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2.
Med Hist ; 64(1): 32-51, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933501

RESUMO

This paper addresses the relative scholarly oversight of the history of public health in Haiti through a close examination of the colonial public health system constructed and operated by the United States (US) during its occupation of Haiti from 1915 to 1934. More than simply documenting a neglected aspect of Caribbean history, the paper offers the US occupation of Haiti as a remarkably clear example of a failed attempt to use a free public health service to cultivate a health conscientiousness among the Haitian citizenry through the aggressive treatment of highly visible ailments such as cataracts and yaws. I argue that the US occupation viewed the success of the Haitian Public Health Service as critical to the generation of a taxable, compliant and trusting citizenry that the colonial state could enter into a contract with. This idealistic programme envisioned by the US occupation was marred by financial mismanagement, racism, delusions of grandeur and contempt for Haitian physicians that resulted in the production of a far more precarious public health service and administrative state than the US occupation had hoped. By the time the Great Depression arrived in 1930 the Haitian Public Health Service was gutted and privatised, having successfully provided the majority of Haitians with free healthcare, yet failed to have persuaded them of the value of being governed by a centralised administrative state.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Colonialismo/história , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Haiti , História do Século XX , Humanos , Médicos/história , Administração em Saúde Pública/história , Prática de Saúde Pública/história , Racismo/história , Estados Unidos
3.
Med Hist ; 64(1): 52-70, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31933502

RESUMO

Mammographic screening for breast cancer is a widely used public health approach, but is constantly a subject of controversy. Medical and historical research on this topic has been mainly conducted in Western Europe and North America. In Brazil, screening mammography has been an open topic of discussion and a challenge for health care and public health since the 1970s. Effectively, Brazilian public health agencies never implemented a nationwide population-based screening programme for breast cancer, despite the pressures of many specific groups such as advocacy associations and the implementation of local programmes. This article examines the complex process of incorporating mammography as a diagnostic tool and the debates towards implementing screening programmes in Brazil. We argue that debates about screening for breast malignancies, especially those conducted in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, took place in a context of change and uncertainty in the Brazilian health field. These discussions were strongly affected both by tensions between the public and the private health care sectors during the formative period of a new Brazilian health system, and by the growing role of civil society actors. Our study investigates these tensions and their consequences. We use several medical sources that discussed the topic in Brazil, mainly specialised leading oncology journals published between 1950 and 2017, medical congress reports for the same period, books and theses, institutional documents and oral testimonies of health professionals, patients and associations collected in the framework of the 'The History of Cancer' project from the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation and Brazilian National Cancer Institute.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/história , Detecção Precoce de Câncer/história , Mamografia/história , Brasil , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico por imagem , Assistência à Saúde/história , Feminino , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Mamografia/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Pública/história , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/diagnóstico , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/história
5.
J Hist Med Allied Sci ; 75(1): 1-23, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31714575

RESUMO

In the classical world, "official" rationalistic medicine made therapeutic use of excrement, urine and other substances that modern humans normally regard as repulsive (this was even true of Galen, the culminating authority); and popular medicine seems to have done so on a large scale. Such practices, which finally lost their professional though not their popular acceptability in the 18th century, have been studied to good purpose by other historians, but they have never been explained in a satisfactory fashion, partly because the relevant evidence is highly diverse. The present paper, by considering the long term (pre-Greek as well as Greek and Roman) and all the relevant contexts, including ancient feelings of disgust and the general state of ancient pharmacology, and by probing people's subconscious motives, attempts to establish a multi-factor explanation. This explanation balances traditions, beliefs about the inherent qualities, physical and magical, of natural substances, and the psychological needs of both healers and the sick.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Fezes , Mundo Grego , Mundo Romano , História Antiga , Higiene/história , Filosofia Médica/história
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 24(10): 3727-3732, 2019.
Artigo em Português, Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31577003

