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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33466348

RESUMO

Empathy plays a fundamental role in health related occupations. In this study, we analysed empathy levels in professionals (117) and students (170) from various healthcare fields in Ecuador during the COVID-19 pandemic. The Interpersonal Reactivity Index was used in an online survey. The results show high levels of empathy in both groups, influenced by age and gender. The students presented higher levels of personal distress, and their age was negatively correlated to empathy. Additionally, professionals working in physical health scored higher levels of personal distress compared to those in the field of emotional health. COVID-19 has placed social health systems in great stress. Despite this, the personal capacities for empathy of both students and health professionals have not been diminished.


Assuntos
/psicologia , Empatia , Pandemias , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Equador , Humanos
2.
BMC Palliat Care ; 20(1): 9, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33423672

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa is a very diverse middle-income country, still deeply divided by the legacy of its colonial and apartheid past. As part of a larger study, this article explored the experiences and views of representatives of hospices in the Western Cape province of South Africa on the provision of appropriate spiritual care, given local issues and constraints. METHODS: Two sets of focus group discussions, with 23 hospice participants, were conducted with 11 of the 12 Hospice Palliative Care Association registered hospices in the Western Cape, South Africa, to understand what spiritual care practices existed in their hospices against the backdrop of multifaceted diversities. The discussions were analysed using thematic analysis. RESULTS: Two prominent themes emerged: the challenges of providing relevant spiritual care services in a religiously, culturally, linguistically and racially diverse setting, and the organisational context impacting such a spiritual care service. Participants agreed that spiritual care is an important service and that it plays a significant role within the inter-disciplinary team. Participants recognised the need for spiritual care training and skills development, alongside the financial costs of employing dedicated spiritual care workers. In spite of the diversities and resource constraints, the approach of individual hospices to providing spiritual care remained robust. DISCUSSION: Given the diversities that are largely unique to South Africa, shaped essentially by past injustices, the hospices have to navigate considerable hurdles such as cultural differences, religious diversity, and language barriers to provide spiritual care services, within significant resource constraints. CONCLUSIONS: While each of the hospices have established spiritual care services to varying degrees, there was an expressed need for training in spiritual care to develop a baseline guide that was bespoke to the complexities of the South African context. Part of this training needs to focus on the complexity of providing culturally appropriate services.


Assuntos
Diversidade Cultural , Pessoal de Saúde , Hospitais para Doentes Terminais , Assistência Religiosa , Espiritualidade , Clero , Conselheiros , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Idioma , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Religião , Assistentes Sociais , África do Sul
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477880

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a global pandemic in early 2020. Due to the rapid spread of the virus and limited availability of effective treatments, health and social care systems worldwide quickly became overwhelmed. Such stressful circumstances are likely to have negative impacts on health and social care workers' wellbeing. The current study examined the relationship between coping strategies and wellbeing and quality of working life in nurses, midwives, allied health professionals, social care workers and social workers who worked in health and social care in the UK during its first wave of COVID-19. Data were collected using an anonymous online survey (N = 3425), and regression analyses were used to examine the associations of coping strategies and demographic characteristics with staff wellbeing and quality of working life. The results showed that positive coping strategies, particularly active coping and help-seeking, were associated with higher wellbeing and better quality of working life. Negative coping strategies, such as avoidance, were risk factors for low wellbeing and worse quality of working life. The results point to the importance of organizational and management support during stressful times, which could include psycho-education and training about active coping and might take the form of workshops designed to equip staff with better coping skills.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Qualidade de Vida , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Reino Unido
4.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244058, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33373412

RESUMO

While death is universal, reactions to death and ways of dealing with the dead body are hugely diverse, and archaeological research reveals numerous ways of dealing with the dead through time and across the world. In this paper, findings are presented which not only demonstrate the power of archaeology to promote and aid discussion around this difficult and challenging topic, but also how our approach resulted in personal growth and professional development impacts for participants. In this interdisciplinary pilot study, archaeological case studies were used in 31 structured workshops with 187 participants from health and social care backgrounds in the UK, to explore their reactions to a diverse range of materials which documented wide and varied approaches to death and the dead. Our study supports the hypothesis that the past is a powerful instigator of conversation around challenging aspects of death, and after death care and practices: 93% of participants agreed with this. That exposure to archaeological case studies and artefacts stimulates multifaceted discourse, some of it difficult, is a theme that also emerges in our data from pre, post and follow-up questionnaires, and semi-structured interviews. The material prompted participants to reflect on their biases, expectations and norms around both treatment of the dead, and of bereavement, impacting on their values, attitudes and beliefs. Moreover, 87% of participants believed the workshop would have a personal effect through thinking differently about death and bereavement, and 57% thought it would impact on how they approached death and bereavement in their professional practice. This has huge implications today, where talk of death remains troublesome, and for some, has a near-taboo status-'taboo' being a theme evident in some participants' own words. The findings have an important role to play in facilitating and normalising discussions around dying and bereavement and in equipping professionals in their work with people with advanced illness.


