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1.
N C Med J ; 82(1): 57-61, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33397758

RESUMO

Four in 10 COVID-19 cases and deaths in North Carolina have occurred in long-term care facilities. The virus has contributed to increased health complications and financial stressors for recipients of long-term care services and supports and their caregivers, negatively affecting the quality of care received and contributing to already existing social isolation.


Assuntos
Cuidadores , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , North Carolina
2.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 113: 103781, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33080475

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The acute nature of COVID-19 and its effects on society in terms of social distancing and quarantine regulations affect the provision of palliative care for people with dementia who live in long-term care facilities. The current COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge to nursing staff, who are in a key position to provide high-quality palliative care for people with dementia and their families. OBJECTIVE: To formulate practice recommendations for nursing staff with regard to providing palliative dementia care in times of COVID-19. DESIGN AND METHOD: A rapid scoping review following guidelines from the Joanna Briggs Institute. Eligible papers focused on COVID-19 in combination with palliative care for older people or people with dementia and informed practical nursing recommendations for long-term care facilities. After data extraction, we formulated recommendations covering essential domains in palliative care adapted from the National Consensus Project's Clinical Practice Guidelines for Quality Palliative Care. DATA SOURCES: We searched the bibliographic databases of PubMed, CINAHL and PsycINFO for academic publications. We searched for grey literature using the search engine Google. Moreover, we included relevant letters and editorials, guidelines, web articles and policy papers published by knowledge and professional institutes or associations in dementia and palliative care. RESULTS: In total, 23 documents (7 (special) articles in peer-reviewed journals, 6 guides, 4 letters to editors, 2 web articles (blogs), 2 reports, a correspondence paper and a position paper) were included. The highest number of papers informed recommendations under the domains 'advance care planning' and 'psychological aspects of care'. The lowest number of papers informed the domains 'ethical care', 'care of the dying', 'spiritual care' and 'bereavement care'. We found no papers that informed the 'cultural aspects of care' domain. CONCLUSION: Literature that focuses specifically on palliative care for people with dementia in long-term care facilities during the COVID-19 pandemic is still largely lacking. Particular challenges that need addressing involve care of the dying and the bereaved, and ethical, cultural and spiritual aspects of care. Moreover, we must acknowledge grief and moral distress among nursing staff. Nursing leadership is needed to safeguard the quality of care and nursing staff should work together within an interprofessional care team to initiate advance care planning conversations in a timely manner, to review and document advance care plans, and to adapt goals of care as they may change due to the COVID-19 situation. Tweetable abstract: The current COVID-19 pandemic affects people living with dementia, their families and their professional caregivers. This rapid scoping review searched for academic and grey literature to formulate practical recommendations for nursing staff working in long-term care facilities on how to provide palliative care for people with dementia in times of COVID-19. There is a particular need for grief and bereavement support and we must acknowledge grief and moral distress among nursing staff. This review exposes practice and knowledge gaps in the response to COVID-19 that reflect the longstanding neglect and weaknesses of palliative care in the long-term care sector. Nursing leadership is needed to safeguard the quality of palliative care, interprofessional collaboration and peer support among nursing staff.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Demência/enfermagem , Casas de Saúde/organização & administração , Enfermagem Prática , Cuidados Paliativos/organização & administração , Idoso , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , /isolamento & purificação
4.
BMC Med ; 18(1): 386, 2020 12 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287821

