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1.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(11): 298-302, 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32191686

RESUMO

In 2017, prescription opioids were involved in 36% of opioid-involved overdose deaths in the United States (1). Prescription opioids can be obtained by prescription or through diversion (the channeling of regulated drugs from legal to illegal sources) (2). Among new heroin users, 66%-83% reported that their opioid use began with the misuse of a prescription opioid (3). "Misuse" is generally defined as drugs taken for a purpose other than that directed by the prescribing physician, in greater amounts, more often, or for a longer duration than prescribed (2). Exposure to prescription opioids can be lessened by ensuring recommended prescribing, thereby potentially reducing the risk for misuse, opioid use disorder, and overdose (4). Sex and age groups with high exposure to prescription opioids are not well defined. Using a retail pharmaceutical database from IQVIA,* nationwide trends in opioid prescription fill rates for adult outpatients by age and sex were examined during 2008-2018. Opioid prescription fill rates were disproportionately higher among men and women aged ≥65 years and women of all ages. For reasons not well understood, these disparities persisted over 11 years even as the opioid fill rate declined for each age group and sex. Interventions to improve prescribing practices by following evidence-based guidelines that include weighing the benefits and risks for using prescription opioids for each patient and adopting a multimodal approach to pain management could improve patient safety while ameliorating pain. These efforts might need to consider the unique needs of women and older adults, who have the highest opioid prescription fill rates.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Prescrições de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores Sexuais , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(11): e19009, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32176029

RESUMO

Quick diagnosis units (QDU) have become an alternative hospital-based ambulatory medicine strategy to inpatient hospitalization for potentially serious illnesses in Spain. Whether diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is better accomplished by an ambulatory or inpatient approach is unknown. The main objective of this retrospective study was to examine and compare the diagnostic effectiveness of a QDU or inpatient setting in patients with pancreatic cancer.Patients with a diagnosis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma who had been referred to a university, tertiary hospital-based QDU or hospitalized between 2005 and 2018 were eligible. Presenting symptoms and signs, risk and prognostic factors, and time to diagnosis were compared. The costs incurred during the diagnostic assessment were analyzed with a microcosting method.A total of 1004 patients (508 QDU patients and 496 inpatients) were eligible. Admitted patients were more likely than QDU patients to have weight loss, asthenia, anorexia, abdominal pain, jaundice, and palpable hepatomegaly. Time to diagnosis of inpatients was similar to that of QDU patients (4.1 [0.8 vs 4.3 [0.6] days; P = .163). Inpatients were more likely than QDU patients to have a tumor on the head of the pancreas, a tumor size >2 cm, a more advanced nodal stage, and a poorer histological differentiation. No differences were observed in the proportion of metastatic and locally advanced disease and surgical resections. Microcosting revealed a cost of &OV0556;347.76 (48.69) per QDU patient and &OV0556;634.36 (80.56) per inpatient (P < .001).Diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is similarly achieved by an inpatient or QDU clinical approach, but the latter seems to be cost-effective. Because the high costs of hospitalization, an ambulatory diagnostic assessment may be preferable in these patients.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/diagnóstico , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/diagnóstico , Adenocarcinoma/economia , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Pancreáticas/economia , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Espanha , Listas de Espera
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e18532, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000362

RESUMO

Fever is one of the most common symptoms seen in patients. The work-up and follow-up of fever in an outpatient-only setting is a reasonable option for stable patients referred for unexplained fever; however, the safety and efficacy of outpatient follow-up for those patients remain unclear. We conducted this study to evaluate the safety and efficacy of outpatient follow-up for referred patients with unexplained fever.This study was a retrospective cohort study. We included patients referred to the outpatient department of the diagnostic medicine of our university hospital for unexplained fever between October 2016 and September 2017. Exclusion criteria were recurrent fever or admission for fever evaluation prior to referral. Main outcomes of interest were the rate of admission without diagnosis, rate of remission of fever, and the total duration of fever in undiagnosed patients.Among 84 patients included in this study, 17 (20%) were diagnosed during outpatient follow-up, 6 (7%) were admitted due to worsened condition, 5 (6%) were lost to follow-up, and 56 (67%) were followed up as outpatients without a diagnosis. Among the 56 undiagnosed patients, fever resolved in 53 during outpatient follow-up with or without treatment (95%). The total duration of resolved fever in undiagnosed patients was within 8 weeks.Follow-up of patients referred for unexplained fever in an outpatient setting is safe and effective.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Febre de Causa Desconhecida , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
4.
Bone Joint J ; 102-B(1): 82-89, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31888355

