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1.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 478, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493275

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We piloted an educational intervention that aimed to enhance awareness about nutrition-age-related macular degeneration (AMD) links among practising and student dietitians then expanded the scope of this intervention to include general eye health, which was delivered to pharmacy students. METHODS: A pilot intervention was conducted in 2019 at the Dietitians Australia Conference (Gold Coast, Australia) where practising and student dietitians underwent a 2-hour small group educational workshop on nutrition and AMD links. Pre-post questionnaires were administered to participants, with voluntary completion of both questionnaires an indicator of consent to participate in the intervention. The primary intervention outcome was a change in AMD-related nutrition knowledge pre-post intervention. A larger intervention was then conducted at the University of Sydney (Sydney, Australia) where pharmacy students underwent a 4-hour educational module to improve general eye health knowledge, as well as student perceptions and attitudes towards a pharmacists' role in low vision care. Similarly, pre-post questionnaires were administered, with voluntary completion of both questionnaires an indicator of consent to participate in the intervention. The primary intervention outcomes were changes in total knowledge, total perception and total attitude scores pre-post intervention. RESULTS: (1) Among 10 accredited and 5 student dietitians, there was significant overall knowledge improvement (mean pre-post score: 7.07 ± 1.94 vs. 10.8 ± 1.01, p = 0.001) specifically around appropriate dietary advice, food sources of key AMD-related nutrients, and awareness of supplements. (2) Among 179 second-year pharmacy students enrolled in the 'Pharmacy Practice' Unit of Study (Bachelor of Pharmacy, University of Sydney), total eye health knowledge (6.25 ± 1.93 vs. 6.64 ± 2.0; p = 0.011) significantly improved, along with total perception scores (41.54 ± 5.26 vs. 42.45 ± 4.95; p = 0.004). Total attitude scores were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: The pilot intervention improved relevant nutrition-AMD knowledge among practising/student dietitians. The modified intervention for pharmacy students also significantly improved general eye health knowledge as well as students' perception of a pharmacists' role in low vision care.


Assuntos
Dietética , Educação em Farmácia , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácia , Estudantes de Farmácia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários
2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 945, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503501

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slums or informal settlements characterize most large cities in LMIC. Previous evidence suggests pharmacies may be the most frequently used source of primary care in LMICs but that pharmacy services are of variable quality. However, evidence on pharmacy use and availability is very limited for slum populations. METHODS: We conducted household, individual, and healthcare provider surveys and qualitative observations on pharmacies and pharmacy use in seven slum sites in four countries (Nigeria, Kenya, Pakistan, and Bangladesh). All pharmacies and up to 1200 households in each site were sampled. Adults and children were surveyed about their use of healthcare services and pharmacies were observed and their services, equipment, and stock documented. RESULTS: We completed 7692 household and 7451 individual adults, 2633 individual child surveys, and 157 surveys of pharmacies located within the seven sites. Visit rates to pharmacies and drug sellers varied from 0.1 (Nigeria) to 3.0 (Bangladesh) visits per person-year, almost all of which were for new conditions. We found highly variable conditions in what constituted a "pharmacy" across the sites and most pharmacies did not employ a qualified pharmacist. Analgesics and antibiotics were widely available but other categories of medications, particularly those for chronic illness were often not available anywhere. The majority of pharmacies lacked basic equipment such as a thermometer and weighing scales. CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacies are locally and widely available to residents of slums. However, the conditions of the facilities and availability of medicines were poor and prices relatively high. Pharmacies may represent a large untapped resource to improving access to primary care for the urban poor.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Adulto , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Estudos Retrospectivos
3.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e046630, 2021 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404698

