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1.
BMJ Open Qual ; 10(Suppl 1)2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344750

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lack of standardisation and failure to maintain aseptic techniques during procedures contributes to healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). Although numerous procedures are performed in neonatal intensive care units (NICU), handling peripheral intravenous lines is one of the simple and common procedures performed daily. Despite evidence-based care bundle approach variability is higher, and compliance to asepsis is less in routine clinical practice. In this study, we aimed to standardise and improve compliance with Aseptic non-technique (ANTT) in intravenous line maintenance of neonates admitted to NICU to reduce HCAI by 50% over 6 months. METHODS: All nurses were subjects of assessment for compliance with intravenous line maintenance. All admitted neonates with intravenous lines were subjects for the HCAI data collection. At baseline, the current practices for intravenous line maintenance were observed on a generic ANTT audit proforma. Pictorial standard operating procedure (SOP) was developed based on ANTT. Implementation and sustenance were ensured by Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles. Audit data on compliance to ANTT and trends of HCAI rates were displayed using run charts monthly. Qualitative experience from the nursing staff was also recorded. RESULTS: Significant improvement was seen in compliance to various components-use of the aseptic field (0% to 100%), closed ports (0% to 100%), key part contamination reduction (80% to 0%), and intravenous hub scrubbing (0% to 72%). SOP of intravenous line maintenance based on ANTT could be implemented and sustained throughout for 9 months. There was a reduction of HCAI from 26 per 1000 patient days to 8 per 1000 patient days. Qualitative experience showed the main determinant of compliance to scrub the hub was the neonate's sickness level. CONCLUSIONS: Using a quality improvement model of improvement, ANTT in intravenous line maintenance was implemented stepwise. Improving compliance with ANTT principles in intravenous line maintenance reduced HCAI. Scrub the hub requires longer sustained efforts to become part of the practice.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Melhoria de Qualidade , Assepsia , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Neonatal
2.
J Vasc Access ; 22(3): 353-358, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667233

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intravenous cannulation is a common procedure and a valuable skill in the neonatal intensive care unit. Standardized procedure and personnel training are needed in the unit to prevent hospital-acquired blood stream infections. Hence, we evaluated the effect of training using a low-fidelity simulation on the improvement of the aseptic non-touch technique during intravenous cannulation and knowledge retention after 6 months. METHODS: The study was conducted in a tertiary care neonatal unit from June 2017 to July 2018. All the staff nurses and junior resident doctors posted in the neonatal intensive care were included in the study. A protocol and checklist score sheet was developed. The score sheet consisted of 23 items with a total score of 46. Participants were expected to obtain a minimum of 80%. A pre-test was conducted initially, followed by a formal training and then a post-test. The NITA newborn venous access mannequin was used to facilitate the training. A re-training for new nurses was conducted after 6 months. Data were analyzed using paired t-test. RESULTS: A total of 29 doctors and nurses were enrolled in the training. The mean pre-test score was 29.93 compared to 42.66 in the post-test scores (mean difference 12.24(95% confidence interval: 9.39-16.05), p < 0.01. The mean scores were higher when the simulation was conducted after 6 months. There was a significant decline in blood stream infection rates from 5.5 to 1.65 per 1000 patient days (p = 0.05). CONCLUSION: Simulation-based training of health care personnel is a good modality to improve aseptic non-touch technique during intravenous cannulation in the neonatal intensive care unit. Simulation-based training also helps in knowledge retention and standardization of training procedures.