RESUMO

AIMS: The aim of this study was to report our experience at 3.5 years with outpatient total hip arthroplasty (THA). METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, we included all patients who were planned to receive primary THA through the anterior approach between 1 April 2014 and 1 October 2017. Patient-related data and surgical information were recorded. Patient reported outcome measures (PROMs) related to the hip and an anchor question were taken preoperatively, at six weeks, three months, and one year after surgery. All complications, readmissions, and reoperations were registered. RESULTS: Of the 647 THA patients who had surgery in this period through the anterior approach, 257 patients (39.7%) met the inclusion criteria and were scheduled for THA in an outpatient setting. Of these, 40 patients (15.6%) were admitted to the hospital, mainly because of postoperative nausea and/or dizziness. All other 217 patients were able to go home on the day of surgery. All hip-related PROMs improved significantly up to 12 months after surgery, compared with the scores before surgery. There were three readmissions and two reoperations in the outpatient cohort. There were no complications related to the outpatient THA protocol. CONCLUSION: These study results confirm that outpatient THA can be performed safe and successfully in a selected group of patients, with satisfying results up to one year postoperatively, and without outpatient-related complications, readmissions, and reoperations. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2020;102-B(1):82-89.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Artroplastia de Quadril/estatística & dados numéricos , Atividades Cotidianas , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/cirurgia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Fraturas Periprotéticas/cirurgia , Estudos Prospectivos , Reoperação/estatística & dados numéricos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
N Engl J Med ; 382(2): 152-162, 2020 01 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is widespread interest in programs aiming to reduce spending and improve health care quality among "superutilizers," patients with very high use of health care services. The "hotspotting" program created by the Camden Coalition of Healthcare Providers (hereafter, the Coalition) has received national attention as a promising superutilizer intervention and has been expanded to cities around the country. In the months after hospital discharge, a team of nurses, social workers, and community health workers visits enrolled patients to coordinate outpatient care and link them with social services. METHODS: We randomly assigned 800 hospitalized patients with medically and socially complex conditions, all with at least one additional hospitalization in the preceding 6 months, to the Coalition's care-transition program or to usual care. The primary outcome was hospital readmission within 180 days after discharge. RESULTS: The 180-day readmission rate was 62.3% in the intervention group and 61.7% in the control group. The adjusted between-group difference was not significant (0.82 percentage points; 95% confidence interval, -5.97 to 7.61). In contrast, a comparison of the intervention-group admissions during the 6 months before and after enrollment misleadingly suggested a 38-percentage-point decline in admissions related to the intervention because the comparison did not account for the similar decline in the control group. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized, controlled trial involving patients with very high use of health care services, readmission rates were not lower among patients randomly assigned to the Coalition's program than among those who received usual care. (Funded by the National Institute on Aging and others; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02090426; American Economic Association registry number, AEARCTR-0000329.).


Assuntos
Doença Crônica/terapia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/métodos , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Visita Domiciliar , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey , Administração dos Cuidados ao Paciente/organização & administração , Sumários de Alta do Paciente Hospitalar , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos
6.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 145(2): 303-311, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31985608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The authors compared long-term health care use and cost in women undergoing immediate autologous breast reconstruction and implant-based breast reconstruction. METHODS: This study was conducted using the OptumLabs Data Warehouse, which contains deidentified retrospective administrative claims data, including medical claims and eligibility information from a large U.S. health insurance plan. Women who underwent autologous or implant-based breast reconstruction between January of 2004 and December of 2014 were included. The authors compared 2-year use rates and predicted costs of care. Comparisons were tested using the t test. RESULTS: Overall, 12,296 women with immediate breast reconstruction were identified; 4257 with autologous (35 percent) and 8039 with implant-based (65 percent) breast reconstruction. The proportion of autologous breast reconstruction decreased from 47.2 percent in 2004 to 32.7 percent in 2014. The mean predicted reconstruction cost of autologous reconstruction was higher than that of implant-based reconstruction in both unilateral and bilateral surgery. Similar results for mean predicted 2-year cost of care were seen in bilateral procedures. However, in unilateral procedures, the 2-year total costs were higher for implant-based than for autologous reconstruction. Two-year health care use rates were higher for implant-based reconstruction than for autologous reconstruction for both unilateral and bilateral procedures. Women undergoing unilateral implant-based reconstruction had higher rates of hospital admissions (30.3 versus 23.1 per 100; p < 0.01) and office visits (2445.1 versus 2283.6 per 100; p < 0.01) than those who underwent autologous reconstruction. Emergency room visit rates were similar between the two methods. Bilateral procedures yielded similar results. CONCLUSION: Although implant-based breast reconstruction is a less expensive index operation than autologous breast reconstruction, it was associated with higher health care use, resulting in similar total cost of care over 2 years.