Assuntos
Arqueologia/educação , Atitude Frente a Morte , Educação Continuada/métodos , Pessoal de Saúde/educação , Assistentes Sociais/educação , Adulto , Currículo , Feminino , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Humanos , Masculino , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 11: CD013779, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33150970

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from disease epidemics shows that healthcare workers are at risk of developing short- and long-term mental health problems. The World Health Organization (WHO) has warned about the potential negative impact of the COVID-19 crisis on the mental well-being of health and social care professionals. Symptoms of mental health problems commonly include depression, anxiety, stress, and additional cognitive and social problems; these can impact on function in the workplace. The mental health and resilience (ability to cope with the negative effects of stress) of frontline health and social care professionals ('frontline workers' in this review) could be supported during disease epidemics by workplace interventions, interventions to support basic daily needs, psychological support interventions, pharmacological interventions, or a combination of any or all of these. OBJECTIVES: Objective 1: to assess the effects of interventions aimed at supporting the resilience and mental health of frontline health and social care professionals during and after a disease outbreak, epidemic or pandemic. Objective 2: to identify barriers and facilitators that may impact on the implementation of interventions aimed at supporting the resilience and mental health of frontline health and social care professionals during and after a disease outbreak, epidemic or pandemic. SEARCH METHODS: On 28 May 2020 we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Global Index Medicus databases and WHO Institutional Repository for Information Sharing. We also searched ongoing trials registers and Google Scholar. We ran all searches from the year 2002 onwards, with no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included studies in which participants were health and social care professionals working at the front line during infectious disease outbreaks, categorised as epidemics or pandemics by WHO, from 2002 onwards. For objective 1 we included quantitative evidence from randomised trials, non-randomised trials, controlled before-after studies and interrupted time series studies, which investigated the effect of any intervention to support mental health or resilience, compared to no intervention, standard care, placebo or attention control intervention, or other active interventions. For objective 2 we included qualitative evidence from studies that described barriers and facilitators to the implementation of interventions. Outcomes critical to this review were general mental health and resilience. Additional outcomes included psychological symptoms of anxiety, depression or stress; burnout; other mental health disorders; workplace staffing; and adverse events arising from interventions. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Pairs of review authors independently applied selection criteria to abstracts and full papers, with disagreements resolved through discussion. One review author systematically extracted data, cross-checked by a second review author. For objective 1, we assessed risk of bias of studies of effectiveness using the Cochrane 'Risk of bias' tool. For objective 2, we assessed methodological limitations using either the CASP (Critical Appraisal Skills Programme) qualitative study tool, for qualitative studies, or WEIRD (Ways of Evaluating Important and Relevant Data) tool, for descriptive studies. We planned meta-analyses of pairwise comparisons for outcomes if direct evidence were available. Two review authors extracted evidence relating to barriers and facilitators to implementation, organised these around the domains of the Consolidated Framework of Implementation Research, and used the GRADE-CERQual approach to assess confidence in each finding. We planned to produce an overarching synthesis, bringing quantitative and qualitative findings together. MAIN RESULTS: We included 16 studies that reported implementation of an intervention aimed at supporting the resilience or mental health of frontline workers during disease outbreaks (severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS): 2; Ebola: 9; Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS): 1; COVID-19: 4). Interventions studied included workplace interventions, such as training, structure and communication (6 studies); psychological support interventions, such as counselling and psychology services (8 studies); and multifaceted interventions (2 studies). Objective 1: a mixed-methods study that incorporated a cluster-randomised trial, investigating the effect of a work-based intervention, provided very low-certainty evidence about the effect of training frontline healthcare workers to deliver psychological first aid on a measure of burnout. Objective 2: we included all 16 studies in our qualitative evidence synthesis; we classified seven as qualitative and nine as descriptive studies. We identified 17 key findings from multiple barriers and facilitators reported in studies. We did not have high confidence in any of the findings; we had moderate confidence in six findings and low to very low confidence in 11 findings. We are moderately confident that the following two factors were barriers to intervention implementation: frontline workers, or the organisations in which they worked, not being fully aware of what they needed to support their mental well-being; and a lack of equipment, staff time or skills needed for an intervention. We are moderately confident that the following three factors were facilitators of intervention implementation: interventions that could be adapted for local needs; having effective communication, both formally and socially; and having positive, safe and supportive learning environments for frontline workers. We are moderately confident that the knowledge or beliefs, or both, that people have about an intervention can act as either barriers or facilitators to implementation of the intervention. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is a lack of both quantitative and qualitative evidence from studies carried out during or after disease epidemics and pandemics that can inform the selection of interventions that are beneficial to the resilience and mental health of frontline workers. Alternative sources of evidence (e.g. from other healthcare crises, and general evidence about interventions that support mental well-being) could therefore be used to inform decision making. When selecting interventions aimed at supporting frontline workers' mental health, organisational, social, personal, and psychological factors may all be important. Research to determine the effectiveness of interventions is a high priority. The COVID-19 pandemic provides unique opportunities for robust evaluation of interventions. Future studies must be developed with appropriately rigorous planning, including development, peer review and transparent reporting of research protocols, following guidance and standards for best practice, and with appropriate length of follow-up. Factors that may act as barriers and facilitators to implementation of interventions should be considered during the planning of future research and when selecting interventions to deliver within local settings.