Assuntos
Assepsia , Bacteriemia/prevenção & controle , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/prevenção & controle , Cateterismo Periférico/efeitos adversos , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Manequins , Treinamento por Simulação , Adulto , Bacteriemia/diagnóstico , Bacteriemia/microbiologia , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/diagnóstico , Infecções Relacionadas a Cateter/microbiologia , Lista de Checagem , Competência Clínica , Infecção Hospitalar/diagnóstico , Infecção Hospitalar/microbiologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Melhoria de Qualidade , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde , Retenção Psicológica , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
3.
J Am Assoc Lab Anim Sci ; 60(1): 85-90, 2021 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33228830

RESUMO

In biomedical research, surgeons are often responsible for simultaneously conducting rodent surgical procedures, monitoring anesthesia, and adjusting nonsterile equipment. Maintaining appropriate aseptic technique can be challenging when working under these conditions. Applying a sterile barrier material such as aluminum foil to nonsterile surfaces in these circumstances offers an innovative, inexpensive option to improve asepsis. The purpose of this study was to validate the sterility of foodgrade aluminum foil for use as a sterile barrier on nonsterile equipment during rodent surgery. In this investigation, 10 boxes of aluminum foil were assessed for sterility by using ATP swabs and replicate organism detection and counting (RODAC) plates at 0, 14, and 28 d and 6 mo. At 6 mo, foil was applied to surgical equipment, and sterility was assessed by using ATP swabs and RODAC plates. Results revealed no ATP-positive results at any time point. During assessment of samples obtained directly from boxes, RODAC plates yielded minimal bacterial growth (1 cfu per plate) in 2 of the 10 boxes at initial testing and in 1 box at the day 0, day 14, and 6 mo time points. No growth was observed at day 28 (tested directly from the box) or at 6-mo apparatus testing. Our data revealed minimal bacterial growth on tested samples and support the use of Reynolds Wrap aluminum foil as a sterile barrier on nonsterile surfaces during aseptic rodent surgery.


Assuntos
Alumínio , Infertilidade , Animais , Assepsia , Roedores , Equipamentos Cirúrgicos
4.
Rev. fac. cienc. méd. (Impr.) ; 17(2): 8-16, jul.-dic. 2020. graf., tab.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BIMENA | ID: biblio-1291849

RESUMO

Las medidas de asepsia y antisepsia, son procedimientos efectivos de bajo costo en la prevención de infecciones intrahospitalarias; prácticas inadecuadas del personal constituyen un problema de salud pública. Objetivo: determinar el nivel de conocimiento y práctica en asepsia y antisepsia en personal de Sala de Operaciones, Bloque Materno Infantil, Hospital Escuela Universitario. Material y Métodos: estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal; universo 82 personas, muestra 38 sujetos; se aplicó instrumento de observación y entrevista estructurada. Resultados: 26(68%) femenino, 12(32%) masculino, edad promedio 38 años; 16(42%) personas obtuvieron débil conocimiento, 3(8%) muy buen conocimiento; conocimiento promedio (64%), puntaje mínimo (13%), máximo (93%). Práctica lavado de manos; calificación excelente 28(74%), 6(16%) no se lavaron las manos, 21(55%) al ingresar al área quirúrgica y 11(29%) entre procedimientos. 17(45%) realizaron buen uso de indumentaria quirúrgica, 23(92%) realizaron excelente lavado quirúrgico, 13(93%) instrumentistas excelente colocación de bata estéril. 19(76%) realizaron excelente manejo de asepsia y antisepsia durante transquirúrgico. 14(100%) circulantes realizaron excelente práctica postquirúrgica. Se comparó conocimiento contra práctica, excelente práctica de lavado de manos 10(26%), pero escaso conocimientos y buena práctica de indumentaria quirúrgica, 2(5%) muy buen conocimiento, pero práctica regular en uso de indumentaria quirúrgica (p ≤ 0.001). 3(12%) con conocimiento débil, realizó práctica excelente en transquirúrgico. 2(14%) obtuvieron 100% en práctica posquirúrgica (p ≤ 0.001). Se encontró factor protector 60% y 40% factor de riesgo durante la práctica transoperatoria, IC 95%, RR: 0.4 (-0.3, 0.5) y RR: 0.6 (- 05, 0.8). Conclusión: hubo diferencias entre categorías de profesionales afectando el nivel de conocimiento y práctica de la técnica aséptica, factor de riesgo 40%. Se encontró que los que no tienen conocimiento y no practican las técnicas de asepsia, tienen 2.9 veces más probabilidad de riesgo, en relación al grupo que tiene conocimiento y realiza medidas de asepsia en el transoperatorio...(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Antissepsia , Assepsia , Enfermagem de Centro Cirúrgico/educação , Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle
5.
Br J Nurs ; 29(16): 924-932, 2020 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901552