Assuntos
Implante Mamário/métodos , Neoplasias da Mama/cirurgia , Mamoplastia/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/economia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Implante Mamário/economia , Implantes de Mama/economia , Implantes de Mama/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias da Mama/economia , Custos e Análise de Custo , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/economia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Mamoplastia/economia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transplante Autólogo/economia , Transplante Autólogo/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
7.
Support Care Cancer ; 28(1): 295-301, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044305

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An international panel achieved consensus on 9 need-based and 2 time-based major referral criteria to identify patients appropriate for outpatient palliative care referral. To better understand the operational characteristics of these criteria, we examined the proportion and timing of patients who met these referral criteria at our Supportive Care Clinic. METHODS: We retrieved data on consecutive patients with advanced cancer who were referred to our Supportive Care Clinic between January 1, 2016, and February 18, 2016. We examined the proportion of patients who met each major criteria and its timing. RESULTS: Among 200 patients (mean age 60, 53% female), the median overall survival from outpatient palliative care referral was 14 (95% confidence interval 9.2, 17.5) months. A majority (n = 170, 85%) of patients met at least 1 major criteria; specifically, 28%, 30%, 20%, and 8% met 1, 2, 3, and ≥ 4 criteria, respectively. The most commonly met need-based criteria were severe physical symptoms (n = 140, 70%), emotional symptoms (n = 36, 18%), decision-making needs (n = 26, 13%), and brain/leptomeningeal metastases (n = 25, 13%). For time-based criteria, 54 (27%) were referred within 3 months of diagnosis of advanced cancer and 63 (32%) after progression from ≥ 2 lines of palliative systemic therapy. The median duration from patient first meeting any criterion to palliative care referral was 2.4 (interquartile range 0.1, 8.6) months. CONCLUSIONS: Patients were referred early to our palliative care clinic and a vast majority (85%) of them met at least one major criteria. Standardized referral based on these criteria may facilitate even earlier referral.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Neoplasias/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Seleção de Pacientes , Encaminhamento e Consulta/organização & administração , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/métodos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Consenso , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Neoplasias/patologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Cuidados Paliativos/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos
8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(49): e17963, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31804307

RESUMO

Renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors (RAASi) and diuretics are among the most frequently prescribed anti-hypertensives. Individuals with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are particularly at risk for electrolyte disturbances and kidney injury but the appropriate use of lab monitoring following RAASi or diuretic initiation is uncertain in CKD.We describe the frequency and time interval of lab monitoring during initiation of RAASi and diuretics in CKD and assess whether close lab monitoring associates with one-year risk of emergency department (ED) visit or hospitalization.We evaluated an observational cohort of 8,217 individuals with stage 3-5 non-dialysis CKD newly prescribed a RAASi (52.3%) or diuretic (47.7%) from thirty-six primary care offices affiliated with Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital between 2009 and 2011.Overall, 3306 (40.2%) individuals did not have pre-prescription labs done within 2 weeks, and 5957 (72.5%) did not have post-prescription labs done within 2 weeks which includes 524 (6.4%) individuals without post-prescription within 1 year. Close monitoring occurred in only 1547 (20.1%) and was more likely in individuals prescribed diuretics compared to RAASi (adjusted OR 1.39; 95%CI 1.20-1.62), with CKD stage 4,5 compared with stage 3 (adjusted OR 1.47; 95%CI 1.16-1.86) and with cardiovascular disease (adjusted OR 1.42; 95%CI 1.21-1.66). Close monitoring was not associated with decreased risk of ED visit or hospitalization.Close lab monitoring during initiation of RAASi or diuretics was more common in participants with cardiovascular disease and advanced CKD suggesting physicians selected high-risk individuals for close monitoring. As nearly 80% of individuals did not receive close lab monitoring there may be value in future research on electronic physician decision tools targeted at lab monitoring.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Testes de Função Renal/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Inibidores da Enzima Conversora de Angiotensina/uso terapêutico , Anti-Hipertensivos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Hipertensivos/efeitos adversos , Boston , Comorbidade , Diuréticos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Antagonistas de Receptores de Mineralocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Potássio/sangue , Sistema Renina-Angiotensina/efeitos dos fármacos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos
9.
Med. infant ; 26(4): 335-345, dic. 2019. Tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047042