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: A collaborative service initiative involving community pharmacists and a specialist mental health pharmacist was developed to provide pharmacist reviews for care home residents with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This study aimed to characterise the medicines and lifestyle risk outcomes of the service and determine how these align with national priority issues in ID. DESIGN: Descriptive statistical analysis of routinely collected service delivery data. SETTING: Residential care homes in the Wirral, England for people with ID. PARTICIPANTS: 160 residents. INTERVENTIONS: Pharmacist review of residents' medicines and lifestyle risk factors between November 2019 and May 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Numbers of medicines prescribed, the nature of pharmacists' interventions/recommendations and general practitioner (GP)/psychiatrist acceptance. RESULTS: The 160 residents were prescribed 1207 medicines, 74% were prescribed ≥5 medicines and 507 interventions/recommendations were made, averaging 3.3 per resident. The highest proportion (30.4%) were lifestyle risk related, while changing and stopping medicines accounted for 17.9% and 12.8%, respectively. Of the recommendations discussed with GPs/psychiatrists, 86% were accepted. Medicines with anticholinergic properties were prescribed for 115 (72%) residents, of whom 43 (37%) had a high anticholinergic burden score. Pharmacists recommended anticholinergic discontinuation or dose reduction for 28 (24%) residents. The pharmacists made interventions/recommendations about constipation management for 10% of residents and about respiratory medicines for 17 (81%) of the 21 residents with respiratory diagnoses. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicate considerable polypharmacy among the residents and a high level of pharmacists' interventions/recommendations about medicines and lifestyle risk, most of which were accepted by GPs/psychiatrists. This included anticholinergic burden reduction and improving respiratory disease and constipation management, which are national priority issues. Wider adoption of collaborative pharmacist review models could have similar benefits for residential populations with ID and potentially reduce pressure on other health services.


Assuntos
Deficiência Intelectual , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácia , Humanos , Deficiência Intelectual/tratamento farmacológico , Estilo de Vida , Farmacêuticos
4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360162

RESUMO

Clear role descriptions promote the quality of interprofessional collaboration. Currently, it is unclear to what extent healthcare professionals consider pharmaceutical care (PC) activities to be nurses' responsibility in order to obtain best care quality. This study aimed to create and evaluate a framework describing potential nursing tasks in PC and to investigate nurses' level of responsibility. A framework of PC tasks and contextual factors was developed based on literature review and previous DeMoPhaC project results. Tasks and context were cross-sectionally evaluated using an online survey in 14 European countries. A total of 923 nurses, 240 physicians and 199 pharmacists responded. The majority would consider nurses responsible for tasks within: medication self-management (86-97%), patient education (85-96%), medication safety (83-95%), monitoring adherence (82-97%), care coordination (82-95%), and drug monitoring (78-96%). The most prevalent level of responsibility was 'with shared responsibility'. Prescription management tasks were considered to be nurses' responsibility by 48-81% of the professionals. All contextual factors were indicated as being relevant for nurses' role in PC by at least 74% of the participants. No task nor contextual factor was removed from the framework after evaluation. This framework can be used to enable healthcare professionals to openly discuss allocation of specific (shared) responsibilities and tasks.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Assistência Farmacêutica , Estudos Transversais , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Farmacêuticos
5.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 458, 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34461882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The major goals of pharmaceutical care (PC) are to improve the patient's quality of life and ensure safety of pharmacotherapy. Inclusion of a pharmacist in the multidisciplinary team caring for the patient and integration of state-of-the-art pharmaceutical services with medical care and nursing are some of the most important challenges that the health care system in Poland is facing. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the pharmacists attitudes towards practice in, and knowledge of PC in Poland and to identify the barriers in PC provision. METHODS: The study was designed as a multicenter study, conducted among Polish pharmacists. Random sampling technique was employed to select the study group. Face-to-face questionnaire method was used to interview the pharmacists, upon obtaining their prior verbal consent to participate in the study. The study was conducted between January 2017 and September 2019. RESULTS: Only 15% of the pharmacists have ever attended a training on PC. 72% believed PC provision was necessary to ensure pharmacotherapy safety. Only 63% of the pharmacists believed that preventing and solving health-related and drug therapy problems for patients were their responsibilities. The main reason for non-provision of PC by the pharmacists was the lack of time for such activities, lack of legal regulations, lack of organizational facilities. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that implementation of PC is expected in Poland. Educational programs in this respect are urgently needed. PC provision should be included in the curricula of academic pharmaceutical courses.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmacêuticos , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Polônia , Papel Profissional , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360423

