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1.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 997, 2020 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129316

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A minority of individuals use a large portion of health system resources, incurring considerable costs, especially in acute-care hospitals where a significant proportion of deaths occur. We sought to describe and contrast the characteristics, acute-care use and cost in the last year of life among high users and non-high users who died in hospitals across Canada. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective-cohort study of Canadian adults aged ≥18 who died in hospitals across Canada between fiscal years 2011/12-2014/15. High users were defined as patients within the top 10% of highest cumulative acute-care costs in each fiscal year. Patients were categorized as: persistent high users (high-cost in death year and year prior), non-persistent high users (high-cost in death year only) and non-high users (never high-cost). Discharge abstracts were used to measure characteristics and acute-care use, including number of hospitalizations, admissions to intensive-care-unit (ICU), and alternate-level-of-care (ALC). RESULTS: We identified 191,310 decedents, among which 6% were persistent high users, 41% were non-persistent high users, and 46% were non-high users. A larger proportion of high users were male, younger, and had multimorbidity than non-high users. In the last year of life, persistent high users had multiple hospitalizations more often than other groups. Twenty-eight percent of persistent high users had ≥2 ICU admissions, compared to 8% of non-persistent high users and only 1% of non-high users. Eleven percent of persistent high users had ≥2 ALC admissions, compared to only 2% of non-persistent high users and < 1% of non-high users. High users received an in-hospital intervention more often than non-high users (36% vs. 19%). Despite representing only 47% of the cohort, persistent and non-persistent high users accounted for 83% of acute-care costs. CONCLUSIONS: High users - persistent and non-persistent - are medically complex and use a disproportionate amount of acute-care resources at the end of life. A greater understanding of the characteristics and circumstances that lead to persistently high use of inpatient services may help inform strategies to prevent hospitalizations and off-set current healthcare costs while improving patient outcomes.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos , Assistência Terminal , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Cuidados Críticos/economia , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/economia , Humanos , Pacientes Internados , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/economia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Alta do Paciente , Estudos Retrospectivos , Assistência Terminal/economia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 130, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33193945

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has strained health care systems beyond capacity resulting in many people not having access to life-sustaining measures even in well-resourced countries. Palliative and end-of-life care are therefore essential to alleviate suffering and ensure a continuum of care for patients unlikely to survive. This is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa where lack of trained teams on basic palliative care and reduced access to opioids limit implementation of palliative and end-of-life care. At the same time, health care providers have to cope with local cultural conceptions of death and absence of advance care directives.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Diretivas Antecipadas , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Analgésicos Opioides/provisão & distribução , Analgésicos Opioides/uso terapêutico , Atitude Frente a Morte , Barreiras de Comunicação , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Cultura , Acesso aos Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Insuficiência Respiratória/tratamento farmacológico , Insuficiência Respiratória/etiologia , Insuficiência Respiratória/mortalidade , Estigma Social , Assistência Terminal/psicologia
4.
FP Essent ; 498: 11-20, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166102

RESUMO

As the health status of patients living with multiple chronic conditions declines, these patients experience a variety of symptoms (eg, respiratory, gastrointestinal, psychological symptoms; overall symptoms of decline; and pain). Respiratory symptoms can include dyspnea, cough, and excessive upper respiratory tract secretions. Gastrointestinal symptoms can include nausea and vomiting, constipation, and malignant bowel obstruction. Overall symptoms include anorexia, cachexia, and fatigue. Psychological symptoms may manifest as depression, anxiety, or delirium. For patients with chronic pain and progressive disease, it is important to identify the etiology and type of pain (ie, visceral, somatic, neuropathic) because management differs. An evaluation of total pain should consider the various domains of suffering, including physical, psychological, and spiritual suffering. It is imperative to attempt to identify the underlying causes of the symptoms and address it if possible. It also is important to relieve symptoms using nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic approaches. In patients unable to self-report symptoms, family members and/or caregivers can provide insight into the condition of the patient.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Assistência Terminal , Dispneia/etiologia , Dispneia/terapia , Humanos , Náusea/terapia , Cuidados Paliativos , Vômito/terapia
5.
FP Essent ; 498: 21-25, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166103