RESUMO

Mediano Riesgo es un servicio de atención ambulatoria del Hospital Garrahan. Se atienden pacientes con enfermedades prolongadas, que han realizado consultas en otros efectores de salud u otros servicios del Hospital, o que requieren segunda opinión o abordaje multidisciplinario. Objetivos: Mensurar el tiempo profesional invertido en la atención como herramienta para ponderar la complejidad de los pacientes. Identificar variables demográficas y del proceso de atención. Material y métodos: Investigación descriptiva, transversal sobre pacientes encuestados entre julio y diciembre de 2017 en el Sector de Mediano Riesgo. Se registraron: variables demográficas, proceso de atención, diagnósticos previos y finales, interconsultas, exámenes complementarios y tiempos de consulta profesional. Se tomó 65 minutos (mediana del tiempo profesional total) como punto de corte para definir dos grupos: tiempo de consulta corto o largo. Se realizó un análisis comparativo entre ambos. Resultados: se encuestaron 400 pacientes. Mediana de edad fue de 67,2 meses; 80,1% procedían de CABA y del GBA; mediana de duración del síntoma fue 4 meses; 25,8% tenía enfermedad de base; 62,5% fueron pacientes derivados (externos e internos); destino a pediatra zonal: 30%; interconsultas: 48,5%; tiempo total profesional: mediana 65 minutos (rango 12-460); diagnósticos simples: 37,2%. Variables con significación estadística para pertenecer al tiempo largo: número de diagnósticos finales, procedencia, diagnósticos no simples y presencia de enfermedad de base. Variables con tendencia a pertenecer a tiempo largo: duración del síntoma mayor de 1 mes, edad menor a 24 meses, patología tumoral, síndromes polimalformativos, abuso sexual infantil y problemas de lenguaje /aprendizaje. Conclusiones: el tiempo de consulta es un factor concurrente para la evaluación de la complejidad del proceso de atención. La identificación de variables que permitan preverlo es información relevante para la organización del sector, o de otros efectores de salud (AU)


The sector of Intermediate Risk is part of the outpatient clinics of Garrahan Hospital. In the sector patients with chronic diseases are seen, that have have consulted at other centers or other departments of the hospital, or that need a second opinion or a multidisciplinary approach. Objectives: To assess the professional time invested in care as a tool to evaluate the complexity of the patients, and to identify demographic variables and the care process. Material and methods: A cross-sectional, descriptive study on patients surveyed between July and December 2017 in the Sector of Intermediate Risk. The following data were recorded: Demographic features, care process, previous and final diagnoses, consultations, complementary studies, duration of the interview. A time of 65 minutes (median total time of the visit) was defined as the cut-off point to define two groups: Those with a long and a short interview. A comparative analysis was performed comparing both groups. Results: 400 patients were surveyed. Median age was 67.2 months; 80.1% were form the city of Buenos Aires and Greater Buenos Aires. Mean symptom duration was 4 months; 25.8% had an underlying disease; 62.5% of the patients was referred (either external or internally); referred by the local pediatrician: 30%; second opinions: 48,5%; total time of the interview: median 65 minutes (range, 12-460); simple diagnoses: 37.2%. Statistically significant variables for a long interview were: number of final diagnoses, place of origin, complicated diagnoses, and presence of underlying disease. Variables with a trend to a long interview were: symptom duration more than one month, age less than 24 months, a diagnosis of a tumor, polymalformation syndromes, sexual abuse, language/learning difficulties. Conclusions: The time of the interview is a concurrent factor for the assessment of the complexity of the care process. Identification of the variables that allow to anticipate these cases is relevant for the organization of the sector or other health care providers (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Lactente , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 976, 2019 Dec 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31856814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2009 health insurers AOK and Bosch BKK introduced the "FacharztProgramm Kardiologie" - a program for coordinated ambulatory cardiology care in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. It aims for efficient, medical guideline-oriented cardiology care to reduce avoidable hospitalizations as well as costs of care. A high number of cardiologists participate and the program has served as blueprint for programs in other medical fields. With many prerequisites and conditions involved, its implementation cannot be expected to be self-directed. Still, only little data on the actual implementation exists. We aimed to determine to what extent medical specialists and cooperating general practitioners implemented the program, which components they adapted, and which contextual factors they deemed relevant. METHODS: We collected data from primary care practices of medical specialists and general practitioners within Baden-Württemberg. Qualitative data was obtained through structured telephone interviews with participating and non-participating medical specialists as well as general practitioners cooperating with the program and general practitioners not cooperating. Interviews were analyzed through content-structuring qualitative content analyses via MAXQDA. Quantitative data was obtained using anonymous written questionnaires completed by participating and non-participating medical specialists as well as general practitioners cooperating with the program. Analyses were performed using SPSS Statistics, mainly with regard to differences within and between groups of physicians. RESULTS: Most components of the program regarding medical care were well implemented. However, access to medical care was not completely as intended due to high numbers of patients participating in the program and prioritization by physicians. Procedures for communication and cooperation between medical specialists and general practitioners were only partially adhered to and standardized communication was not implemented. A range of regional and practice-related contextual factors influenced implementation and outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Implementation of this program was mixed. Contextual factors posed individual challenges to participating physicians which can't be captured by an encompassing program. Both control mechanisms and tailoring of the program to medical care seem needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Though not a clinical study, we deemed registration appropriate to ensure transparency. The study has been registered as a non-interventional observation study at the German Clinical Trials Register under ID: DRKS00013070.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Clínicos Gerais/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/terapia , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Alemanha , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Programas de Assistência Gerenciada/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 31(6): 377-384, dic. 2019. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-185134