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the pharmacy workforce is the third largest professional healthcare group worldwide, the pharmacy workforce landscape remains unclear in post-conflict areas in sub-Saharan Africa. METHOD: Key informants were selected for semi-structured interviews due to their role in providing pharmacy services in the selected country: the Central African Republic (CAR), the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, and South Sudan. Transcripts from the interviews were anonymized, coded, and analyzed. RESULTS: Nine participants were recruited (CAR: 2; DRC: 2; Ethiopia: 2; South Sudan: 3), and all except two were pharmacists. Conflict-specific challenges in pharmacy service delivery were identified as the following: unpredictable health needs and/or mismatched pharmaceutical supply, transport difficulties due to insecure roads, and shortage of pharmacy workforce due to brain drain or interrupted schooling. Barriers to health workforce retention and growth were identified to be brain drain as a result of suboptimal living and working conditions or remuneration, the perception of an unsafe work environment, and a career pathway or commitment duration that does not fit the diaspora or expatriate staff. CONCLUSION: To tackle the barriers of pharmacy health workforce retention and growth, policy solutions will be required and efforts that can bring about long-term improvement should be prioritized. This is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the targets of the sustainable development goals for conflict affected areas, as well as to "leave no one behind".


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmácia , Etiópia , Humanos , Recursos Humanos
7.
Nurse Educ Today ; 104: 104926, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34274774

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Nurses play an important role in pharmaceutical care. They are involved in: detecting clinical change; communicating/discussing pharmacotherapy with patients, their advocates, and other healthcare professionals; proposing and implementing medication-related interventions; and ensuring follow-up of patients and medication regimens. To date, a framework of nurses' competences on knowledge, skills, and attitudes as to interprofessional pharmaceutical care tasks is missing. OBJECTIVES: To reach agreement with experts about nurses' competences for tasks in interprofessional pharmaceutical care. METHODS: A two-phase study starting with a scoping review followed by five Delphi rounds was performed. Competences extracted from the literature were assessed by an expert panel on relevance by using the RAND/UCLA method. The experts (n = 22) involved were healthcare professionals, nurse researchers, and educators from 14 European countries with a specific interest in nurses' roles in interprofessional pharmaceutical care. Descriptive statistics supported the data analysis. RESULTS: The expert panel reached consensus on the relevance of 60 competences for 22 nursing tasks. Forty-one competences were related to 15 generic nursing tasks and 33 competences were related to seven specific nursing tasks. CONCLUSIONS: This study resulted in a competence framework for competency-based nurse education. Future research should focus on imbedding these competences in nurse education. A structured instrument should be developed to assess students' readiness to achieve competence in interprofessional pharmaceutical care in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Assistência Farmacêutica , Competência Clínica , Técnica Delfos , Europa (Continente) , Humanos , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199519

RESUMO

Pharmaceutical care necessitates significant efforts from patients, informal caregivers, the interprofessional team of health care professionals and health care system administrators. Collaboration, mutual respect and agreement amongst all stakeholders regarding responsibilities throughout the complex process of pharmaceutical care is needed before patients can take full advantage of modern medicine. Based on the literature and policy documents, in this position paper, we reflect on opportunities for integrated evidence-based pharmaceutical care to improve care quality and patient outcomes from a nursing perspective. Despite the consensus that interprofessional collaboration is essential, in clinical practice, research, education and policy-making challenges are often not addressed interprofessionally. This paper concludes with specific advises to move towards the implementation of more interprofessional, evidence-based pharmaceutical care.


Assuntos
Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Assistência Farmacêutica , Comportamento Cooperativo , Humanos , Relações Interprofissionais , Assistência ao Paciente , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203663

RESUMO

Unaddressed hearing loss affects an estimated 466 million people worldwide, costing over $750 billion globally, with rural communities being particularly disadvantaged, due to the greater inequity in access to healthcare services. This mixed-methods study aimed to use the PRECEDE-PROCEED model to develop and pilot a rural community pharmacy-based ear health service, LISTEN UP (Locally Integrated Screening and Testing Ear aNd aUral Program). The PRECEDE process involved an assessment of the predisposing, reinforcing and enabling constructs to support practice change through a scoping review, stakeholder surveys and interviews and consultation with governing bodies and regulatory authorities. The PROCEED segment structured the evaluation of the service pilot and informed planned implementation, process, impact and outcome evaluation. The pilot study conducted in February 2021 included 20 participants, with the most common ear complaints presented being pain, pressure or blockage. All these participants reported high levels of satisfaction with the service, would recommend the service to others and would attend the pharmacy first before seeing a GP for future ear complaints. The PRECEDE-PROCEED model provides a comprehensive model to guide the design of the LISTEN UP program, an innovative model, expanding services offered by rural community pharmacies, with preliminary results demonstrating high consumer satisfaction.