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term care facilities (LTCFs) are vulnerable to outbreaks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Timely epidemiological surveillance is essential for outbreak response, but is complicated by a high proportion of silent (non-symptomatic) infections and limited testing resources. METHODS: We used a stochastic, individual-based model to simulate transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) along detailed inter-individual contact networks describing patient-staff interactions in a real LTCF setting. We simulated distribution of nasopharyngeal swabs and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests using clinical and demographic indications and evaluated the efficacy and resource-efficiency of a range of surveillance strategies, including group testing (sample pooling) and testing cascades, which couple (i) testing for multiple indications (symptoms, admission) with (ii) random daily testing. RESULTS: In the baseline scenario, randomly introducing a silent SARS-CoV-2 infection into a 170-bed LTCF led to large outbreaks, with a cumulative 86 (95% uncertainty interval 6-224) infections after 3 weeks of unmitigated transmission. Efficacy of symptom-based screening was limited by lags to symptom onset and silent asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic transmission. Across scenarios, testing upon admission detected just 34-66% of patients infected upon LTCF entry, and also missed potential introductions from staff. Random daily testing was more effective when targeting patients than staff, but was overall an inefficient use of limited resources. At high testing capacity (> 10 tests/100 beds/day), cascades were most effective, with a 19-36% probability of detecting outbreaks prior to any nosocomial transmission, and 26-46% prior to first onset of COVID-19 symptoms. Conversely, at low capacity (< 2 tests/100 beds/day), group testing strategies detected outbreaks earliest. Pooling randomly selected patients in a daily group test was most likely to detect outbreaks prior to first symptom onset (16-27%), while pooling patients and staff expressing any COVID-like symptoms was the most efficient means to improve surveillance given resource limitations, compared to the reference requiring only 6-9 additional tests and 11-28 additional swabs to detect outbreaks 1-6 days earlier, prior to an additional 11-22 infections. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 surveillance is challenged by delayed or absent clinical symptoms and imperfect diagnostic sensitivity of standard RT-PCR tests. In our analysis, group testing was the most effective and efficient COVID-19 surveillance strategy for resource-limited LTCFs. Testing cascades were even more effective given ample testing resources. Increasing testing capacity and updating surveillance protocols accordingly could facilitate earlier detection of emerging outbreaks, informing a need for urgent intervention in settings with ongoing nosocomial transmission.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Assistência de Longa Duração/organização & administração , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
5.
J Can Dent Assoc ; 86: k10, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33326368

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Residents of long-term care (LTC) facilities face many oral health challenges, which are often complicated by their underlying medical conditions, use of medications and limited access to oral health care. OBJECTIVE: To determine to what extent accredited university-based dental and dental hygiene programs in Canada prepare students in the areas of geriatric oral health and oral health of LTC residents. METHODS: Accredited dental and dental hygiene programs across Canada were assessed for the degree of education and training that is presented to students on the oral health of LTC residents. A survey questionnaire, emailed to programs, was used to gather descriptive statistics (frequencies, means and standard deviations), and bivariate analysis (χ2 and t tests) was completed. A p value ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: Representatives of all 4 dental hygiene and 9 out of 10 dental schools responded. All four dental hygiene and seven dental programs (77.8%, 7/9) stated that geriatric oral health is an integral part of their curriculum. The majority (91.6% [11/12], 4 dental hygiene and 7 of 9 dental schools) reported that their program educates students about medically, physically and cognitively compromised geriatric patients. Eight programs (3 dental hygiene and 5 dental schools), stated that they provide clinical training opportunities with LTC residents. However, some programs reported certain barriers preventing them from providing such clinical training opportunities. CONCLUSION: Oral health educational institutions must ensure that curricula are current and evidence-based to reflect the overall oral health needs of today's aging population.


Assuntos
Assistência de Longa Duração , Saúde Bucal , Idoso , Canadá , Currículo , Humanos , Estudantes de Odontologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 20834, 2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257703