Assuntos
Surtos de Doenças , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Saúde Mental , Saúde do Trabalhador , Resiliência Psicológica , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Viés , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Epidemias , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/epidemiologia , Doença pelo Vírus Ebola/terapia , Humanos , Determinação de Necessidades de Cuidados de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Sistemas de Apoio Psicossocial , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/terapia , Local de Trabalho
6.
Orv Hetil ; 161(44): 1884-1890, 2020 11 01.
Artigo em Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130605

RESUMO

Összefoglaló. Bevezetés: Napjaink egyik legszélesebb körben emlegetett jelensége a kiégés (burnout), mely a leggyakrabban a segíto szakmákban dolgozókat érinti. Célkituzés: Munkánk célja a kiégés jelenségének komplex vizsgálata szociális munkások körében. Módszerek: A demográfiai adatok felvétele mellett a kiégés vizsgálatához a Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) kérdoívet használtuk, a kognitív/viselkedésbeli hibákat, diszfunkcionális elvárásokat pedig a Diszfunkcionális Attitud Skála (DAS) segítségével térképeztük fel. A hangulatzavar kimutatásához a Beck Depresszió Kérdoív rövidített változatát alkalmaztuk, továbbá az Erofeszítés-Jutalom Egyensúlytalanság Kérdoív és a Társas Támogatás Kérdoív is kitöltésre került. Eredmények: Összesen 300 fo töltötte ki a kérdoívet: 106 férfi, 194 no. A munkavállalók döntoen a fiatal/középkorú korcsoporthoz tartoznak, a 26-45 év közöttiek aránya 52,2%. Az átlagos kiégési pontszám 53,9 (SD = 18,7) volt, melybol 105 fo (35,1%) alacsony, 182 fo közepes (60,6%) és 13 fo (4,3%) súlyos kiégéssel érintett. A multivariációs analízis során a noi nem (OR: 5,857), az életkor (OR: 4,126), a munkában eltöltött évek (OR: 2,721), a sokgyermekes család (OR: 2,861) és a társas támogatás hiánya (OR: 2,81) bizonyultak a kiégés független rizikótényezoinek (p<0,05 minden esetben). A depresszió és a kiégés (p<0,001), valamint a diszfunkcionális attitudök és a kiégés között pozitív kapcsolat igazolódott (korrelációs együttható = 0,316; p<0,001). Következtetés: Eredményeink alapján a szociális munkások jelentos része közepes fokú kiégésben, 5%-uk pedig súlyos fokú kiégésben szenved. A kiégésnek vannak befolyásolható (munkahelyi attitudök, társas támogatás) és nem befolyásolható (életkor, nem, család) tényezoi, melyeket az esetleges prevenciós, illetve intervenciós beavatkozások során figyelembe kell venni. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(44): 1884-1890. INTRODUCTION: Burnout is increasingly prevalent mainly involving employees working in the social sphere. OBJECTIVE: The aim of our study was to examine the complexity of burnout among social workers. METHODS: Baseline demographic data were recorded. Burnout was assessed by the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), and the intensities of dysfunctional attitudes were also studied. Depression was detected by the abbreviated version of the Beck Depression Questionnaire, furthermore social supports and effort-reward imbalance were also examined. RESULTS: Overall 300 employees participated in our study. Age group distribution was young/middle-aged access, the vast majority of the workers was between 25 and 45 years. The mean burnout scale was 53.9 (SD = 18.7), 105 workers had mild (35.1%), 182 moderate (60.6%) and 13 severe (4.3%) burnout. In a multivariate analysis, the female gender (OR: 5.857), the age (OR: 4.126), the years spent with working (OR: 2.721), the number of children (>3) (OR: 2.861) and the lack of social support (OR: 2.81) were independently associated with burnout (p<0.05 in all cases). There was a significant association among burnout, depression and dysfunctional attitudes. CONCLUSION: The vast majority of our social workers suffered from moderate and a small, but a significant proportion from severe burnout. Our work draws attention to the modifiable and unmodifiable risk factors of burnout in this population, which may help in the development of preventive strategies. Orv Hetil. 2020; 161(44): 1884-1890.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Assistentes Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33086738