Assuntos
Serviços Comunitários de Farmácia , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmácia , Serviços de Saúde Rural , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Projetos Piloto , População Rural
10.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(4): 270-274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297687

RESUMO

In this article, we provide an example of an effective novel therapy plan (the Stanley Protocol) that compounders can offer or use as a template for other services to grow their pharmacy practice, expand their role in patient care, and provide essential assistance for prescribers. We also share our successful consultative strategy for marketing that plan, which consists of several elements: identifying a treatment vacancy in underserved populations, changing the paradigm of compounding services, developing strategies that reach target populations, and dedicating the time and effort necessary to implement those strategies. Since we introduced the Stanley Protocol to prescribers and patients in 2020, our compounding practice has grown substantially in a number of aspects, which we describe in detail in this article. We also provide 2 formulations that have proven effective in treating Protocol patients.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Composição de Medicamentos , Humanos , Marketing , Populações Vulneráveis
11.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 169-159, jul. 29, 2021. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282998

RESUMO

Introducción. La diabetes mellitus tipo 2 genera un incremento de riesgo de daño, tanto a nivel microvascular como a nivel macrovascular, lo que da lugar a una disminución en la calidad de vida. En años recientes ha habido numerosos esfuerzos por implementar intervenciones de atención farmacéutica para mejorar el control y evitar la progresión de esta enfermedad. Objetivo. Conocer el efecto de las intervenciones de atención farmacéutica en el control glicémico de pacientes ambulatorios con diabetes mellitus tipo 2. Metodología. Se efectuaron búsquedas en Medline y en Cochrane Registro Central de Ensayos Controlados para obtener ensayos controlados aleatorios que evaluaran la efectividad de las intervenciones de atención farmacéutica provistas por farmacéuticos comunitarios, clínicos u hospitalarios, dirigidas a pacientes con diabetes mellitus tipo 2 a nivel ambulatorio, en comparación con la atención habitual. Resultados. En el grupo de intervención, la disminución en la diferencia media neta de hemoglobina glicosilada fue estadísticamente significativa en 27 estudios, pues el rango osciló entre 0.4 % y 3.3 %; en 14 estudios, dicha disminución fue estadísticamente significativa y superior o igual a 1 %. En cuanto a la disminución en la diferencia media neta mostrada en el cambio de hemoglobina glicosilada, desde el inicio hasta el final del seguimiento, entre el grupo de intervención y el grupo control, fue significativa en 22 estudios y el rango osciló entre 0.3 y 2.3 %. Conclusión. Las evidencias recopiladas demuestran el efecto significativo que tienen las intervenciones de atención farmacéutica en la mejora del control glicémico de pacientes ambulatorios con diabetes mellitus tipo 2


Introduction. Type 2 diabetes mellitus generates an increased risk of damage, both at the microvascular and macrovascular levels, which leads to a decrease in the quality of life. In recent years there have been numerous efforts to implement pharmaceutical care interventions to improve control and prevent progression of this disease. Target. To know the effect of pharmaceutical care interventions on glycemic control in outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methodology. Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for randomized controlled trials evaluating the effectiveness of pharmaceutical care interventions provided by community, clinical or hospital pharmacists, targeting patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus at the outpatient level, in compared to usual care. Results. In the intervention group, the decrease in the mean net difference in glycosylated hemoglobin was statistically significant in 27 studies, since the range ranged between 0.4% and 3.3%; in 14 studies, this decrease was statistically significant and greater than or equal to 1%. Regarding the decrease in the net mean difference shown in the change in glycosylated hemoglobin, from the beginning to the end of the follow-up, between the intervention group and the control group, it was significant in 22 studies and the range ranged between 0.3 and 2.3 %. Conclution. The evidence collected demonstrates the significant effect that pharmaceutical care interventions have in improving glycemic control in outpatients with type 2 diabetes mellitus


Assuntos
Humanos , Assistência Farmacêutica , Hemoglobina A Glicada , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Atenção
12.
Med J Aust ; 215(3): 125-129, 2021 08 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34109641

