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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: e45918, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1117684

RESUMO

Objetivo: analisar a compreensão de estudantes de graduação em enfermagem sobre as Redes de Atenção à Saúde. Método: estudo descritivo e exploratório, qualitativo, realizado com 27 estudantes em Enfermagem de uma universidade federal do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas semiestruturadas realizadas entre agosto e setembro de 2018. Resultados: foi evidenciado o conhecimento dos estudantes em relação ao conceito e objetivo das Redes de Atenção à Saúde, a identificação de fragilidades na comunicação e a falta de conhecimento do usuário como obstáculos na efetivação das mesmas, a dificuldade em ver a atuação do enfermeiro dentro dos variados serviços das redes e a percepção sobre a fragmentação do processo de formação. Conclusão: o estudo contribui para a discussão sobre a inclusão dos estudantes nas Redes de Atenção à Saúde, com intuito de superar as exigências educacionais que buscam favorecer a efetivação do Sistema Único de Saúde e das Redes de Atenção à Saúde.


Objective: to examine undergraduate nursing students' understanding of Health Care Networks (HCNs). Method: in this exploratory, qualitative descriptive study, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 27 Nursing students at a federal University in southern Brazil between August and September 2018. Results: the interviews revealed that the students' knowledge related to the HCNs' concept and purpose, beyond the communication weaknesses and users' lack knowledge as obstacles to effective HCNs, the difficulty in seeing nurses' roles in the various network services, and perceived fragmentation in the training process. Conclusion: the study contributed to discussion of inclusion of students in HCRs, with a view to meeting the educational requirements designed to favor implementation of the national health system (SUS) and the HCNs.


Objetivo: analizar la comprensión de los estudiantes de enfermería de pregrado sobre las redes de atención de la salud (HCN). Método: en este estudio exploratorio, cualitativo descriptivo, se realizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas a 27 estudiantes de Enfermería de una Universidad federal del sur de Brasil entre agosto y septiembre de 2018. Resultados: las entrevistas revelaron que los conocimientos de los estudiantes relacionados con el concepto y propósito, más allá de las debilidades de comunicación y la falta de conocimiento de los usuarios como obstáculos para una HCN eficaz, la dificultad para ver el rol de las enfermeras en los distintos servicios de la red y la fragmentación percibida en el proceso de formación. Conclusión: el estudio contribuyó a la discusión de la inclusión de los estudiantes en las HCR, con miras a cumplir con los requisitos educativos diseñados para favorecer la implementación del Sistema Nacional de Salud (SUS) y las HCN.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Sistema Único de Saúde/organização & administração , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Compreensão , Brasil , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Enfermagem
3.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 142, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008445

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently rare in children and they seem to have a milder disease course and better prognosis than adults. However, SARS-Cov-2 pandemic has indirectly caused problems in pediatric medical assistance. In view of this we wanted to draw a picture of what happened during health emergency and analyze future prospects for restarting. METHODS: We involved the Italian pediatric scientific societies institutionally collected in the Italian Federation of Associations and Scientific Societies of the Pediatric Area (FIARPED); We sent a questionnaire to all scientific societies about the pediatric care activity during the COVID-19 emergency and future perspectives for the phase of post-containment. RESULTS: The analysis of the questionnaires showed significant decrease of:admission, outpatient visits and specialist consultancy activities during the COVID-19 emergency, primarily linked to the fear of infection. Instead it was increased the serious degree of diseases admitted. Most of scientific societies maintained the relationship with chronic patients through some form of telemedicine, reporting a strong positive opinion about this modality. Finally showed the need to give life a new approach for hospitalizations and outpatient visits through a greater use of telemedicine, educational programs on families and a more decisive role of family pediatricians. CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted many aspects that can be improved in pediatric care. We think that It will be necessary a new shared strategy to improve the management and continuity of care for pediatric patients, primarily developing a network of collaboration between families, family pediatrician and hospitals and by enhancing the use of new methods of telecommunications.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Planejamento de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Pediatria/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Sociedades Médicas
4.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4266, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012884