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To the detriment of patient safety, the important clinical competency of aseptic technique has been notoriously variable in practice, and described ambiguously in the literature, internationally. From a UK perspective, attempts have been made to improve patient safety by reducing variability and improving education and practice through standardisation. The Welsh Government mandated Aseptic Non Touch Technique (ANTT®) as a specific national standard in 2015. All healthcare organisations in England are required by the Health and Social Care Act 2008 to have a single standard aseptic technique, demonstrable by the clinical governance indicators of education, training, competency assessment and compliance audit. In Scotland, an education-based initiative was launched by NHS Education for Scotland in 2012. To review the impact of these and other initiatives on the current status of aseptic technique, all NHS trusts in England and NHS health boards in Scotland were assessed under the Freedom of Information procedure. FINDINGS: 93% of NHS trusts in England use a single standard for aseptic technique. In 88% of these trusts the single standard was stipulated as being ANTT. In Scotland, 62% of NHS acute and community care hospitals within health boards use a single standard. In 56% of these, the single standard was ANTT. When including those that use ANTT in combination with other techniques ANTT usage is 73%. CONCLUSION: These data demonstrate significant progress in standardising aseptic technique education, assessment and governance, and confirms ANTT as the de facto aseptic technique used in NHS trusts in England and health boards in Scotland.


Assuntos
Assepsia , Medicina Estatal , Assepsia/métodos , Assepsia/normas , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/organização & administração , Inglaterra , Hospitais , Humanos , Escócia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração
8.
Rev. Eugenio Espejo ; 14(1): 53-64, 20200615.
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117189

RESUMO

El presente estudio fue de tipo observacional comparativo; para lo cual se analizaron 40 cepillos dentales de la marca OralDent, los que fueron usados durante un mes por los integrantes de la Cooperativa de taxis "Simón Bolívar" de la ciudad de Riobamba, Ecuador; con el propósito de comparar la eficacia del ácido acético al 5% y la clorhexidina al 0,12% como desinfectantes. El análisis microbiológico arrojó la presencia de microorganismos en los cepillos dentales usados por los individuos que voluntariamente los cedieron para el estudio, tales como: C. albicans en mayor proporción, seguida de S. viridans, S. epidermidis y S. mutans, A. tubingensis, K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. vulgaris. En las muestras con concentraciones de microorganismos de 100.000 UFC/mL, una vez generado el proceso de desinfección con clorhexidina al 0,12% existió una disminución a valores menores de 20.000 UFC/mL o su eliminación completa. El ácido acético al 5% logró una asepsia en el 100% de los cepillos dentales sin importar la edad o el género del individuo que lo utilizó.


The present study was of a comparative observational type. 40 OralDent toothbrushes were analyzed for this reserach, which were used for a month by the members of the "Simón Bolívar" Taxi Cab Company in the city of Riobamba, Ecuador. It aimed to compare the efficacy of 5% acetic acid and 0.12% chlorhexidine as disinfectants. The microbiological analysis showed the presence of microorganisms in the toothbrushes used by the individuals who voluntarily gave them up for the study, for exmaple: C. albicans in a greater proportion, followed by S. viridans, S. epidermidis and S. mutans, A. tubingensis, K. pneumoniae, E. coli, E. faecalis, P. vulgaris. Once the disinfection process with 0.12% chlorhexidine was generated in the samples with microorganism concentrations of 100,000 CFU / mL, there was a decrease to values less than 20,000 CFU / mL or its complete elimination. 5% acetic acid achieved asepsis in 100% of toothbrushes regardless of the age or gender of the individual who used it.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Clorexidina , Desinfecção , Ácido Acético , Assepsia , Técnicas Microbiológicas , Desinfetantes
9.
Eur J Hosp Pharm ; 27(e1): e63-e68, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32296508