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the perspectives of doctors involved with voluntary assisted dying in Victoria regarding the Voluntary Assisted Dying Act 2017 (Vic) and its operation. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Qualitative study; semi-structured interviews with 32 doctors who had participated in the voluntary assisted dying system during its first year of operation (commenced 19 June 2019). Doctors were interviewed during April-July 2020. RESULTS: Three major themes related to problems during the first year of operation of the Act were identified: the statutory prohibition of health professionals initiating discussions with their patients about voluntary assisted dying; the Department of Health and Human Services guidance requirement that all doctor-patient, doctor-pharmacist, and pharmacist-patient interactions be face-to-face; and aspects of implementation, including problems with the voluntary assisted dying online portal, obtaining documentary evidence to establish eligibility, and inadequate resourcing of the Statewide Pharmacy Service. CONCLUSIONS: Doctors reported only limited concerns about the Victorian voluntary assisted dying legislation, but have had some problems with its operation, including implications for the accessibility of voluntary assisted dying to eligible patients. While legislative change may resolve some of these concerns, most can be ameliorated by improving the processes and systems.


Assuntos
Definição da Elegibilidade/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoal de Saúde/ética , Relações Médico-Paciente/ética , Médicos/psicologia , Suicídio Assistido/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Definição da Elegibilidade/ética , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência Farmacêutica/economia , Farmacêuticos/ética , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Vitória/epidemiologia
13.
J Subst Abuse Treat ; 129: 108372, 2021 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34080543

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study is to assess community pharmacists' attitudes and experiences related to naloxone dispensation and counseling in non-urban areas in New York State to better understand individual and structural factors that influence pharmacy provision of naloxone. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study conducted interviewer-administered semistructured surveys among community pharmacists in retail, independent, and supermarket pharmacies between October 2019 and December 2019. The 29-item survey ascertained pharmacists' demographic and practice characteristics; experiences and beliefs related to naloxone dispensation; and attitudes toward expansion of pharmacy services to include on-site public health services for persons who use opioids. The study used Chi square tests to determine associations between each characteristic and self-reported naloxone dispensation (any vs. none). RESULTS: A total of 60 of the 80 community pharmacists that the study team had approached agreed to participate. A majority were supportive of expanding pharmacy-based access to vaccinations (93.3%), on-site HIV testing, or referrals (75% and 96.7%, respectively), providing information on safe syringe use (93.3%) and disposal (98.3%), and referrals to medical/social services (88.3%), specifically substance use treatment (90%). A majority of pharmacist respondents denied negative impacts on business with over half reporting active naloxone dispensation (58.3%). Pharmacists dispensing naloxone were more likely to be multilingual (p < 0.03), and to specifically support on-site HIV testing (p < 0.02) than those who were not dispensing naloxone. DISCUSSION: Community pharmacists were highly favorable of naloxone dispensation in rural and small metro area pharmacies in NY, and those fluent in additional language(s) and supportive of on-site HIV testing were associated with active naloxone dispensation. While active naloxone dispensation was low, pharmacists appear supportive of a "frontline public health provider" model, which could facilitate naloxone uptake and warrants large-scale investigation. CONCLUSION: Rural and small metro area pharmacists are generally favorable of naloxone dispensation.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmácia , Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Naloxona , New York , Farmacêuticos , Saúde Pública
14.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(7): 357, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144726

RESUMO

The Pharmacy and Medically Underserved Areas Enhancement Act, better known as the pharmacist provider status act, has been introduced in Congress in both the House of Representatives and the Senate The bill would reimburse pharmacists for Medicare Part B-covered services within their state authorized scope of practice if performed in areas recognized as being medically underserved. Paul Baldwin debates the likeliness of the bill's passage.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmácia , Idoso , Humanos , Medicare , Farmacêuticos , Estados Unidos
15.
Cad Saude Publica ; 37(5): e00112920, 2021.
Artigo em Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133637