RESUMO

Because of their longstanding relationships with patients, family physicians often are in the best position to identify signs of serious illness progression, provide support and guidance to patients and caregivers, and tailor care plans to individual needs and preferences at the end of life. Significant signs of illness progression include worsening of one or more conditions, decline in function, and increase in the number of emergency department visits or hospitalizations. Prognostication refers to estimation of the remaining life expectancy. Several tools are available to inform such estimates. Prognostication should include discussion of the expected illness progression to help patients and family members prepare, plan, and cope. Advance care planning, ideally started before or early in the course of illness, should include identification of patient surrogate decision-makers as well as a discussion of patient values, priorities, and care preferences. Planning should continue and evolve to inform care plans that match patient and family member priorities at each stage of illness. Family physicians should be familiar with resources available in their communities to support care plans, including palliative care subspecialists, home- and facility-based palliative care teams, and hospice physicians.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Assistência Terminal , Família , Humanos , Cuidados Paliativos
6.
FP Essent ; 498: 26-31, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166104

RESUMO

Hospice care consists of palliative care provided at the end of life that provides comprehensive comfort care for patients and support for family members. This includes medical care, pain management, and emotional and spiritual support tailored to patient needs and wishes. Eligibility rules require a physician to determine that the prognosis for the patient involves an estimated life expectancy of 6 months or less if the illness runs its expected course. Family physicians can be key partners in helping patients and family members transition when hospice care best matches patient goals. Hospice care is delivered by an interdisciplinary team, including family physicians, physician medical directors, nurses, social workers, counselors, home health aides, and trained volunteers. Although most hospice care is delivered in the home of the patient, it also may be provided in long-term care facilities, hospice facilities, and in the hospital when needed for symptom control. Hospice care has been associated with better symptom relief, better achievement of patient end-of-life wishes, and higher overall rating of quality of end-of-life care compared with standard care. Family physicians have the ideal skills to manage and coordinate patient hospice care needs.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Assistência Terminal , Família , Humanos , Manejo da Dor , Cuidados Paliativos
7.
FP Essent ; 498: 32-36, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166105

RESUMO

Medical aid in dying (MAID) is a practice in which a physician provides a competent adult with a terminal illness with a prescription for a lethal dose of a drug at the request of the patient, which the patient intends to use to end his or her life. MAID currently is legal in nine states and the District of Columbia. The most common concerns leading to requests for MAID include loss of autonomy, loss of ability to participate in activities that make life enjoyable, and loss of dignity. MAID remains controversial. Physicians can choose not to participate in MAID and many are prohibited from participating by their employers. Family physicians should have the knowledge and skills to respond to inquiries about MAID in a compassionate, patient-centered manner. Clinicians should be familiar with the legal status of MAID in the state in which they practice, understand eligibility requirements for participation, have access to resources to support patients and clinicians, and be able to apply various communication strategies to MAID discussions. A thoughtful exploration of what led the patient to inquire about MAID will allow the physician to better understand and respond to patient concerns regarding the final months of life.


Assuntos
Cuidados Paliativos na Terminalidade da Vida , Suicídio Assistido , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos
9.
J Assoc Physicians India ; 68(11): 61-65, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33187039