RESUMO

Objetivo. Analizar la evolución de las características epidemiológicas de las visitas atendidas de forma consecutiva en una unidad de dolor torácico (UDT) de un servicio de urgencias hospitalario (SUH) durante un periodo de 10 años. Método. Se incluyeron todas las visitas por dolor torácico no traumático (DTNT), analizándose la evolución temporal de las características epidemiológicas, de la clasificación diagnóstica inicial (evaluación clínica inicial y electrocardiograma) y final (al alta de la UDT), y los tiempos necesarios para alcanzar las mismas. Resultados. Se incluyeron 34.552 pacientes consecutivos con una edad media 59 (DE: 13) años, el 42% mujeres. Se observó un incrementó en el número anual de visitas a la UDT (p < 0,001), menor afluencia los meses de verano (p < 0,001), y mayor los días laborables (p < 0,001) y de 8-16 horas (p < 0,001). Se comprobó que progresivamente más pacientes eran mujeres (+0,29% anual, p < 0,05), menores de 50 años (+0,92%, p < 0,001), con más factores de riesgo cardiovascular, menos antecedentes de cardiopatía isquémica y con DTNT menos sugestivo de síndrome coronario agudo (SCA). La clasificación diagnóstica inicial y final descartó SCA en un 52,2% y un 80,4% de pacientes, respectivamente, hecho que aumentó progresivamente durante el periodo evaluado (+1,86%, p < 0,001; y +0,56%, p = 0,04; respectivamente). El tiempo de clasificación inicial no se modificó, pero se incrementó el necesario para la clasificación final (p < 0,001), que resultó superior en pacientes con diagnostico final de SCA (p < 0,001). Conclusión. Se observa un mayor uso de la UDT tras su creación, causado por un incremento de pacientes con DTNT de características no típicamente coronarias, disminuyendo el porcentaje de clasificados inicial y finalmente como debidos a SCA


Objective. To analyze changes in the characteristics of consecutively treated patients attended in the chest pain unit of a hospital emergency department over a 10-year period. Methods. All patients presenting with nontraumatic chest pain (NTCP) were included. We analyzed changes over time in epidemiologic characteristics, initial diagnostic classification (on clinical and electrocardiographic evaluation), final diagnosis (on discharge), and time until these diagnoses. Results. A total of 34 552 consecutive patients with a mean (SD) age of 59 (13) years were included; 42% were women. The annual number of visits rose over time. Visits were fewer in summer and more numerous on workdays and between the hours of 8 AM and 4 PM (P<.001, both comparisons). The number of women increased over time (up 0.29% annually, P<.05) as did the number of patients under the age of 50 years (up 0.92% annually, P<.001). With time, patients had fewer cardiovascular risk factors and less often had a history of ischemic heart disease. Fewer cases of NTCP had signs suggestive of acute coronary syndrome (ACS). ACS was ruled out at the time of initial and final diagnoses in 52.2% and 80.4%, respectively, and these percentages which rose over the 10-year period by 1.86% (P<.001) and 0.56% (P=.04). Time to initial diagnosis did not change. However, time to final diagnosis did increase (P<.001), and the delay was longer in patients diagnosed with ACS (P<.001). Conclusions. The chest pain unit was more active at the end of the period, in keeping with the increase in patients with NTCP whose characteristics were not typical of coronary disease. The percentages of patients initially and finally diagnosed with ACS decreased with time


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Dor no Peito/epidemiologia , Serviços Médicos de Emergência , Síndrome Coronariana Aguda/epidemiologia , Métodos Epidemiológicos , Assistência Ambulatorial/organização & administração , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio sem Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Infarto do Miocárdio com Supradesnível do Segmento ST , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Análise de Variância
12.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 305, 2019 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711478