RESUMO

This article aimed to assess the municipal administration in the promotion of rational use of medicines in cities with 100,000 inhabitants or more in the State of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The study began with the adaptation of an assessment model consisting of 28 indicators, analyzing the development of activities in promotion of rational use of medicines through the educational, structural, administrative, and operational dimensions of pharmaceutical care. Data collection used an online questionnaire, tested and validated, through a virtual platform, sending a link to the respondent's e-mail address. The value judgment considered the predefined categories in the judgment matrix, oriented by normative parameters, a literature review, and inter-expert agreements. Of the 11 municipalities assessed, four were classified as "fair" and the other as "bad", presenting deficiencies in the four analytical dimensions. The best result was seen in the administrative dimension. A critical scenario appeared in promotion of rational use of medicines, highlighting deficiencies in training health workers, inadequate infrastructure, shortage of human resources, flaws in patient safety management, and difficulties in the execution of pharmaceutical care. In conclusion, important challenges need to be overcome to guarantee appropriate drug prescriptions, timely access, adequate drug dispensing, and correct use of medication by the population.


Assuntos
Preparações Farmacêuticas , Assistência Farmacêutica , Brasil , Cidades , Humanos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde
16.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 6: CD013566, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34114643

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Medical abortion is usually offered in a clinic or hospital, but could potentially be offered in other settings such as pharmacies. In many countries, pharmacies are a common first point of access for women seeking reproductive health information and services. Offering medical abortion through pharmacies is a potential strategy to improve access to abortion. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effectiveness and safety of medical abortion offered in pharmacy settings with clinic-based medical abortion. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, four other databases, two trials registries and grey literature websites in November 2020. We also handsearched key references and contacted authors to locate unpublished studies or studies not identified in the database searches. SELECTION CRITERIA: We identified studies that compared women receiving the same regimen of medical abortion or post-abortion care in either a clinic or pharmacy setting. Studies published in any language employing the following designs were included: randomized trials and non-randomized studies including a comparative group. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently reviewed both retrieved abstracts and full-text publications. A third author was consulted in case of disagreement. We intended to use the Cochrane risk of bias tool, RoB 2, for randomized studies and used the ROBINS-I tool (Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies of Interventions) to assess risk of bias in non-randomized studies. GRADE methodology was used to assess the certainty of the evidence. The primary outcomes were completion of abortion without additional intervention, need for blood transfusion, and presence of uterine or systemic infection within 30 days of medical abortion. MAIN RESULTS: Our search yielded 2030 records. We assessed a total of 89 full-text articles for eligibility. One prospective cohort study met our inclusion criteria. The included study collected data on outcomes from 605 women who obtained a medical abortion in Nepal from either a clinic or pharmacy setting. Both sites of care were staffed by the same auxiliary nurse midwives. Over all domains, the risk of bias was judged to be low for our primary outcome. During the pre-intervention period, the study's investigators identified a priori appropriate confounders, which were clearly measured and adjusted for in the final analysis. For women who received medical abortion in a pharmacy setting, compared to a clinic setting, there may be little or no difference in complete abortion rates (adjusted risk difference (RD)) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.8 to 3.8; 1 study, 600 participants; low certainty evidence). The study reported no cases of blood transfusion, and a composite outcome, comprised mainly of infection complications, showed there may be little or no difference between settings (adjusted RD 0.8, 95% CI -1.0 to 2.8; 1 study, 600 participants; very low certainty evidence). The study reported no events for hospital admission for an abortion-related event or need for surgical intervention, and there may be no difference in women reporting being highly satisfied with the facility where they were seen (38% pharmacy versus 34% clinic, P = 0.87; 1 study, 600 participants; low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Conclusions about the effectiveness and safety of pharmacy provision of medical abortion are limited by the lack of comparative studies. One study, judged to provide low certainty evidence, suggests that the effectiveness of medical abortion may not be different between the pharmacy and clinic settings. However, evidence for safety is insufficient to draw any conclusions, and more research on factors contributing to potential differences in quality of care is needed. It is important to note that this study included a care model where a clinician provided services in a pharmacy, not direct provision of care by pharmacists or pharmacy staff. Three ongoing studies are potentially eligible for inclusion in review updates. More research is needed because pharmacy provision could expand timely access to medical abortion, especially in settings where clinic services may be more difficult to obtain. Evidence is particularly limited on the patient experience and how the care process and quality of services may differ across different types of settings.