RESUMO

India, being home to one -sixth of the world's population has a huge burden of suffering from life limiting diseases. It is estimated that in India the total no. of people who need palliative care (PC)is likely to be 5.4 million people a year. Though PC was introduced nearly 30 years ago, it is still in its infancy with less than 1% of patients having access to PC. India ranks at the bottom of the Quality Of Death Index in overall score. Obstacles are too many and not only include factors like population density, poverty, geographical density, restrictive policies regarding opioid prescription, workforce development at base level but also limited national PC policy and lack of institutional interest in palliative care. However there has been a steady progress in the past few years through community owned PC services. South Indian state of Kerala which has 3% of Indian population, stands out in terms of achieving coverage of palliative care. On the national level recent years saw several palpable changes including the creation of a National Programme for Palliative care and also the Parliament amended India's cumbersome Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act (NDPS) thus overcoming many of the legal barriers to opioid access. Initially WHO and now the IAPC has taken over the responsibility of spreading the message of palliative care in India, but we still have a long way to go. Education of the professionals and sensitization of the public through awareness campaigns are vitals for improving access to PC in India. Process of implementing PC plan into action requires strong Advocacy, political support and integration across all levels of care.


Assuntos
Assistência Terminal , Humanos , Índia , Cuidados Paliativos
10.
Med Klin Intensivmed Notfmed ; 115(8): 649-653, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001219

RESUMO

The development of intensive care medicine started over more than 50 years. Effective organ system support for ventilation initially and subsequently for circulation, nutrition and renal function resulted in improved outcomes in patients with a variety of severe medical conditions. One of the unfortunate consequences of this development was that it did not allow dying or prolonged the dying process and without the possibility of recovery to a quality of life acceptable to the patients. The early realization of this dilemma ultimately led to broad ethical discussions concerning withholding and withdrawal of curative therapies in intensive care units, and introducing palliative care.


Assuntos
Qualidade de Vida , Assistência Terminal , Cuidados Críticos , Tomada de Decisões , Ética Médica , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Cuidados Paliativos , Suspensão de Tratamento
13.
BMC Med Educ ; 20(1): 377, 2020 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092586

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus pandemic has exerted significant impacts on primary care, causing rapid digital transformation, exacerbating social isolation, and disrupting medical student and General Practice [GP] trainee education. Here we report on a medical student telephone initiative set-up by a final year GP trainee (the equivalent of a family medicine resident), which aimed to support patients at high risk and vulnerable to the Coronavirus Disease of 2019 [Covid-19]. In addition, it was hoped the project would mitigate a digital divide, enable proactive anticipatory planning, and provide an active learning environment to compensate for the pandemic's impact on medical education. METHODS: Thirty-three medical students conducted daily telephone conversations with high risk and vulnerable patients as specified by the initial NHSE published lists. They confirmed public health messages, offered details for voluntary support groups, established need for medication delivery, explored levels of digital connectivity, and prompted discussions around end-of-life choices. Students had access to online reflective resources and daily remote debriefing sessions with the GP trainee. A convergent mixed-methods evaluation was subsequently undertaken, using quantitative process and descriptive data and individual qualitative interviews were conducted according to a maximal variation sampling strategy with students, General Practitioners [GPs], and the GP trainee. Inductive thematic analysis was then applied with cross-validation, respondent validation, and rich evidential illustration aiding integrity. RESULTS: Ninety-seven 'high risk' and 781 'vulnerable' calls were made. Individuals were generally aware of public heath information, but some struggled to interpret and apply it within their own lives. Therefore respondents felt students provided additional practical and psychological benefits, particularly with regard to strengthening the links with the community voluntary groups. The project was widely liked by students who reported high levels of skill development and widened awareness, particularly valuing the active learning environment and reflective feedback sessions. CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates utilization of medical students as wider assets within the primary health care team, with an initiative that enables support for vulnerable patients whilst promoting active medical education. Ongoing integration of students within 'normal' primary health care roles, such as chronic disease or mental health reviews, could provide similar opportunities for supported active and reflective learning.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudantes de Medicina , Exclusão Digital , Educação Médica/métodos , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Pandemias , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Telefone , Assistência Terminal , Reino Unido , Populações Vulneráveis
16.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(44): e22743, 2020 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33126312