RESUMO

Objectives: To design and execute a comprehensive microbiological validation protocol to assess a brand-new sterile compounding robot in a hospital pharmacy environment, according to ISO and EU GMP standards. Methods: Qualification of the Class-A inner environment of the robot was performed through microbial air and surface quality assessment utilising contact plates, swabs and particulate matter monitoring. To evaluate the effectiveness of the microbial decontamination process (UV rays) challenge test against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis spores and Candida albicans was used. The challenge Media Fill test was used to validate the aseptic processing. Results: After 3 hours, no microorganisms retained viability. Monitoring inside the equipment evidenced complete absence of microorganisms. The Media Fill test was always negative. Conclusions: According to our results, the APOTECAunit meets the requirements for advanced aseptic processing in the hospital pharmacies and the pharmaceutical industry in general, providing advantages in terms of safety for patients compared with conventional procedures of parenteral preparation production. The protocol has demonstrated to be a comprehensive and valuable tool in validating, from a microbial point of view, a sterile-compounding technology. This study might represent an important benchmark in developing a contamination control strategy, as required, for example, in the Performance Qualification of the GMP in the case of drug manufacturing.


Assuntos
Assepsia/normas , Descontaminação/normas , Composição de Medicamentos/normas , Contaminação de Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/normas , Robótica/normas , Assepsia/métodos , Descontaminação/métodos , Composição de Medicamentos/métodos , Humanos , Preparações Farmacêuticas/síntese química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/normas , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Robótica/métodos
11.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 20(3): e38-e43, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006469

RESUMO

The currently accepted assumption that most surgical site infections (SSIs) occurring after elective surgery under standard methods of antisepsis are due to an intraoperative contamination event, remains unproven. We examined the available evidence in which microbial cultures of surgical wounds were taken at the conclusion of an operation and determined that such studies provide more evidence to refute that an SSI is due to intraoperative contamination than support it. We propose that alternative mechanisms of SSI development should be considered, such as when a sterile postoperative wound becomes infected by a pathogen originating from a site remote from the operative wound-eg, from the gums or intestinal tract (ie, the Trojan Horse mechanism). We offer a path forward to reduce SSI rates after elective surgery that includes undertaking genomic-based microbial tracking from the built environment (ie, the operating room and hospital bed), to the patient's own microbiome, and then to the surgical site. Finally, we posit that only by generating this dynamic microbial map can the true pathogenesis of SSIs be understood enough to inform novel preventive strategies against infection following elective surgery in the current era of asepsis.


Assuntos
Assepsia/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/efeitos adversos , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/epidemiologia , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/etiologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Infecção da Ferida Cirúrgica/prevenção & controle
12.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 191: 105695, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32086118

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The brain and people "manipulating" it, provide a very mysterious and fascinating substrate for a movie. Faithful representation of reality often represent a key for the success of a film. Nonetheless, while watching movies with neurosurgical scenes, we often observed actions and elements containing incredible errors that aroused opposing emotions. The aim of this study was to perform an extensive review examining the representations of neurosurgery in movies, especially focused on the analysis of neurosurgical gross mistakes. PATIENT AND METHODS: We looked for any movie that featured a neurosurgeon or a scene including a neurosurgical disease or procedure. We used one of the largest internet movie databases available online (IMDb.com) with searching for keywords such as "neurosurgeon", "neurosurgery", and "craniotomy". Title, year, genre and cost of production were collected. The first three features were detected on IMDb.com; the costs of production were found in websites the-numbers.com and boxofficemojo.com. Analysis and selection were performed by AM and PDB. RESULT: 73 movies were found. After the application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, 58 have been eligible for inclusion in the study (Table 1) and 15 have been excluded from the final analysis". Out of 45 movies watched, we found 32 neurosurgical mistakes. Mistakes were classified into four big groups, namely: "surgical asepsis and principles of sterile technique" (n = 13, 40 %); "conceptual mistakes (n = 10, 31.5 %)"; "incorrect use of surgical tools (n = 7, 22 %)" ; "anatomical and radiological mistakes (n = 2, 6.5 %)". The costs of production started from 11.000 US dollars (Vsivaci, 2014) to 200 millions dollars (Spiderman 2, 2004), with a median value of 8.2 millions dollars each. All mistakes were not useful for the correct progress of the movie. CONCLUSION: Our review shows that several mistakes, especially on asepsis during surgery are present in films dealing with neurosurgery. Several movies costed up to millions of dollars. Would a consultation of a Neurosurgeon before/during the shooting narrow the gap between the reality and fiction?