RESUMO

Since December 2019, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has spread from China all over the world and many COVID-19 outbreaks have been reported in long-term care facilities (LCTF). However, data on clinical characteristics and prognostic factors in such settings are scarce. We conducted a retrospective, observational cohort study to assess clinical characteristics and baseline predictors of mortality of COVID-19 patients hospitalized after an outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 infection in a LTCF. A total of 50 patients were included. Mean age was 80 years (SD, 12 years), and 24/50 (57.1%) patients were males. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 32%. At Cox regression analysis, significant predictors of in-hospital mortality were: hypernatremia (HR 9.12), lymphocyte count < 1000 cells/µL (HR 7.45), cardiovascular diseases other than hypertension (HR 6.41), and higher levels of serum interleukin-6 (IL-6, pg/mL) (HR 1.005). Our study shows a high in-hospital mortality rate in a cohort of elderly patients with COVID-19 and hypernatremia, lymphopenia, CVD other than hypertension, and higher IL-6 serum levels were identified as independent predictors of in-hospital mortality. Given the small population size as major limitation of our study, further investigations are necessary to better understand and confirm our findings in elderly patients.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Cardiovasculares/complicações , China/epidemiologia , Síndrome da Liberação de Citocina/patologia , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Hipernatremia/complicações , Interleucina-6/sangue , Linfopenia/complicações , Masculino , Casas de Saúde , Fatores de Risco
7.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 56(6): 106219, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33189890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to report the results of SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based screening campaigns conducted on dependent elderly residents (compared with staff members) in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) in Marseille, France, and the follow-up of positive cases. METHODS: Data from 1691 elderly residents and 1000 members of staff were retrospectively collected through interviewing the medical teams in 24 LTCFs and using the hospitals' electronic health recording systems. RESULTS: Elderly residents were predominantly female (64.8%) with a mean age of 83.0 years. SARS-CoV-2 detection among residents (226, 13.4%) was significantly higher than among staff members (87, 8.7%) (P < 0.001). Of the 226 infected residents, 37 (16.4%) were detected on a case-by-case basis due to their COVID-19 symptoms and 189 (83.6%) were detected through mass screening. Most (77.0%) had possible COVID-19 symptoms, including respiratory symptoms and signs (44.5%) and fever (46.5%); 23.0% were asymptomatic. A total of 116 (51.4%) patients received a course of oral hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin (HCQ-AZM) for ≥ 3 days; 47 (20.8%) died. Through multivariate analysis, the death rate was positively associated with being male (30.7% vs. 14.0%, OR = 3.95, P = 0.002), aged > 85 years (26.1% vs. 15.6%, OR = 2.43, P = 0.041) and receiving oxygen therapy (39.0% vs. 12.9%, OR = 5.16, P < 0.001) and negatively associated with being diagnosed through mass screening (16.9% vs. 40.5%, OR = 0.20, P= 0.001) and receiving HCQ-AZM treatment ≥ 3 days (15.5% vs. 26.4%, OR = 0.37, P = 0.02). CONCLUSION: The high proportion of asymptomatic COVID-19 patients and independent factors for mortality suggest that early diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 patients in LTCFs may be effective in saving lives.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Azitromicina/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/administração & dosagem , Assistência de Longa Duração , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Dis Colon Rectum ; 63(9): 1302-1309, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33216499