Assuntos
Aborto Induzido/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência Farmacêutica/estatística & dados numéricos , Aborto Induzido/efeitos adversos , Aborto Induzido/normas , Viés , Feminino , Humanos , Nepal/epidemiologia , Satisfação do Paciente , Assistência Farmacêutica/normas , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecção Puerperal/epidemiologia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 17(8): 1396-1406, 2021 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34165083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As pharmacy evolves, pharmacy professionals continue to struggle to practice to their full scope. A theoretically-informed intervention to change practice can support pharmacy professionals in providing full scope services. The Theoretical Domains Framework (TDF) can inform the design of a behaviour change intervention to improve the uptake of full scope services among pharmacy professionals. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to: (1) identify barriers and facilitators influencing the adoption of full scope services among pharmacy professionals, and (2) identify optimal behaviour change techniques (BCTs) to address the identified barriers and facilitators. METHODS: A three-step, mixed method study was conducted. First, a 24-item TDF-based survey was sent via email to users of a national computer-based educational platform (n = 2696). Second, TDF-based interviews were conducted with a convenient sample of survey respondents and analyzed using the framework method. Finally, validated linkages were used to link BCTs with corresponding barriers and facilitators, then interview data were analyzed using a deductive approach to guide the selection of the BCTs. RESULTS: A total of 225 participants completed the survey and 24 telephone interviews were conducted (17 pharmacists, 7 pharmacy technicians). A number of key barriers were identified on an individual level (e.g., lack of clear professional identity and limited decision-making skills in ambiguous cases) and on an organizational level (e.g., lack of social support from managers and concerns about making more errors with the current workflow). Mapping the barriers and facilitators to BCTs yielded 18 BCTs to support the adoption of full scope services, including modeling, rehearsal/practice, and social support. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlighted several barriers that need to be addressed to facilitate pharmacy professionals working to their full scope, including professional collaboration, professional identity, and adequate training. A comprehensive intervention combining skills training with modeling, social support, and decision-making tools could encourage practice change.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmácia , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Apoio Social
18.
Int J Pharm Compd ; 25(3): 190-195, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125708

RESUMO

Risk, which can come from various sources, is the exposure to loss or injury. Included, but not limited to common risks associated by business owners, are natural disasters, accidents, legal liabilities, weather-related events, and criminal activities. Specific to pharmacy is professional liability risk, including physical harm to a patient. This article provides an understanding of some of the risks faced by business owners and pharmacists, transferal of risk to another entity such as an insurance company, and an understanding of the insurance policy itself.


Assuntos
Seguro , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmácia , Humanos , Responsabilidade Legal , Farmacêuticos
19.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(6): 311-316, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016228

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of pharmacist-led transitions of care program on 30-day readmission rates in the accountable care organization (ACO) primary care setting. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two primary care provider (PCP) offices with an ACO in South Florida. PATIENTS, PARTICIPANTS: Adult Medicare patients who completed a post-discharge follow-up visit at two primary care offices within an ACO from July to December 2017. INTERVENTIONS: To supplement postdischarge visits with a PCP, the pharmacy services were also provided two days per week with a PCP. The comparator groups were patients who only saw a PCP or those who saw a PCP and pharmacist. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: The primary outcome was hospital readmission or emergency department visit within 30 days. RESULTS: A total of 190 subjects were included. There were 113 patients in the PCP group and 77 patients in the PCP/pharmacist group. There was a reduction in the primary outcome when comparing the PCP-only versus PCP/pharmacist groups (6.2% versus 3.9%; P = 0.74). CONCLUSION: Involving pharmacists in patient transitions of care in the primary care setting may be beneficial as previous studies have demonstrated. Further studies evaluating pharmacy services in emerging health care models are needed in order to most effectively utilize the expertise of the pharmacy team.


Assuntos
Organizações de Assistência Responsáveis , Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácia , Assistência ao Convalescente , Idoso , Florida , Humanos , Medicare , Alta do Paciente , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(6): 317, 2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34016229

RESUMO

Emerging from a year-long crisis offers us a fresh stimulus to reflect on the pharmacy profession and the challenges that lie ahead. Industry observers have long noted the limited value of the dispensing function, and some have predicted that it will ultimately succumb to automation. Pharmacists have been jealous guardians of the professional role of pharmacists in overseeing the dispensing of prescription drugs, but the economics may eventually dictate that the process can safely be turned over to machines.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Farmácias , Farmácia , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional
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