Assuntos
Medicina nas Artes , Filmes Cinematográficos , Neurocirurgia , Televisão , Assepsia , Humanos , Procedimentos Neurocirúrgicos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos
16.
Enferm. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 30: 0-0, 2020. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188543

RESUMO

INTRODUCCIÓN: En enero de 2020 aparece en China un brote de neumonía causada por un virus zoonótico (SARS-CoV-2). Se considera que la ruta principal de transmisión es por inhalación de grandes gotas respiratorias, por deposición en las mucosas y las manos o los fómites contaminados. El objetivo es identificar las intervenciones a realizar durante la hospitalización para un manejo correcto y seguro de la ropa e higiene de los pacientes y profesionales sanitarios. MÉTODO: Scoping review realizada sin delimitación cronológica ni de idioma en las bases de datos PUBMED y Cochrane. Rastreo de normas y recomendaciones de entidades gubernamentales nacionales e internacionales para responder a la pregunta de investigación sobre el manejo seguro de la ropa y la higiene de la piel en pacientes y en profesionales sanitarios para evitar el contagio por Covid-19. El análisis de los datos fue realizado en dos etapas: en la primera, identificación y categorización de los estudios, y en la segunda, análisis de contenido como criterio informativo y clasificatorio. RESULTADOS: Se han seleccionado 14 documentos, principalmente de entidades gubernamentales. Las recomendaciones se estructuran en 5 epígrafes sobre manejo de ropa e higiene de la piel de pacientes infectados y profesionales sanitarios en el ámbito hospitalario. CONCLUSIÓN: La ropa de los pacientes y del personal sanitario son vehículos transmisores de la enfermedad. Su correcto tratamiento ayuda a mejorar el control de la misma y a una correcta utilización de los recursos disponibles en estos momentos. La adecuada higiene de la piel, en especial la limpieza de las manos, constituye uno de los pilares básicos para la prevención y el control de la infección. Destacamos la semejanza de algunas de las pautas recogidas y proporcionadas por los diferentes organismos consultados


INTRODUCTION: In January 2020, an outbreak of pneumonia caused by a zoonotic virus (SARS-CoV-2) appeared in China. The main route of transmission is considered to be the inhalation of large respiratory drops, by deposition in the mucosa and hands or contaminated fomites. The objective is to identify the interventions to be performed during hospitalization for the correct and safe handling of clothing and hygiene of patients and health professionals. METHOD: Scoping review carried out without chronological or language delimitation in the PUBMED and Cochrane databases. Tracking standards and recommendations of national and international government entities to answer the research question on the safe handling of clothing and skin hygiene in patients and in health professionals to avoid Covid-19 infection. The data analysis was carried out in two stages: in the first, identification and categorization of the studies, and in the second, content analysis as an informative and classifying criterion. RESULTS: 14 documents have been selected, mainly from government entities. The recommendations are structured in 5 sections on the management of clothing and skin hygiene of infected patients and health professionals in the hospital setting. CONCLUSION: The clothing of patients and healthcare personnel are transmitting vehicles of the disease. Its correct treatment helps to improve the control of the same and the correct use of the resources available at the moment. Proper skin hygiene, especially hand cleansing, is one of the basic pillars for infection prevention and control.We highlight the similarity of some of the guidelines collected and provided by the different agencies consulted