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Discharge to nonhome settings after colorectal resection may increase risk of hospital readmission. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of various discharge dispositions on 30-day readmission after adjusting for confounding demographic and clinical factors. DESIGN: This was a retrospective cohort study. SETTINGS: Data were obtained from the University HealthSystem Consortium (2011-2015). PATIENTS: Adults who underwent elective colorectal resection were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Thirty-day hospital readmission risk was measured. RESULTS: The mean age of the study population (n = 97,455) was 58 years; half were men and 78% were white. Seventy percent were discharged home routinely (home without service), 24% to home with organized health services, 5% to skilled nursing facility, 1% to rehabilitation facility, and <1% to long-term care hospital. Overall rate of readmission was 12%; 9% from home without service, 16% from home with organized home health services, 19% from skilled nursing facility, 34% from rehabilitation facility, and 22% from long-term care hospital (p < 0.001). Patients with an intensive care unit stay, more postoperative complications, and longer hospitalization stay were more likely to be discharged to home with organized home health services or to a facility (p < 0.001). Discharge to home with organized home health services, skilled nursing facility, or rehabilitation facility increased multivariable-adjusted readmission risk by 30% (OR = 1.3 (95% CI, 1.3-1.6)), 60% (OR = 1.6 (95% CI, 1.5-1.8)), or 200% (OR = 3.0 (95% CI, 2.5-3.6)). Discharge to long-term care hospital was not associated with higher adjusted readmission risk (OR = 1.2 (95% CI, 0.9-1.6)), despite this group having the highest comorbidity and postoperative complications. Among patients readmitted within 30 days, median time to readmission was significantly different among home without service (n = 7), home with organized home health services (n = 8), skilled nursing facility (n = 8), rehabilitation facility (n = 9), and long-term care hospital (n = 12; p < 0.001). LIMITATIONS: This study was limited by its retrospective nature. CONCLUSIONS: Discharge to home with organized home health services, skilled nursing facility, or rehabilitation facility, but not long-term care hospital, is associated with increased adjusted risk of readmission compared with routine home discharge. Potential targets to decrease readmission include improving transition of care at discharge, improving quality of care after discharge, and improving facility resources. See Video Abstract at http://links.lww.com/DCR/B272. NO TODAS LAS CONFIGURACIONES DE ALTA SON IGUALES: RIESGOS DE READMISIÓN A 30 DÍAS DESPUÉS DE CIRUGÍA COLORRECTAL ELECTIVA: El alta hospitalaria hacia el domicilio luego de una resección colorrectal puede aumentar el riesgo de readmisión.Determinar el impacto de varias configuraciones diferentes de alta en la readmisión a 30 días luego de ajustar factores demográficos y clínicos.Estudio de cohortes retrospectivo.Los datos se obtuvieron del Consorcio del Sistema de Salud Universitaria (2011-2015).Todos aquellos adultos que se sometieron a una resección colorrectal electiva.Los riesgos de readmisión hospitalaria a 30 días.La edad media de la población estudiada (n = 97,455) fué de 58 años; la mitad eran hombres y un 78% eran blancos. El 70% fueron dados de alta de manera rutinaria (a domicilio sin servicios complementarios), 24% alta a domicilio con servicios de salud organizados, 5% alta hacia un centro con cuidados de enfermería especializada, 1% alta hacia un centro de rehabilitación y <1% alta hacia un hospital con atención a largo plazo. La tasa global de readmisión fué del 12%; nueve por ciento desde domicilios sin servicios complementarios, 16% desde domicilios con servicios de salud organizados, 19% desde un centro de enfermería especializada, 34% desde el centro de rehabilitación y 22% desde un hospital con atención a largo plazo (p <0.001). Los pacientes con estadías en Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos, con más complicaciones postoperatorias y con una hospitalización prolongada tenían más probabilidades de ser dados de alta hacia un domicilio con servicios de salud organizados o hacia un centro de rehabilitación (p <0,001). El alta hospitalaria con servicios organizados de atención médica domiciliaria, centros de enfermería especializada o centros de rehabilitación aumentaron el riesgo de readmisión ajustada de múltiples variables en un 30% (OR 1.3, IC 95% 1.3-1.6), 60% (OR 1.6, IC 95% 1.5-1.8), o 200% (OR 3.0, IC 95% 2.5-3.6), respectivamente. El alta hospitalaria a largo plazo no fué asociada con un mayor riesgo de readmisión ajustada (OR 1.2, IC 95% 0.9-1.6), no obstante que este grupo fué el que tuvo las mayores comorbilidades y complicaciones postoperatorias. Entre los pacientes readmitidos dentro de los 30 días, la mediana del tiempo hasta el reingreso fue significativamente diferente entre el domicilio sin servicios complementarios (7), domicilio con servicios de salud organizados (8), el centro de cuidados de enfermería especializada (8), centros de rehabilitación (9) y hospitales con atención a largo plazo (12) (p <0,001).Naturaleza retrospectiva del presente estudio.El alta hospitalaria con servicios de salud domiciliarios organizados, hacia centros de enfermería especializada o hacia centros de rehabilitación se asocian con un mayor riesgo ajustado de readmisión en comparación con el alta domiciliaria de rutina y los hospitales con atención a largo plazo. Los objetivos potenciales para disminuir la readmisión incluyen mejorar la transición de la atención al momento del alta, mejorar la calidad de la atención después del alta y mejorar las diferentes facilidades para los pacientes. Consulte Video Resumen en http://links.lww.com/DCR/B272.