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patient-centered culturally sensitive health care (PC-CSHC) has emerged as a primary approach to health care. This care focuses on the cultural diversity of the patients rather than the views of the health care professionals. PC-CSHC enables the patient to feel comfortable, respected, and trusted in the health care delivery process. As users of traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) rarely inform their conventional health care providers of such use, the providers need to identify the users of T&CM themselves to avoid negative interaction with conventional medicine and to be able to provide them with PC-CSHC. Since the patterns of traditional medicine (TM) use are different to those of complementary medicine (CM), the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence, and the health- and sociodemographic associations for visits to TM- and CM providers in an urban population. METHOD: The data were collected through two self-administrated questionnaires from the seventh survey of the Tromsø Study, a population-based cohort study conducted in 2015-2016. All inhabitants of Tromsø aged 40 or above were invited (n = 32,591) and n = 21,083 accepted the invitation (response rate 65%). Pearson chi-square tests and one-way ANOVA tests were used to describe differences between the groups whereas binary logistic regressions were used for adjusted values. RESULTS: The results revealed that 2.5% of the participants had seen a TM provider, 8.5% had seen a CM provider whereas 1% had visited both a TM and a CM provider during a 12-month period. TM users tended to be older, claim that religion was more important to them, have poorer economy and health, and have lower education compared to CM users. We found that more than 90% of the participants visiting T&CM providers also used conventional medicine. CONCLUSION: A considerable number of the participants in this study employed parallel health care modalities including visits to conventional, traditional, and complementary medicine providers. To offer patient-centered culturally sensitive health care that is tailored to the patients' treatment philosophy and spiritual needs, conventional health care providers need knowledge about, and respect for their patients' use of parallel health care systems.


Assuntos
Terapias Complementares/psicologia , Medicina Tradicional/psicologia , Pacientes/psicologia , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial/psicologia , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Terapias Complementares/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pacientes/estatística & dados numéricos , Prevalência , Religião , Confiança
13.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765528

RESUMO

The article presents technique of calculation of the planned volume of outpatient care consumed by population of the subject of the Russian Federation considering demographic structure and level of morbidity. The formulas are presented developed for calculating financial costs of outpatient care and treatment in day hospital to be included into of mandatory health insurance program.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial , Pacientes Ambulatoriais , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Demografia , Humanos , Seguro Saúde , Morbidade , Federação Russa
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 831, 2019 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718635

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Managing demand for services is a problem in many areas of healthcare, including specialist medical outpatient clinics. Some of these clinics have long waiting lists with variation in access for referred people. A model of triage and appointment allocation has been developed and tested that has reduced waiting times by about a third in community outpatient services. This study aims to determine whether the model can be applied in the setting of a specialist medical outpatient clinic to reduce wait time from referral to first appointment. METHODS: A pre-post study will collect data before and after implementing the Specific Timely Appointments for Triage (STAT) model of access and triage. The study will incorporate a pre-implementation period of 12 months, an implementation period of up to 6 months and a post STAT-implementation period of 6 months. The setting will be the epilepsy clinic at a metropolitan health service in Melbourne. Included will be all people referred to the clinic, or currently waiting, during the allocated periods of data collection (total sample estimated n = 975). Data routinely collected by the health service and qualitative data from staff will be analysed to determine the effects of introducing the STAT model. The primary outcome will be wait time, measured by number of patients on the wait list at monthly time points and the mean number of days waited from referral to first appointment. Secondary outcomes will include patient outcomes, such as admission to hospital while waiting, and service outcomes, including rate of discharge. Analysis of the primary outcome will include interrupted time series analysis and simple comparisons of the pre and post-implementation periods. Process evaluation will include investigation of the fidelity of the intervention, adaptations required and qualitative analysis of the experiences of clinic staff. DISCUSSION: Prompt access to service and optimum patient flow is important for patients and service providers. Testing the STAT model in a specialist medical outpatient clinic will add to the evidence informing service providers and policy makers about how the active management of supply and demand in health care can influence wait times. The results from this study may be applicable to other specialist medical outpatient clinics, potentially improving access to care for many people.