RESUMO

The article explores aspects of the academic and activist life of the teacher and popular educator Victor Valla, particularly his repeated critiques, in writings and debates, about how some researchers and some social workers, educators, medical providers, and others working with the popular classes failed to understand these groups and their discourse. Valla embraced the idea that knowledge can be produced outside the traditional walls of universities and research centers, especially by the popular classes, who embed knowledge production in their very practices. In this regard, he advocated a new theoretical and methodological posture in social, cultural, educational, and health projects among the poor, in total consonance with the presuppositions of a democratic, equitable healthcare system, as supported by those involved in the health sector.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Educação em Saúde/história , Brasil , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
8.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(4): 391-398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31486790

RESUMO

The period that starts in 1940 is crucial for the creation of Mexico's modern health system. The Institute of Sanitary and Tropical Diseases is the pioneer institution in health research and on its first two decades it achieved maturity and consolidated lines of research expressed in almost 1700 publications. It also obtained notorious international visibility and was selected as a regional reference for epidemiological surveillance of influenza, streptococcus and salmonella. Its evolution took place with an innovation rhythm that would be decreasing by the end of this period. It faced limitations to renew lines of research, researchers and laboratory equipment. However, its role in public health decisions of the country remained central.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Saúde Pública/história , Pesquisa/história , Academias e Institutos/história , Monitoramento Epidemiológico , História do Século XX , Humanos , México
9.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica ; 36(2): 296-303, 2019.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460644

RESUMO

The care of people and their health is a primary function of the family and of society as shown by studies on primitive humans, as well as in pre-Hispanic Peru. The conquest and subsequent centuries of colonization fractured the traditional way of caring for people, replacing social solidarity with charity actions mainly from religious orders that provided hospices later called hospitals. During the colony and until the beginning of the 20th century, the care of the sick continued to be the responsibility of charitable institutions, such as the Charities created after independence. Social rights such as education and health only emerged in the first decades of the last century and were enshrined in the 1933 Constitution. However, both in that Constitution as in those from 1979 and 1993, the right to education was recognized more fully, while the right to heath was limited. The Universal Health Coverage Act of 2009 propounds guaranteeing the right to access quality healthcare services for everybody, as part of the right to health in the broadest sense. The current limitations force us to redefine the right of every citizen to comprehensive care of their health and the State's guidance to guarantee it.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Peru , Direito à Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência
11.
Health Care Anal ; 27(3): 220-230, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31250325

RESUMO

It is an axiom of contemporary conversations about austerity and health care that the relationship between the two is essentially direct. Cutting funds damages health care systems and hurts the health of individuals who rely on them. Though this premise has provoked necessary discussion about global politics, the global economy and their impact on individual well-being, it is nonetheless intrinsically problematic. Assigning health and health care as objects of austerity not only obscures the complexity of health care systems and the opacity of health's definitional borders, but also misunderstands austerity, its manifestations and its significance. The ambition of this essay is to bring health care back into the debate, in order to establish the greater dynamism of the contemporary austerity and health care relationship. This historical reconstruction will challenge the significance of our current situating of austerity as health care's bogeyman, press for a reconsideration of our contemporary definitions of the key factors involved here (health, health care and austerity) and finally conclude with some thoughts on how we might more productively approach the problem of health now.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Recessão Econômica , Política de Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos
12.
Gac Med Mex ; 155(3): 322-327, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31219477

RESUMO

Lázaro Cárdenas government vision, and the process to create the Sanitary and Tropical Diseases Institute, which is considered strategic for public health, were consistent with the actions that were carried out: the Department of Public Sanitary asked the most relevant scientist of those days, Eliseo Ramírez, to design and follow-up the Institute's project. A commission of the Higher Education and Scientific Research Council reviewed and approved the project and conferred this institution its nature of research center with social and humanistic vocation since its foundation. Sanitary and Tropical Diseases Institute became the first post-revolutionary health institution that was born with well-remunerated job positions to conduct full-time research in Mexico, offering clinical services, teaching and supporting disease prevention and control campaigns. It was with no doubt a milestone in Mexican public health and crystalized the expectations of several generations of physicians and health researchers about having a high-level institution. It is the most significant public health institution of the country, with a new phase as Institute of Epidemiological Diagnosis and Reference. Without it, Mexican modern public health cannot be understood.