RESUMO

Background: The best scientific evidence is required to design effective Non-pharmaceutical interventions to help policymakers to contain COVID-19. Aim: To describe which Non-pharmaceutical interventions used different countries and a when they use them. It also explores how Non-pharmaceutical interventions impact the number of cases, the mortality, and the capacity of health systems. Methods: We consulted eight web pages of transnational organizations, 17 of international media, 99 of government institutions in the 19 countries included, and besides, we included nine studies (out of 34 identified) that met inclusion criteria. Result: Some countries are focused on establishing travel restrictions, isolation of identified cases, and high-risk people. Others have a combination of mandatory quarantine and other drastic social distancing measures. The timing to implement the interventions varied from the first fifteen days after detecting the first case to more than 30 days. The effectiveness of isolated non-pharmaceutical interventions may be limited, but combined interventions have shown to be effective in reducing the transmissibility of the disease, the collapse of health care services, and mortality. When the number of new cases has been controlled, it is necessary to maintain social distancing measures, self-isolation, and contact tracing for several months. The policy decision-making in this time should be aimed to optimize the opportunities of saving lives, reducing the collapse of health services, and minimizing the economic and social impact over the general population, but principally over the most vulnerable. The timing of implementing and lifting interventions could have a substantial effect on those objectives.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Formulação de Políticas , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Quarentena , Isolamento Social , Fatores de Tempo
5.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4271, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012886

RESUMO

Coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19) is an airways infection caused by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) which has been quickly disseminated all over the world, affecting to the general population including women in pregnancy time. As being a recent infection, the evidence that supports the best practices for the management of the infection during pregnancy is limited, and most of the questions have not been completely solved yet. This publication offers general guidelines focused on decision-making people, managers, and health's teams related to pregnant women attention and newborn babies during COVID-19 pandemic. Its purpose is to promote useful interventions to prevent new infections as well as prompt and adequate attention to avoid serious complications or deaths, trying to be adapted to the different contexts in which attention to expectant mothers is provided. Guidelines are set within a well-scientific evidence and available recommendations up to date.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/virologia
6.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4277, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33012889

RESUMO

Currently, there are several mathematical models that have been developed to understand the dynamics of COVID-19 infection. However, the difference in the sociocultural contexts between countries requires the specific adjustment of these estimates to each scenario. This article analyses the main elements used for the construction of models from epidemiological patterns, to describe the interaction, explain the dynamics of infection and recovery, and to predict possible scenarios that may arise with the introduction of public health measures such as social distancing and quarantines, specifically in the case of the pandemic unleashed by the new SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 virus. Comment: Mathematical models are highly relevant for making objective and effective decisions to control and eradicate the disease. These models used for COVID-19 have supported and will continue to provide information for the selection and implementation of programs and public policies that prevent associated complications, reduce the speed of the virus spread and minimize the occurrence of severe cases of the disease that may collapse health systems.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Política de Saúde , Modelos Teóricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Quarentena , Isolamento Social
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007951

RESUMO

The SARS-CoV2 pandemic has impacted risk management globally. Blockchain has been increasingly applied to healthcare management, as a strategic tool to strengthen operative protocols and to create the proper basis for an efficient and effective evidence-based decisional process. We aim to validate blockchain in healthcare, and to suggest a trace-route for a COVID19-safe clinical practice. The use of blockchain in combination with artificial intelligence systems allows the creation of a generalizable predictive system that could contribute to the containment of pandemic risk on national territory. A SWOT analysis of the adoption of a blockchain-based prediction model in healthcare and SARS-CoV-2 infection has been carried out to underline opportunities and limits to its adoption. Blockchain could play a strategic role in future digital healthcare: specifically, it may work to improve COVID19-safe clinical practice. The main concepts, and particularly those related to clinical workflow, obtainable from different blockchain-based models have been reported here and critically discussed.