Assuntos
Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Assistência Ambulatorial , Triagem , Listas de Espera , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Agendamento de Consultas , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Triagem/organização & administração
15.
Ann Saudi Med ; 39(5): 354-358, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31580713

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Measuring both serum amylase and lipase in the setting of acute pancreatitis is not recommended and monitoring changes in amylase and lipase levels after diagnostic results is of little added value. The extent of the two types of superfluous amylase/lipase testing at our institution is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Explore the extent of superfluous amylase/lipase testing. DESIGN: Medical record review. SETTINGS: Tertiary care, teaching hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all amylase and lipase tests performed over a recent 12-month period. Amylase tests were considered superfluous if they were ordered with lipase tests at the same time or if they were repeated after diagnostic amylase results. They were considered questionably superfluous if they were repeated alone after non-diagnostic amylase results. Lipase tests were considered superfluous if they were repeated after diagnostic lipase results and questionably superfluous if they were repeated after non-diagnostic lipase results. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and percentage of lipase and amylase tests that were superfluous or questionably superfluous. SAMPLE SIZE: 23 950. RESULTS: Superfluous testing was identified in 30.6% of 23 950 amylase/lipase tests and questionably superfluous testing in 12.4%. Of the 7330 superfluous tests, 94.8% were due to simultaneous amylase/lipase testing and 5.2% to repeated lipase testing after diagnostic results. The rate of superfluous and questionably superfluous testing was significantly higher in the inpatient setting compared to emergency department or outpatient settings ( P<.0001). Of the 6483 amylase tests obtained simultaneously with non-diagnostic lipase tests, only 36 (0.6%) showed a diagnostic result. Furthermore, only 0.7% and 3.6% of amylase tests that were repeated after normal and borderline results, respectively, were diagnostic and 1.1% and 9.3% of lipase tests that were repeated after normal and borderline results, respectively, were diagnostic. CONCLUSIONS: About one third of amylase/lipase testing appears to be superfluous, mainly due to simultaneous amylase/lipase testing. Since only 0.6% of simultaneous amylase/lipase tests showed diagnostic amylase with non-diagnostic lipase levels, quality improvement initiatives should be directed at reducing this low-value practice. Repeating amylase/lipase tests following normal results is of little value. LIMITATIONS: Clinical notes and imaging studies were not reviewed. CONFLICT OF INTEREST: None.


Assuntos
Amilases/sangue , Lipase/sangue , Pancreatite/diagnóstico , Procedimentos Desnecessários/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Ensino , Humanos , Pancreatite/sangue , Estudos Retrospectivos , Centros de Atenção Terciária
16.
Health Serv Res ; 54(6): 1305-1315, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31571222

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is relative consensus that chronic conditions, disability, and time-to-death are key drivers of age-related health care expenditures. In this paper, we analyze the specific impact of frailty transitions on a wide range of health care outcomes comprising hospital, ambulatory care, and dental care use. DATA SOURCE: Five regular waves of the SHARE survey collected between 2004 and 2015. STUDY DESIGN: We estimate dynamic panel data models on the balanced panel (N = 6078; NT = 30 390 observations). Our models account for various sources of selection into frailty, that is, observed and unobserved time-varying and time-invariant characteristics. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We confirm previous evidence showing that frailty transitions have a statistically significant and positive impact on hospital use. We find new evidence on ambulatory and dental care use. Becoming frail has greater impact on specialist compared to GP visit, and frail elderly are less likely to access dental care. CONCLUSIONS: By preventing transitions toward frailty, policy planners could prevent hospital and ambulatory care uses. Further research is needed to investigate the relationship between frailty and dental care by controlling for reverse causation.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Odontológica/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoas com Deficiência/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso Fragilizado/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 706, 2019 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619234

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the increasing burden of diabetes in Uganda, little is known about the quality of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) care especially in rural areas. Poor quality of care is a serious limitation to the control of diabetes and its complications. This study assessed the quality of care and barriers to service delivery in two rural districts in Eastern Uganda. METHODS: This was a mixed methods cross-sectional study, conducted in six facilities. A randomly selected sample of 377 people with diabetes was interviewed using a pre-tested interviewer administered questionnaire. Key informant interviews were also conducted with diabetes care providers. Data was collected on health outcomes, processes of care and foundations for high quality health systems. The study included three health outcomes, six elements of competent care under processes and 16 elements of tools/resources and workforce under foundations. Descriptive statistics were computed to determine performance under each domain, and thematic content analysis was used for qualitative data. RESULTS: The mean age of participants was 49 years (±11.7 years) with a median duration of diabetes of 4 years (inter-quartile range = 2.7 years). The overall facility readiness score was 73.9%. Inadequacies were found in health worker training in standard diabetes care, availability of medicines, and management systems for services. These were also the key barriers to provision and access to care in addition to lack of affordability. Screening of clients for blood cholesterol and microvascular complications was very low. Regarding outcomes; 56.8% of participants had controlled blood glucose, 49.3% had controlled blood pressure; and 84.0% reported having at least one complication. CONCLUSION: The quality of T2DM care provided in these rural facilities is sub-optimal, especially the process of care. The consequences include sub-optimal blood glucose and blood pressure control. Improving availability of essential medicines and basic technologies and competence of health workers can improve the care process leading to better outcomes.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/normas , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Adulto , Assistência Ambulatorial/normas , Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Tardio , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/diagnóstico , Medicamentos Essenciais , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/normas , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Recursos em Saúde , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Saúde da População Rural , Uganda
18.
Asia Pac J Public Health ; 31(6): 499-509, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31516035