RESUMO

Strategies to increase appropriateness of EoL care, such as shared decision making (SDM), and advance care planning (ACP) are internationally embraced, especially since the COVID-19 pandemic. However, individuals preferences regarding EoL care may differ internationally. Current literature lacks insight in how preferences in EoL care differ between countries and continents. This study's aim is to compare Dutch and Japanese general publics attitudes and preferences toward EoL care, and EoL decisions. Methods: a cross-sectional survey design was chosen. The survey was held among samples of the Dutch and Japanese general public, using a Nationwide social research panel of 220.000 registrants in the Netherlands and 1.200.000 in Japan. A quota sampling was done (age, gender, and living area). N = 1.040 in each country.More Japanese than Dutch citizens tend to avoid thinking in advance about future situations of dependence (26.0% vs 9.4%; P = .000); say they would feel themselves a burden for relatives if they would become dependent in their last phase of life (79.3% vs 47.8%; P = .000); and choose the hospital as their preferred place of death (19.4% vs 3.6% P = .000). More Dutch than Japanese people say they would be happy with a proactive approach of their doctor regarding EoL issues (78.0% vs 65.1% JPN; P = .000).Preferences in EoL care substantially differ between the Netherlands and Japan. These differences should be taken into account a) when interpreting geographical variation in EoL care, and b) if strategies such as SDM or ACP - are considered. Such strategies will fail if an international "one size fits all" approach would be followed.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adulto , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238357, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027265

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Palliative care is nowadays essential in nursing care, due to the increasing number of patients who require attention in the final stages of their life. Lack of knowledge of and negative attitude palliative care among nurses is one of the most common barriers to quality palliative care. This study, therefore, aimed to assess nurses' knowledge about palliative care and attitude toward end-of-life care in public hospitals in Wollega zones, Ethiopia. METHODS: A multicenter institutional-based cross-sectional study design was employed to collect data from 372 nurses working in public hospitals in Wollega zones from October 02-22, 2019. A self-administered questionnaire with three different parts: Demographic characteristics of nurses, the Palliative Care Quiz for Nursing (PCQN), and the Frommelt Attitudes Towards Care of the Dying (FATCOD). SPSS version 21 was used for analysis used for data analysis. The binary logistic regression test was used for analysis at p < 0.05. FINDINGS: Our final sample size was 422 nurses (response rate = 88%). With the mean total PCQN scores (9.34), the majority of them showed an inadequate level of knowledge about palliative care. The mean total FATCOD scores (79.58) displayed a positive attitude toward end-of-life care, with 52% of respondents eager to care for a dying person and their family. Nurses who had PC service experience [AOR = 1.94 CI (1.10-3.42), p = 0.02] and had ever attended training/lecture on PC [AOR = 1.87 CI (1.01-3.46), p = 0.04] were independently associated with nurses' knowledge about PC. Similarly, nurses who had no PC service experience [AOR = 0.41, CI (0.21-0.79), p = 0.008], who read articles/brochures about PC [AOR = 1.94, CI (1.11-3.39), p = 0.01] and had provided care for a smaller number of terminally ill patients [AOR = 1.74, CI (1.01-2.97), p = 0.04] were significantly associated with nurses' attitude towards end-of-life care. CONCLUSION: The study highlighted that nurses' knowledge about palliative care is inadequate, and showed a less favorable attitude toward end-of-life care. The findings also provide evidence for greater attentions and resources should be directed towards educating and supporting nurses caring for patients with palliative care needs in Wollega Zones.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Cuidados Paliativos , Assistência Terminal , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Educação em Enfermagem , Etiópia , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Hospitais Públicos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem/psicologia , Cuidados Paliativos/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
19.
Br J Nurs ; 29(17): 1044-1045, 2020 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32972231

RESUMO

Lauren Oliver, formerly Clinical Nurse Advisor, NHS Nightingale North West, outlines the challenges faced by staff in providing good-quality end-of-life care for patients in a temporary hospital during the initial peak of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Hospitais Estaduais , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Assistência Terminal/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Recursos Humanos em Hospital/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Estatal/organização & administração , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
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