Assuntos
Inteligência Artificial , Blockchain , Infecções por Coronavirus , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Fluxo de Trabalho
8.
Nurs Womens Health ; 24(5): 309-310, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038989
9.
Acta Med Indones ; 52(3): 196-198, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33020330

RESUMO

Since the detection of the first confirmed case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in early March 2020, 248,852 cases have been detected in Indonesia by 21 September 2020. At least 100 doctors have died from COVID-19 nationwide. Full large-scale social restriction was a temporary measure, followed by an early transition to the new normal era during the never-ending first wave in the country. Workers in industrial, retail, transport, and tourism fields suffered a significant decrease in work. Many countries are, however, in dilemma of protecting the health of the citizens and prioritising economy. Health should be prioritised because it is an important aspect of our lives for our economy. Poor health is estimated to reduce global gross domestic product (GDP) by 15% annually through premature deaths and potential loss of productivity of the working-age citizens. Pandemics also depress economy through decrease in both supply and demand. Data from flu pandemic a century ago suggested the importance of aggressiveness and speed of intervention. Taiwan's early action led to beneficial effects on SARS-CoV-2 infection rate and economy recovery. The target of enhancement of containment measures, provision of personal protective equipments, and testing and isolation facilities should be achieved earlier and be more than the projected demand.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/economia
11.
Int J Equity Health ; 19(1): 184, 2020 10 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33076929

RESUMO

In healthcare, we find an industry that typifies the unique blend of racism, classism, and other forms of structural discrimination that comprise the U.S. caste system-the artificially-constructed and legally-reinforced social hierarchy for assigning worth and determining opportunity for individuals based on race, class, and other factors. Despite myths of meritocracy, healthcare is actually a casteocracy; and conversations about racism in healthcare largely occupy an echo chamber among the privileged upper caste of hospital professionals. To address racism in healthcare, we must consider the history that brought us here and understand how we effectively perpetuate an employee caste system within our own walls.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Racismo/prevenção & controle , Classe Social , Humanos , Pandemias , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 149, 2020 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33032650

RESUMO

The rapid spread of the COVID-19 outbreak in Italy has dramatically impacted the National Healthcare System, causing the sudden congestion of hospitals, especially in Northern Italy, thus imposing drastic restriction of almost all routine medical care. This exceptional adaptation of the Italian National Healthcare System has also been felt by non-frontline settings such as Pediatric Orthopaedic Units, where the limitation or temporary suspension of most routine care activities met with a need to maintain continuity of care and avoid secondary issues due to the delay or suspension of the routine clinical practice. The Italian Society of Pediatric Orthopaedics and Traumatology formulated general and specific recommendations to face the COVID-19 outbreak, aiming to provide essential care for children needing orthopaedic treatments during the pandemic and early post-peak period, ensure safety of children, caregivers and healthcare providers and limit the spread of contagion.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar/prevenção & controle , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto/normas , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Tomada de Decisão Clínica , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Saúde do Trabalhador/estatística & dados numéricos , Procedimentos Ortopédicos/métodos , Ortopedia/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Pediatria/normas , Sociedades Médicas/normas , Traumatologia/normas
13.
Assist Inferm Ric ; 39(3): 147-153, 2020.
Artigo em Italiano | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33077984

RESUMO

. When, how, why and whom for there will be an "after" Covid-19? The announced, but unpredicted, radical and global experience of the Covid-19 pandemia has revealed the degree of ignorance, fragmentation, inadequacy of the national and international knowledge and strategies of intervention and, even more substantially, of coordination across all the critical areas of prevention and care. The importance of the nursing component of the organisation and of the technical and cultural aspects of health care delivery and accessibility has been underlined as a protagonist of the resistance and resilience during the worst period of the emergency, and should be specifically involved in this renewal, where a profound modification of the interactions, hierarchies, roles of various professions is required. A long term, widespread, flexible experimentation of country specific and international solutions must be envisaged and timely activated. The 'grammar' and the major concrete characteristics of the methodology which could be usefully adopted to guarantee the feasibility and effectiveness of this 'systemic' experimentation are proposed and exemplified.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cuidados de Enfermagem/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
14.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3493-3502, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876243

RESUMO

Prisional health is, in its essence, public health. The COVID-19 pandemic poses a great threat to the world and has shown that preventing the disease escalation in prisons integrates the novel corona virus clash in society in general. Up to this moment, the most effective known measure to curb the disease spread is social isolation. Nevertheless, in penal institutions, often overcrowded, social isolation becomes difficult to carry out and, when it happens, it takes the enclosed population to overisolation, with consequences to their mental health. Besides, prisoners suffer with clogged up environment, lack of materials for personal hygiene, poor basic sanitary conditions and difficulties in accessing health services. This paper deals with a narrative review on the pandemic effects in prisons and how government and civil society have organized themselves in order to reduce the disease consequences at those places. The text has been divided into three sections: the first with literature review on the current health theme; the second discusses how different countries have been dealing with the prison situation in the pandemic context, and, the last part focuses on how the Brazilian Penal System has reacted to the new disease.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Prisioneiros/estatística & dados numéricos , Prisões/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Isolamento Social
15.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3567-3571, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876259