RESUMO

The purpose of this study was to determine whether the introduction of diagnosis-related groups (DRGs) shifted the medical services from inpatient to outpatient settings. Using a difference-in-difference analysis, the changes in length of stay, outpatient visit days within 30 days before hospitalization, and outpatient visit days within 30 days after hospital discharge were evaluated. The length of stay was reduced after the DRG policy, consistent with previous studies. Outpatient visit days within 30 days before a hospital admission increased significantly after the policy change. In addition, outpatient visit days within 30 days after a hospital discharge increased in all the medical institutions excluding hospitals. The study findings are consistent with the expectation that providers respond to changes in the payment system to protect or enhance their economic interests. Health care providers in Korea responded to the DRG policy by reducing the intensity of inpatient treatment and transferring costs to outpatient settings.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Diagnósticos Relacionados , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Revisão da Utilização de Seguros , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , República da Coreia
19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 668, 2019 Sep 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31533716

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In England, people of Black Caribbean (BC) ethnicity are disproportionately affected by sexually transmitted infections (STI). We examined whether differences in sexual healthcare behaviours contribute to these inequalities. METHODS: We purposively selected 16 sexual health clinics across England with high proportions of attendees of BC ethnicity. During May-September 2016, attendees at these clinics (of all ethnicities) completed an online survey that collected data on health service use and sexual behaviour. We individually linked these data to routinely-collected surveillance data. We then used multivariable logistic regression to compare reported behaviours among BC and White British/Irish (WBI) attendees (n = 627, n = 1411 respectively) separately for women and men, and to make comparisons by gender within these ethnic groups. RESULTS: BC women's sexual health clinic attendances were more commonly related to recent bacterial STI diagnoses, compared to WBI women's attendances (adjusted odds ratio, AOR 3.54, 95% CI 1.45-8.64, p = 0.009; no gender difference among BC attendees), while BC men were more likely than WBI men (and BC women) to report attending because of a partner's symptoms or diagnosis (AOR 1.82, 95% CI 1.14-2.90; AOR BC men compared with BC women: 4.36, 95% CI 1.42-13.34, p = 0.014). Among symptomatic attendees, BC women were less likely than WBI women to report care-seeking elsewhere before attending the sexual health clinic (AOR 0.60, 95% CI 0.38-0.97, p = 0.039). No ethnic differences, or gender differences among BC attendees, were observed in symptom duration, or reporting sex whilst symptomatic. Among those reporting previous diagnoses with or treatment for bacterial STI, no differences were observed in partner notification. CONCLUSIONS: Differences in STI diagnosis rates observed between BC and WBI ethnic groups were not explained by the few ethnic differences which we identified in sexual healthcare-seeking and use. As changes take place in service delivery, prompt clinic access must be maintained - and indeed facilitated - for those at greatest risk of STI, regardless of ethnicity.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/etnologia , Idoso , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Estudos Transversais , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/etnologia , Assunção de Riscos , Fatores Sexuais , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
20.
Med Care ; 57(10): 788-794, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest the newly Medicaid insured are more likely to use the emergency department (ED) however they did not differentiate between patients established or not established with primary care. OBJECTIVES: To understand where Oregon Medicaid beneficiaries sought care after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) Medicaid expansion (ED, primary care, or specialist) and the interaction between primary care establishment and outpatient care utilization. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Adults continuously insured from 2014 through 2015 who were either newly, returning, or continuously insured post-PPACA. MEASURES: Site of first and last outpatient visit, established with primary care status, and outpatient care utilization. RESULTS: The odds of being established with primary care at their first visit were lower among newly [odds ratio (OR), 0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.19] and returning insured (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.22-0.23) than the continuously insured. Continuously insured, new patients with primary care had higher odds of visiting the ED (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 2.01-2.30) at their first visit than newly or returning insured. Patients established with a single primary care provider in all insurance groups had lower rates of ED visit, whereas those established with multiple primary care providers had the highest ED visit rates. CONCLUSIONS: Most newly and returning insured Medicaid enrollees sought primary care rather than ED services and most became established with primary care. Our findings suggest that both insurance and primary care continuity play a role in where patients seek health care services.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
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