Despite the overwhelming presence of grooming in sexual crimes, there is a dearth of research on sex offenders' perceptions of their own grooming behaviors. This paper describes the psychometrics and lessons learned in the pilot study of testing and revising a new instrument for measuring sex offenders' perceptions of their grooming behaviors (Sex Offenders Grooming Assessment; SOGA), with a sample (n = 50) of convicted male sex offenders in community based specialized therapy. Analyses suggest that using behaviorally-specific questions yielded more reliable results than general categorical grooming questions. Understanding how sex offenders perceive and report their grooming behavior provides valuable insight critical to treatment and assessment.


Assuntos
Abuso Sexual na Infância , Vítimas de Crime , Criminosos , Delitos Sexuais , Animais , Criança , Asseio Animal , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção , Projetos Piloto
13.
J Dairy Sci ; 104(11): 12019-12029, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34364642

RESUMO

Weaned dairy heifers are often housed in environments with few appropriate outlets for grooming or oral manipulation. Our objective was to characterize brush use by naive heifers, including patterns over time. In phase 1, groups of 4 heifers (n = 13 groups, 146.4 ± 9.1 d old, mean ± standard deviation; SD) were introduced to a bedded pack pen with 4 wall-mounted brushes (25.4 × 6.0 cm with 3.8-cm-long bristles). On d 1, 2, and 6 of exposure, continuous video recordings were used to observe 2 focal heifers per group for brush use (oral manipulation, grooming, and the sum of total brush use; all averaged at the group level). Latency to use a brush upon entering the pen was 3.4 ± 4.9 min (mean ± SD; range: 0.1 to 17.8 min among individuals). Heifers used the brushes for oral manipulation (39.7 ± 17.5% of brush use, mean ± SD) and grooming (60.3 ± 17.5%), primarily of their heads (89.9 ± 5.4% of grooming). In phase 2, heifers were moved in pairs (n = 13 pairs/treatment) to freestall pens either with (brush treatment) or without (control) brushes mounted inside the stalls for the first 5 d of phase 2 (d 8-12 of the study); on the last day (d 13 of the study), brushes were provided in both treatments. On d 8 (brush treatment) and 13 (both treatments), one focal heifer/pen was recorded for the same behaviors as in phase 1. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate brush use patterns across days (phase 1: d 1, 2, and 6; phase 2 brush treatment: d 8 vs. 13) and between treatments on d 13. In phase 1, brush use was greatest on d 1 [45.9 min; 95% confidence interval (CI): 33.2-63.3 min, back-transformed from natural-log values], decreased on d 2 (25.0 min, 95% CI: 18.4-34.0 min), but then remained steady until d 6 (21.0 min, 95% CI: 15.4-28.5 min); the initial reduction in total brush use was due to changes in grooming, but oral manipulation remained relatively static. In phase 2, heifers in the brush treatment showed similar usage on d 8 versus d 13 (3.8 vs. 3.7 min, 95% CI: 1.9-6.8 vs. 1.9-6.5 min). Compared with heifers with continuous brush access on d 8-12, those in the control treatment showed more brush use on d 13, both for oral manipulation (6.6 vs. 2.5 min, 95% CI: 3.8-11.1 vs. 1.3-4.5 min) and grooming (3.5 vs. 1.2 min, 95% CI: 1.9-5.7 vs. 0.5-2.3 min). Our study is the first to characterize stationary brush use in weaned dairy heifers. We conclude that, despite lacking previous experience, heifers use brushes for both grooming and oral manipulation.


Assuntos
Abrigo para Animais , Registros , Animais , Bovinos , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Registros/veterinária , Gravação em Vídeo , Desmame
14.
Am J Primatol ; 83(9): e23306, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34270109

RESUMO

In group-living mammals, an individual's fitness depends, in part, on the quality of social relationships it has with others. Among species of nonhuman primates in which one sex is philopatric, individuals of that sex often develop strong social bonds and alliances with closely related kin. Less is known regarding the social processes used by dispersing adults to form stable bonds with nonkin in their new group. From May to December 2009, April to August 2010, September to December 2011, and February to May 2012, we collected data on grooming interactions in wild Tibetan macaques (Macaca thibetana), a female philopatric species, at Mt. Huangshan, China. Our goal was to compare social interactions and bond formation between resident males, recent immigrant males, and resident females. Our results indicate that recent immigrant males formed stable partner relationships with a small number of resident females and groomed these females more frequently or for longer than they received grooming. In contrast, resident males switched female grooming partners more frequently, received more grooming than they gave, and formed relationships with a greater number of female partners. We argue that the ability of recent immigrant male Tibetan macaques to maintain strong and persistent social bonds with a small set of resident adult females is a primary factor that enables them to establish residence in a new multimale-multifemale group. The present study provides new and important insights into the integrated social strategies used by dispersing males and resident females to maintain group stability.