Assuntos
Humanos , Roupa de Proteção/normas , Vestuário/normas , Pessoal de Saúde/normas , Pacientes , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Higiene/normas , Assepsia/normas , Lavanderia/normas , Roupas de Cama, Mesa e Banho/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas
17.
Br J Community Nurs ; 24(12): 600-603, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31800313

RESUMO

Community nurses often face challenges when going into a patient's home to change a dressing, particularly if the surroundings are likely to be contaminated by multiple strains of bacteria or viruses. For housebound patients, cleaning the house can be an extremely difficult task due to physical or mental illness. They may also experience a large amount of exudate as a result of possibly debilitating painful wounds, for example, leg ulcers, and may be prone to infection as a result of the difficulties posed in keeping a dressing covering a heavily exuding wound in a possibly unclean environment. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that a community nurse or healthcare worker be able to change the wound dressing in the cleanest and most supportive manner. This article covers the most recent guidance and research relevant to the practice of aseptic or clean technique when changing dressings in the community.


Assuntos
Assepsia/normas , Bandagens/normas , Enfermagem em Saúde Comunitária/normas , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/normas , Controle de Infecções/normas , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Ferimentos e Lesões/terapia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reino Unido
18.
Rev. cient. cienc. salud ; 1(2): [1-7], 20191200.
Artigo em Espanhol | BDNPAR | ID: biblio-1337668

RESUMO

Introducción. Las infecciones en las unidades de terapia intensiva es uno de los principales problemas para el sistema de salud por su alta tasa de morbi-mortalidad. El lavado de manos es una de las intervenciones de salud pública más eficaces, económicas y accesible para prevenir las enfermedades y proteger la salud de los pacientes. Sin embargo, el cumplimiento por parte de los trabajadores de la salud está lejos de ser lo ideal. Objetivo. Determinar el grado de conocimiento sobre lavado de manos del personal de salud de la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Adultos (UCIA) del Hospital Nacional de Itauguá. Metodología. Estudio observacional, descriptivo de corte transversal, que incluyó personal de salud de UCIA del Hospital Nacional de Itauguá en el período marzo -octubre del año 2018.Resultados.El 100% del personal de salud conocía la importancia del lavado de manos, sin embargo, el 83% desconocía los cinco momentos establecidos por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS), el 69% consideró que la falta de interés del personal de salud es la principal causa. Conclusiones. Un alto porcentaje de encuestados informaron conocer la importancia y cumplimiento del lavado de manos sin embargo no tiene en cuenta las normativas establecidas por la OMS.


Introduction.Infections in intensive care units is one of the main problems for the health system due to its high morbidity and mortality rate. Handwashing is one of the most effective, economical and accessible public health interventions to prevent disease and protect patient ́s health. However, compliance by health workers is far from ideal.Objective.to determine degree of knowledge on handwashing of health personnel of theAdult Intensive Care Unit (UCIA) of the Hospital Nacional de Itauguá.Methodology. Observational, descriptive cross-sectional study, which included health personnel from the UCIA of the Hospital Nacional de Itauguá in the period March -October of 2018.Results.100% of the health personnel knew the importance of handwashing. However, 83% wasunaware of the five moments established by World Health Organization (WHO), 69% consideredthat the lack of interest of the health personnel is the maincause.Conclusions.Ahigh percentage of respondents informed that they are aware of the importance and compliance of hand washing but they do not takeinto account the WHOnormative.


Assuntos
Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Assepsia , Desinfecção das Mãos , Infecção Hospitalar
19.
Am Surg ; 85(9): 935-938, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638502

RESUMO

The development of surgical attire is well documented in historical photographs and evolved in response to the changing understanding of aseptic and antiseptic techniques. Surgeons throughout time remained significantly opposed to changes in attire, and it was over a century that we evolved from wearing black frock coats to the current attire of today. Interestingly, surgical attire remains a source of controversy even today, with a recent argument regarding skull versus bouffant caps that was quite publicly debated.


Assuntos
Vestimenta Cirúrgica/história , Assepsia/história , Europa (Continente) , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Estados Unidos
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