Assuntos
Procedimentos Cirúrgicos do Sistema Digestório , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais de Reabilitação/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias Colorretais/cirurgia , Doença Diverticular do Colo/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/cirurgia , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistência de Longa Duração/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Geriatr Gerontol Int ; 20(12): 1112-1119, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33137849

RESUMO

Since the end of 2019, a life-threatening infectious disease (coronavirus disease 2019: COVID-19) has spread globally, and numerous victims have been reported. In particular, older persons tend to suffer more severely when infected with a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) and have higher case mortality rates; additionally, outbreaks frequently occur in hospitals and long-term care facilities where most of the residents are older persons. Unfortunately, it has been stated that the COVID-19 pandemic has caused a medical collapse in some countries, resulting in the depletion of medical resources, such as ventilators, and triage based on chronological age. Furthermore, as some COVID-19 cases show a rapid deterioration of clinical symptoms and accordingly, the medical and long-term care staff cannot always confirm the patient's values and wishes in time, we are very concerned as to whether older patients are receiving the medical and long-term care services that they wish for. It was once again recognized that it is vital to implement advance care planning as early as possible before suffering from COVID-19. To this end, in August 2020, the Japan Geriatrics Society announced ethical recommendations for medical and long-term care for older persons and emphasized the importance of conducting advance care planning at earlier stages. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2020; 20: 1112-1119.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Assistência de Longa Duração/ética , Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados/ética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , /mortalidade , Consenso , Tomada de Decisões/ética , Geriatria/normas , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Humanos , Japão , Pandemias/ética , Triagem/ética
10.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(5): 383-398, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174192

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In late 2012, Hurricane Sandy struck the eastern United States. Healthcare infrastructure in New York City-including long-term care facilities (LTCFs)-was affected significantly. The authors examined the impact of the storm on LTCFs 2 years after the event, using a qualitative approach consisting of a semistructured interview focused on preparedness and response. Important insights regarding preparedness and response may be lost by quantitative analysis or outcome measurement alone. During Sandy, individuals at LTCFs experienced the event in important subjective ways that, in aggregate, could lead to valuable insights about how facilities might mitigate future risks. The authors used data from a semistructured interview to generate hypotheses regarding the preparation and response of LTCFs. The interview tool was designed to help develop theories to explain why LTCF staff and administrators experienced the event in the way they did, and to use that data to inform future policy and research. METHODS: Representatives from LTCFs located in a heavily affected area of New York City were approached for participation in a semistructured interview. Interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed. Recurrent themes were coded based on time period (before, during, or after the storm) and content. A grounded theory approach was used to identify important themes related to the participants' experiences. RESULTS: A total of 21 interviews were conducted. Several overarching themes were identified, including a perception that facilities had not prepared for an event of such magnitude, of inefficient communication and logistics during evacuation, and of lack of easily identifiable or appropriate resources after the event. Access to electrical power emerged as a key identifier of recovery for most facilities. The experience had a substantial psychological impact on LTCF staff regardless of whether they evacuated or sheltered in place during the storm. CONCLUSION: Representatives from LTCFs affected by Sandy experienced the preparation, response, and recovery phases of the event with a unique perspective. Their insights offer evidence which can be used to generate testable hypothesis regarding similar events in the future, and can inform policy makers and facility administrators alike as they prepare for extreme weather events in similar settings. Results specifically suggest that LTCFs develop plans which carefully address the unique qualities of extreme weather events, including communication with local officials, evacuation and transfer needs in geographic areas with multiple facilities, and plans for the safe transfer of residents. Emergency managers at LTCFs should consider electrical power needs with the understanding that in extreme weather events, power failures can be more protracted than in other types of emergencies.