Assuntos
Macaca , Comportamento Social , Animais , China , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino
15.
Primates ; 62(5): 801-815, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273030

RESUMO

Immature indivuduals influence the formation and maintenance of social relationships within groups in diverse ways. Because of the increased interest of group members toward newborns, lactating females may use infants as social tools to temporally gain rank positions in matrilineal societies, and differential support received by the mothers may bias the network of immatures born to females of different ranks. In this study, we investigated the changes in proximity, grooming, play, and agonism networks of lactating females and immatures of different developmental periods, sex, and mothers' dominance rank. A semi-free-ranging group of 22 capuchin monkeys (Sapajus spp) was monitored for 12 months, totaling over 300 hours of observation. During this period, the age changes of 13 immatures were monitored and recorded. Best regression models showed that an increased number of grooming partners while lactating did not translate into changes in the proximity or agonistic network positions for females. Age was the main predictor of social network changes, while sex had a minor influence on the play network and no influence on the grooming or agonistic networks. Finally, mothers' rank predicted differences in the affiliative but not the agonistic social network. This pattern points to a more affiliative and individual-based rather than agonistic and nepotism-based strategy for social network insertion, which can be explained by the decreased competition faced by the focal group and by the behavioral flexibility of the clade.


Assuntos
Cebus , Sapajus , Animais , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Lactação , Comportamento Social , Rede Social
16.
Behav Processes ; 190: 104446, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34147575

RESUMO

The social behaviour of wild animals living in groups leads to social networks with structures that produce group-level effects and position individuals within them with differential consequences for an individual's fitness. Social dynamics in captivity can differ greatly from those in wild conspecifics given the different constraints on social organization in wild populations, e.g. group size, predation pressure, distribution of resources (food, mates), which are all regulated by human carers in captive populations. The social networks of animals in zoos is expected to differ from those of free-living conspecifics. While many studies have described the social networks of a wide diversity of wild and captive animals, none has directly compared the networks of multiple groups of a single species both in the wild and in captivity. Meerkats, Suricata suricatta, are an excellent species to compare the social networks of wild and captive groups. We replicated the methods of Madden et al. (2009, 2011), who studied eight groups in the wild, in fifteen captive groups. We tested how network structures and individual positions in grooming, foraging competition and dominance networks differed between wild and captive groups. Groups of wild and captive meerkats differed in various aspects of their social network structure. Differences in the network may be due to individuals occupying different network positions and the difference in the number and strength of their connections to other individuals. This distinct way of interacting and associating could be a result of group specific attributes, such as group size, and/or the attributes of the donor and recipient, including sex, status or age. Critically, the differences may be explained by the dissimilar living environment that each encounters.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens , Comportamento Social , Animais , Asseio Animal , Humanos , Comportamento Predatório , Rede Social
17.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 709: 108970, 2021 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34181873

RESUMO

Glutaric acidemia type 1 (GA1) is caused by glutaryl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency that leads to a blockage in the metabolic route of the amino acids lysine and tryptophan and subsequent accumulation of glutaric acid (GA), 3-hydroxyglutaric acids and glutarylcarnitine (C5DC). Patients predominantly manifest neurological symptoms, associated with acute striatal degeneration, as well as progressive cortical and striatum injury whose pathogenesis is not yet fully established. Current treatment includes protein/lysine restriction and l-carnitine supplementation of (L-car). The aim of this work was to evaluate behavior parameters and pro-inflammatory factors (cytokines IL-1ß, TNF-α and cathepsin-D levels), as well as the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL10 in striatum of knockout mice (Gcdh-/-) and wild type (WT) mice submitted to a normal or a high Lys diet. The potential protective effects of L-car treatment on these parameters were also evaluated. Gcdh-/- mice showed behavioral changes, including lower motor activity (decreased number of crossings) and exploratory activity (reduced number of rearings). Also, Gcdh-/- mice had significantly higher concentrations of glutarylcarnitine (C5DC) in blood and cathepsin-D (CATD), interleukin IL-1ß and tumor factor necrosis alpha (TNF-α) in striatum than WT mice. Noteworthy, L-car treatment prevented most behavioral alterations, normalized CATD levels and attenuated IL-1ß levels in striatum of Gcdh-/- mice. Finally, IL-1ß was positively correlated with CATD and C5DC levels and L-car was negatively correlated with CATD. Our results demonstrate behavioral changes and a pro-inflammatory status in striatum of the animal model of GA1 and, most importantly, L-car showed important protective effects on these alterations.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/tratamento farmacológico , Encefalopatias Metabólicas/tratamento farmacológico , Carnitina/uso terapêutico , Glutaril-CoA Desidrogenase/deficiência , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/genética , Animais , Encefalopatias Metabólicas/genética , Carnitina/análogos & derivados , Carnitina/metabolismo , Catepsina D/metabolismo , Corpo Estriado/efeitos dos fármacos , Corpo Estriado/metabolismo , Glutaril-CoA Desidrogenase/genética , Asseio Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Inflamação/genética , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Locomoção/efeitos dos fármacos , Lisina/farmacologia , Camundongos Knockout , Teste de Campo Aberto/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta/metabolismo
18.
Primates ; 62(4): 571-584, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34061281