RESUMO

On February 3, 2020, the Brazilian Ministry of Health declared a state of emergency in public health of national relevance due to the pandemic caused by the new coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. As a result, IBGE postponed the 2020 Demographic Census and started to formulate a COVID-19 PNAD. The survey included a total sample of 349 thousand people in about 200 thousand households. Of the total Brazilian resident population, the IBGE estimated in May/2020 that 24.0 million (11.4%) had at least one of the flu-like syndrome symptoms. Of this contingent, 20.2 million (84.3% of all symptomatic patients) did not seek health care. The innovations brought to health surveillance and the IBGE's pioneering spirit show that it is possible, in a continental country that has been experiencing several local epidemics at different times in its territory, that other countries also develop similar household surveys, with weekly data collection (referred to epidemiological weeks) by telephone in an innovative and timely manner. The COVID-19 PNAD also brought new technology to the Institute, reviving its role as an external evaluator of the Unified Health System (SUS).


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Saúde Pública , Inquéritos e Questionários , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Tecnologia Biomédica , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3555-3556, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876280

RESUMO

We live in a global pandemic unprecedented in our generation. These are challenging times for healthcare workers. We are all in the same storm and join the same collective effort against COVID-19. However, we are not in the same boat. Inequality determines how each category of the health workforce is affected by the new coronavirus in Brazil. Exposed to the disease on the frontlines, nursing technicians and assistants suffer disproportionately the dire effects of the pandemic. More than 1.3 million technicians and almost 420 thousand nursing assistants provide essential care in health units and do not have the assistance and financial backing to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on themselves and their families. Eight in every ten of these professionals are women, who are providers and also assume, in most cases, the role of primary caregivers for children, older adults, and the sick in their families. Low wages make hinder access to safer transportation and care alternatives for dependents, which is the reality of most professionals who keep the health system running throughout the pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Cuidadores/estatística & dados numéricos , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 36: 153, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32874417

RESUMO

Since the first case of COVID-19 and its progression to a pandemic, healthcare systems the world over have experienced severe difficulties coping with patient care for both COVID-19 and other diseases most especially non communicable diseases like cancer. These difficulties in Low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), especially in Sub-Saharan Africa including Nigeria, are myriad. These LMICs are already bedeviled weak health systems, ill equipped cancer treatment centers, with outdated machines and grossly inadequate numbers of oncologists required to treat patients with cancer. As a result of these challenges coupled with unclear guidelines on how to manage cancer patients in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic, 11 key Nigerian opinion leaders had a consensus meeting to identify challenges and possible workable solutions on continuing cancer care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The discussion highlighted ethical issues, barriers to continuing cancer care (such as lockdown, fear of contracting disease, downscaled health services) and resource constraints such unavailable personal protective equipment. Yet, practical solutions were proffered such as necessary protective measures, case by case prioritization or de-prioritization, telemedicine and other achievable means in the Nigerian setting.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Neoplasias/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Telemedicina/organização & administração
18.
S Afr Med J ; 110(6): 450-452, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32880548

RESUMO

It is likely that the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic will affect a large part of the world's population and will last for several years. Many critical ethical issues have arisen in the healthcare context. While response from healthcare professionals to participating in the care of patients in the era of COVID-19 has generally been positive, there have also been disturbing experiences on the ground. The practice of medicine is a social contract with humanity. Challenges have arisen because the patient is both a victim and a vector of the coronavirus. All humans should have a natural instinct to care for those in need. Ethically and legally, healthcare professionals cannot be expected to assume a significant and unreasonable risk of harm. While fear is understandable, altruism and interest in serving the sick exemplify the value of solidarity. Social harms like stigmatisation and discrimination can occur. Concerns have been raised regarding protection of privacy and respect for rights of infected individuals. In the era of COVID-19, fear, misinformation and a detachment from one's calling put professionalism strongly to the test.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/organização & administração , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Altruísmo , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/ética , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Profissionalismo
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