Assuntos
Pessoal Administrativo/psicologia , Tempestades Ciclônicas , Casas de Saúde , Atitude , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Estados Unidos
11.
Eur Geriatr Med ; 11(6): 899-913, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141405

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The European Geriatric Medicine Society (EuGMS) is launching a second interim guidance whose aim is to prevent the entrance and spread of COVID-19 into long-term care facilities (LTCFs). METHODS: The EuGMS gathered experts to propose a guide of measures to prevent COVID-19 outbreaks in LTCFs. It is based on the specific features of SARS-CoV-2 transmission in LTCFs, residents' needs, and on experiences conducted in the field. RESULTS: Asymptomatic COVID-19 residents and staff members contribute substantially to the dissemination of COVID-19 infection in LTCFs. An infection prevention and control focal point should be set up in every LTCF for (1) supervising infection prevention and control measures aimed at keeping COVID-19 out of LTCFs, (2) RT-PCR testing of residents, staff members, and visitors with COVID-19 symptoms, even atypical, and (3) isolating subjects either infected or in contact with infected subjects. When a first LCTF resident or staff member is infected, a facility-wide RT-PCR test-retest strategy should be implemented for detecting all SARS-CoV-2 carriers. Testing should continue until no new COVID-19 cases are identified. The isolation of residents should be limited as much as possible and associated with measures aiming at limiting its negative effects on their mental and somatic health status. CONCLUSIONS: An early recognition of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 may help to diagnose COVID-19 residents and staff more promptly. Subsequently, an earlier testing for SARS-CoV-2 symptomatic and asymptomatic LTCF staff and residents will enable the implementation of appropriate infection prevention and control. The negative effects of social isolation in residents should be limited as much as possible.


Assuntos
Geriatria , Assistência de Longa Duração , Instituições de Cuidados Especializados de Enfermagem , /diagnóstico , /terapia , Europa (Continente) , Geriatria/métodos , Geriatria/organização & administração , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração/classificação , Assistência de Longa Duração/métodos , Cuidados Paliativos , Pandemias , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa , Isolamento Social
12.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 439, 2020 10 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33129263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of older people are care dependent and live in nursing homes, which accounts for the majority of long-term-care spending. Specific medical conditions and resident characteristics may serve as risk factors predicting negative health outcomes. We investigated the association between the risk of increasing care need and chronic medical conditions among nursing home residents, allowing for the competing risk of mortality. METHODS: In this retrospective longitudinal study based on health insurance claims data, we investigated 20,485 older adults (≥65 years) admitted to German nursing homes between April 2007 and March 2014 with care need level 1 or 2 (according to the three level classification of the German long-term care insurance). This classification is based on required daily time needed for assistance. The outcome was care level change. Medical conditions were determined according to 31 Charlson and Elixhauser conditions. Competing risks analyses were applied to identify chronic medical conditions associated with risk of care level change and mortality. RESULTS: The probability for care level change and mortality acted in opposite directions. Dementia was associated with increased probability of care level change compared to other conditions. Patients who had cancer, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, cardiac arrhythmias, renal failure, chronic pulmonary disease, weight loss, or recent hospitalization were more likely to die, as well as residents with paralysis and obesity when admitted with care level 2. CONCLUSION: This paper identified risk groups of nursing home residents which are particularly prone to increasing care need or mortality. This enables focusing on these risk group to offer prevention or special treatment. Moreover, residents seemed to follow specific trajectories depending on their medical conditions. Some were more prone to increased care need while others had a high risk of mortality instead. Several conditions were neither related to increased care need nor mortality, e.g., valvular, cerebrovascular or liver disease, peripheral vascular disorder, blood loss anemia, depression, drug abuse and psychosis. Knowledge of functional status trajectories of residents over time after nursing home admission can help decision-makers when planning and preparing future care provision strategies (e.g., planning of staffing, physical equipment and financial resources).