Assuntos
Academias e Institutos/história , Saúde Pública , Academias e Institutos/organização & administração , Pesquisa Biomédica/história , Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XX , Humanos , México
13.
Technol Cult ; 60(2): 409-437, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31204337

RESUMO

During the Second Sino-Japanese War, the technological project of mass immunization united state health administrations and international aid organizations seeking to prevent epidemics in unoccupied China's wartime hinterland. This article examines a joint wartime effort between the Chinese government's National Epidemic Prevention Bureau and the League of Nations Health Organization to manufacture and distribute vaccines against smallpox, cholera, and other diseases in northwest China. The hardships of war presented challenges to the development of large-scale immunization, but also led to the establishment of international aid programs that helped Chinese microbiologists acquire standard cultures, animals, and equipment. Vaccination provided a means for the beleaguered Nationalist government to quell epidemics and resist the Japanese; subsequent state involvement in the process of managing transport of vaccines, organizing and training vaccinators, and mandating the shots suggests the significance of mass immunization, as well as its reliance on technological systems in which vaccines embodied emerging biomedical standards that the state sought to institutionalize.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Política de Saúde/história , Tecnologia/história , II Guerra Mundial , China , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , História do Século XX , Microbiologia/história , Vacinação/história
14.
Am J Nurs ; 119(7): 46-52, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31232775

RESUMO

: By the 1920s, Lillian Wald's model of care, with nurses working side by side with social workers at the intersection of medicine and society, had become an important component of the U.S. health care system. Over subsequent decades, however, a confluence of historic forces resulted in its marginalization. Today, people are recognizing that medical cures alone, although important, will not reduce the epidemic of diseases of despair or the growing challenges involved in achieving health equity. Wald's approach, extended to a broader range of settings in which nurses work today, could be the missing ingredient.To provide background for the National Academy of Medicine Committee on the Future of Nursing 2020-2030, as it develops its follow-up to the Institute of Medicine's 2010 Future of Nursing: Leading Change, Advancing Health, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation commissioned a report on nursing's historic role in advancing health. This article summarizes that report, which can be found in its entirety at www.rwjf.org/content/dam/farm/reports/reports/2019/rwjf452706.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/história , Assistência à Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , História da Enfermagem , Modelos de Enfermagem , História do Século XX , Hospitais , Humanos , Estados Unidos
15.
Camb Q Healthc Ethics ; 28(2): 276-302, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31113514

RESUMO

A country's healthcare system-the protection and healing of some its weakest people, its sick and injured-could be considered to be one of the most definitive expressions of its national morality. In recent decades, Ireland has experienced profound cultural changes; from a mostly monocultural and religious society to a multi-ethnic one, where secular ideas predominate. Economically, it is largely neoliberal, with one of the world's most open economies, and one of its lowest corporate tax rates; though there is also a welfare state. Its healthcare system has reflected these cultural changes. The system has evolved, gradually, from being run almost exclusively by religious groups, to becoming essentially secular in nature (though religious groups are still involved at the ownership level). Overall, the system is run according to the two competing secular ideologies which currently predominate; it is a two-tier system, with a mix of a neoliberally oriented (though government subsidized) private system, and a public system. The latter has been starved of resources in recent decades; so to achieve good, or at times adequate healthcare, it is almost essential to have private health insurance (which about half of the population have).This two-tier system has led to significant concerns and occasional scandals; for example, patients dying while on waiting lists for public treatment, who could have been treated and possibly saved if they had health insurance. A purely ethical approach to healthcare-with the aim of healing the sick-has been mixed with competing motives, such as the desire for profit in the private sector, or for short term savings and box-ticking in the public system. Thus, good healthcare practice and best moral practice are being undermined by competing agendas.In this article, I describe and reflect ethically on the Irish healthcare system, and how it has evolved to its current state. I also discuss how dysfunction in the healthcare system, leading to the death of a pregnant woman, Savita Halappanavar, was a major factor in a constitutional ban on abortion being overturned.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/ética , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Princípios Morais , Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Irlanda
16.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 11(1): e1-e2, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038348