RESUMO

Human-primate interfaces are expanding and, despite recent studies on primates from peri-urban environments, little research exists on the impact of agriculture and/or pasture areas on primate social behavior and health. We assessed how crop/pasture areas potentially alter social behavior and health of wild geladas (Theropithecus gelada) frequenting the unprotected area of Kundi (Ethiopia). We predicted that compared to pasture areas, crop areas (i) would be more challenging for geladas (prediction 1) and (ii) would have a greater impact on both aggressive and affiliative behavior, by reducing grooming time and enhancing competition (prediction 2). During January-May 2019 and December 2019-February 2020, we collected data (via scan, focal animal sampling, and video analyses) on direct human disturbance, external signs of pathologies and social behavior of 140 individuals from 14 one-male units and two all-male units. Animals experienced the highest level of human disturbance in crop areas (in line with prediction 1). Individuals from the groups preferentially frequenting crop areas showed the highest prevalence of external signs of pathologies consistent with chemical and biological contamination (alopecia/abnormally swollen parts). We collected 48 fecal samples. Samples from frequent crop users contained the highest rates of parasitic elements/gram (egg/larva/oocyst/cyst) from Entamoeba histolytica/dispar, a parasite common in human settlements of the Amhara region. In crop areas, subjects spent less time grooming but engaged in lower rates of intense aggression (in partial agreement with prediction 2). We speculate that the reduction in social behavior may be a tactic adopted by geladas to minimize the likelihood of detection and maximize food intake while foraging in crops.


Assuntos
Agressão , Interação Humano-Animal , Theropithecus/fisiologia , Animais , Produtos Agrícolas , Etiópia , Fezes/química , Fezes/parasitologia , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Masculino , Comportamento Social
19.
Elife ; 102021 06 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080539

RESUMO

Consolation is a common response to the distress of others in humans and some social animals, but the neural mechanisms underlying this behavior are not well characterized. By using socially monogamous mandarin voles, we found that optogenetic or chemogenetic inhibition of 5-HTergic neurons in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DR) or optogenetic inhibition of serotonin (5-HT) terminals in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) significantly decreased allogrooming time in the consolation test and reduced sociability in the three-chamber test. The release of 5-HT within the ACC and the activity of DR neurons were significantly increased during allogrooming, sniffing, and social approaching. Finally, we found that the activation of 5-HT1A receptors in the ACC was sufficient to reverse consolation and sociability deficits induced by the chemogenetic inhibition of 5-HTergic neurons in the DR. Our study provided the first direct evidence that DR-ACC 5-HTergic neural circuit is implicated in consolation-like behaviors and sociability.


Assuntos
Comportamento Animal , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/fisiologia , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/fisiologia , Serotonina/metabolismo , Comportamento Social , Animais , Arvicolinae , Núcleo Dorsal da Rafe/metabolismo , Feminino , Asseio Animal , Giro do Cíngulo/metabolismo , Masculino , Atividade Motora , Vias Neurais/metabolismo , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Optogenética , Receptor 5-HT1A de Serotonina/metabolismo , Neurônios Serotoninérgicos/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo
20.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2678, 2021 05 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976153

RESUMO

Intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are the most common neurodevelopmental disorders and are characterized by substantial impairment in intellectual and adaptive functioning, with their genetic and molecular basis remaining largely unknown. Here, we identify biallelic variants in the gene encoding one of the Elongator complex subunits, ELP2, in patients with ID and ASD. Modelling the variants in mice recapitulates the patient features, with brain imaging and tractography analysis revealing microcephaly, loss of white matter tract integrity and an aberrant functional connectome. We show that the Elp2 mutations negatively impact the activity of the complex and its function in translation via tRNA modification. Further, we elucidate that the mutations perturb protein homeostasis leading to impaired neurogenesis, myelin loss and neurodegeneration. Collectively, our data demonstrate an unexpected role for tRNA modification in the pathogenesis of monogenic ID and ASD and define Elp2 as a key regulator of brain development.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/genética , Mutação , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/metabolismo , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Asseio Animal/fisiologia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/metabolismo , Deficiência Intelectual/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos e Proteínas de Sinalização Intracelular/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Endogâmicos DBA , Camundongos Knockout , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/metabolismo , Transtornos do Neurodesenvolvimento/fisiopatologia , Fenótipo , Células Sf9 , Spodoptera
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...