Assuntos
Assistência de Longa Duração , Casas de Saúde , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Morbidade , Estudos Retrospectivos
13.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 448, 2020 11 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33148210

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reablement is a philosophy of change in long-term care (LTC). Assessing the knowledge and competence of LTC professionals who provide reablement services is vital in LTC research. This study aimed to develop a scale for the assessment of long-term care reablement literacy (LTCRL) and employ this scale to assess the performance of home care workers in Taiwan. METHODS: To develop this scale, we employed the modified Delphi technique based on the theoretical framework of health literacy and the content of service delivery in reablement. Home care workers from northern, central, and southern Taiwan were selected through purposive sampling (N = 119). Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire that included items related to basic demographic characteristics and questions to assess LTCRL. RESULTS: Based on the experts' consensus on the procedure of the modified Delphi technique, the LTCRL assessment sale consists of 29 questions on four aspects of knowledge acquisition: the abilities to access/obtain, understand, process/appraise, and apply/use. The results revealed that higher education levels and better Chinese language proficiency are associated with higher LTCRL outcomes among home care workers. CONCLUSIONS: The LTCRL assessment scale based on a modified Delphi technique is useful and feasible for evaluating LTCRL in home care workers who provide reablement services in Taiwan.


Assuntos
Letramento em Saúde , Serviços de Assistência Domiciliar , Visitadores Domiciliares , Humanos , Assistência de Longa Duração , Taiwan/epidemiologia
14.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 458, 2020 11 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33167897

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Among Canadian residents living in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and especially among those with limited ability to communicate due to dementia, pain remains underassessed and undermanaged. Although evidence-based clinical guidelines for the assessment and management of pain exist, these clinical guidelines are not widely implemented in LTC facilities. A relatively unexplored avenue for change is the influence that statutes and regulations could exert on pain practices within LTC. This review is therefore aimed at identifying the current landscape of policy levers used across Canada to assess and manage pain among LTC residents and to evaluate the extent to which they are concordant with evidence-based clinical guidelines proposed by an international consensus group consisting of both geriatric pain and public policy experts. METHODS: Using scoping review methodology, a search for peer-reviewed journal articles and government documents pertaining to pain in Canadian LTC facilities was carried out. This scoping review was complemented by an in-depth case analysis of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario statutes and regulations. RESULTS: Across provinces, pain was highly prevalent and was associated with adverse consequences among LTC residents. The considerable benefits of using a standardized pain assessment protocol, along with the barriers in implementing such a protocol, were identified. For most provinces, pain assessment and management in LTC residents was not specifically addressed in their statutes or regulations. In Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Ontario, regulations mandate the use of the interRAI suite of assessment tools for the assessment and reporting of pain. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of pain and the benefits of implementing standardized pain assessment protocols has been reported in the research literature. Despite occasional references to pain, however, existing regulations do not recommend assessments of pain at the frequency specified by experts. Insufficient direction on the use of specialized pain assessment tools (especially in the case of those with limited ability to communicate) that minimize reliance on subjective judgements was also identified in current regulations. Existing policies therefore fail to adequately address the underassessment and undermanagement of pain in older adults residing in LTC facilities in ways that are aligned with expert consensus.