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The Alma-Ata Declaration's commitment to primary health care (PHC) reaches its 40th anniversary in 2018. Over the last 40 years, the number of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) working in low-income countries (LICs) has rapidly multiplied, and over time, NGOs have both positively and negatively impacted equity, effectiveness, appropriateness and efficiency of PHC systems in LICs. AIM: The authors aim to demonstrate that at the 40th anniversary of the Alma-Ata Declaration's commitment to PHC, NGOs are particularly poised to strengthen PHC in LICs. METHODS: In this letter, the authors reflect on how NGOs have both positively and negatively impacted equity, effectiveness, appropriateness and efficiency of PHC systems based on their experience working with NGOs in LICs. RESULTS: NGOs are poised to strengthen PHC in LICs in four distinct ways: assisting with local human resources development, strengthening local information systems, enabling community-based health services and testing innovative service delivery projects. CONCLUSIONS: The authors call for NGOs to commit their expertise and resources to long-term strengthening of PHC in LICs and to critically examine the factors that prevent or assist them in this goal. As the principles of Alma-Ata are renewed, NGOs should be responsibly engaged in strengthening the declaration's goal of 'health for all'.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Organizações/organização & administração , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Aniversários e Eventos Especiais , Assistência à Saúde/história , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , História do Século XX , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Cazaquistão , Organizações/história , Atenção Primária à Saúde/história
18.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30990994

RESUMO

The article considers becoming of professional medical care in mining and smelting okrugs of the Kama Vyatka region in the pre-reform period (end of XVIII-first half of XIX centuries). The analysis is presented concerning the history of organization in the Kray of hospitals of mining and military departments, sources of financing, provision of curative institutions with medications and active storages, solution of personnel problem, interaction between factorial administration and medical personnel, curative preventive and educational activities of physicians, struggle with smallpox and other epidemiological diseases, counteraction to "traditional medicine", effectiveness of functioning of health care institutions. The conclusions are made that development of medical care during studied period was accompanied by number of such predicaments as material equipping, training and mobilization of specialists, roominess of hospitals (i.e. obvious deficiency in physicians and beds per capita was observed). To the end of studied period hospitals at industrials settlements functioned stably as an integral part of ramified system of establishments of social infrastructure of the Ural.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ocupações , Assistência à Saúde/história , História do Século XVIII , História do Século XIX , Mineração , Saúde do Trabalhador/história , Federação Russa
20.
Med Law Rev ; 27(2): 267-294, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30272190

RESUMO

This article explores the relationship between obligation and publicly funded healthcare. Taking the National Health Service (NHS) as the focal point of discussion, the article presents a historical analysis of the shifting nature and function of obligation as it relates to this institution. Specifically, and drawing inspiration from recent literature that takes seriously the notion of the tie or bond at the core of obligation, the article explores how the forms of social relation and bonds underpinning a system like the NHS have shifted across time. This is undertaken via an analysis of Aneurin Bevan's vision of the NHS at its foundation, the importance today of the patient (and the individual generally) within publicly funded healthcare, and the role of contract as a contemporary governance mechanism within the NHS. A core feature of the article is its emphasis on the impact that a variety of economic factors-including privatisation, marketisation, and the role of debt and finance capital-are having on previously settled understandings of obligation and the forms of social relation underpinning them associated with the NHS. It is therefore argued that an adequate analysis of obligation in healthcare law and related fields must extend beyond the doctor-patient relationship and that of state-citizen of the classical welfare state in order to incorporate new forms of relation, such as that between creditor and debtor, and new actors, including private healthcare providers and financial institutions.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/economia , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/economia , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/ética , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Responsabilidade Social , Contratos , Assistência à Saúde/história , Economia/tendências , Ética nos Negócios , Ética Institucional , Financiamento Governamental/economia , Financiamento Governamental/ética , Financiamento Governamental/história , Financiamento Governamental/tendências , História do Século XX , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais/ética , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/história , Privatização , Reino Unido
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