Assuntos
Assistência de Longa Duração , Idoso , Humanos , Ontário , Medição da Dor , Padrões de Referência , Saskatchewan
15.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 481, 2020 11 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33208107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A high prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) colonization has been reported among residents in geriatric long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Some studies indicate that MRSA might be imported from hospitals into LTCFs via resident transfer; however, other studies report that high MRSA prevalence might be caused by cross-transmission inside LTCFs. We aimed to assess which factors have a large impact on the high MRSA prevalence among residents of geriatric LTCFs. METHODS: We conducted a cohort study among 260 residents of four geriatric LTCFs in Japan. Dividing participants into two cohorts, we separately analyzed (1) the association between prevalence of MRSA carriage and length of LTCF residence (Cohort 1: n = 204), and (2) proportion of residents identified as MRSA negative who were initially tested at admission but subsequently identified as positive in secondary testing performed at ≥2 months after their initial test (Cohort 2: n = 79). RESULTS: Among 204 residents in Cohort 1, 20 (9.8%) were identified as positive for MRSA. Compared with residents identified as MRSA negative, a larger proportion of MRSA-positive residents had shorter periods of residence from the initial admission (median length of residence: 5.5 vs. 2.8 months), although this difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.084). Among 79 residents in Cohort 2, 60 (75.9%) were identified as MRSA negative at the initial testing. Of these 60 residents, only one (1.7%) had subsequent positive conversion in secondary MRSA testing. In contrast, among 19 residents identified as MRSA positive in the initial testing, 10 (52.6%) were negative in secondary testing. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of MRSA was lower among residents with longer periods of LTCF residence than among those with shorter periods. Furthermore, few residents were found to become MRSA carrier after their initial admission. These findings highlight that MRSA in LTCFs might be associated with resident transfer rather than spread via cross-transmission inside LTCFs.


Assuntos
Infecção Hospitalar , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente à Meticilina , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Assistência de Longa Duração , Prevalência , Infecções Estafilocócicas/diagnóstico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/epidemiologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33166098

RESUMO

Objective: To report the clinical characteristics and transmission rate of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in a community inpatient long-term care psychiatric rehabilitation facility designed for persons with serious mental illness to provide insight into transmission and symptom patterns and emerging testing protocols, as well as medical complications and prognosis. Methods: This study examined a cohort of 54 residents of a long-term care psychiatric rehabilitation program from March to April 2020. Baseline demographics, clinical diagnoses, and vital signs were examined to look for statistical differences between positive versus negative severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) groups. During the early phase of the pandemic, the facility closely followed the local shelter-in-place order (starting March 19, 2020) and symptom-based testing. Results: Of the residents, the primary psychiatric diagnoses were schizoaffective disorder: 28 (51.9%), schizophrenia: 21 (38.9%), bipolar I disorder: 3 (5.5%), and unspecified psychotic disorder: 2 (3.7%). Forty (74%) of 54 residents tested positive for SARS-COV-2, with a doubling time of 3.9 days. There were no statistical differences between the positive SARS-COV-2 versus negative groups for age or race/ethnicity. Psychiatric and medical conditions were not significantly associated with contracting SARS-COV-2, with the exception of obesity (n = 17 [43%] positive vs n = 12 [86%] negative, P = .01). Medical monitoring of vital signs and symptoms did not lead to earlier detection. All of the residents completely recovered, with the last resident no longer showing any symptoms 24 days from the index case. Conclusion: Research is needed to determine optimal strategies for long-term care mental health settings that incorporate frequent testing and personal protective equipment use to prevent rapid transmission of SARS-COV-2.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/reabilitação , Centros de Reabilitação , Esquizofrenia/reabilitação , Adulto , Afro-Americanos , Americanos Asiáticos , Betacoronavirus , Transtorno Bipolar/epidemiologia , Transtorno Bipolar/reabilitação , California/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Refluxo Gastroesofágico/epidemiologia , Hispano-Americanos , Humanos , Hiperlipidemias/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipotireoidismo/epidemiologia , Controle de Infecções , Assistência de Longa Duração , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Reabilitação Psiquiátrica , Psicoterapia de Grupo , Transtornos Psicóticos/epidemiologia , Recreação , Reabilitação Vocacional , Esquizofrenia/epidemiologia , Fumar/epidemiologia , Visitas a Pacientes
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