RESUMO

It has been well documented that both risk perception and group identification are related to psychosocial well-being. However, their combined effect has rarely been analyzed. We examined the combined effect of perceived risk associated with COVID-19 infection at work and work community identification on psychosocial well-being (i.e., frequency of stress symptoms) among health care and social sector workers in Finland (N = 1 279). Data were collected via an online questionnaire in June 2020 and analyses of covariance were conducted. Perceived COVID-19 infection risk at work was classified into high, medium and low risk. In total, 41% of participants reported a high risk. After all background variables were included, participants who reported high perceived infection risk and low work community identification reported stress symptoms more often than those who reported high perceived risk and high identification (p = 0.010). Similarly, the former differed significantly from all other comparison groups (medium and low risk, p < 0.001), being the most stressed. We found that perceived infection risk and work community identification were not related to each other. Our conclusion is that high work community identification can buffer employee stress when faced with a high perceived health risk. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, work organizations with a high infection risk should advance the possibility of employees' identification with their work community.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/virologia , Estresse Ocupacional/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Finlândia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Identificação Social
8.
Nihon Koshu Eisei Zasshi ; 67(9): 582-592, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33041284

RESUMO

Objectives To build a healthy and safe community, it is important to provide direct services, such as health, medical, and social welfare services. However, it is also crucial to enhance the community's social capital by promoting self-help and mutual aid within the community. The development and utilization of resources/networks as well as community empowerment are possible methods to enhance social capital, but there is no conclusive method to facilitate effective coordination within the community. The purpose of this study is to clarify the community building process. This is achieved through qualitative research on community social coordinators (CSCs) who worked in an area that was significantly damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake.Methods A qualitative approach was employed to assess 10 individuals who worked as CSCs in a city within Miyagi Prefecture. Semi-structured interviews were conducted, which were between 40-90 minutes in length. A modified grounded theory approach (M-GTA) was used to analyze the data obtained from the interviews.Results The CSCs "built a relationship with the community," "assessed the community," and "intervened in the community." While assessing the community, they considered both its strengths and weaknesses, not limiting the fields it covered. To "solve the issues in the community," the CSCs "intervened in the community by themselves," "supported the autonomy of the residents," and "connected the residents to resources." This intervention was facilitated through "cooperation with the community" or "cooperation with other supporters."Conclusion Three stages were observed in the community building process. First, the CSCs built a relationship with the community. They then assessed the community, and intervened as required. It was found that the intervention-which was based on the CSCs' assessment of the community's strengths and weaknesses-was facilitated by the cooperation of the community or that of other supporters. Additionally, the CSCs aimed to promote the autonomy of the residents.


Assuntos
Desastres , Capital Social , Planejamento Social , Seguridade Social , Serviço Social , Assistentes Sociais , Adulto , Terremotos , Emprego , Feminino , Humanos , Japão , Masculino , Autonomia Relacional
9.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0241032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33085716

RESUMO

In the frontline of the pandemic stand healthcare workers and public service providers, occupations which have proven to be associated with increased mental health problems during pandemic crises. This cross-sectional, survey-based study collected data from 1773 healthcare workers and public service providers throughout Norway between March 31, 2020 and April 7, 2020, which encompasses a timeframe where all non-pharmacological interventions (NPIs) were held constant. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety and depression were assessed by the Norwegian version of the PTSD checklist (PCL-5), General Anxiety Disorder -7, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), respectively. Health anxiety and specific predictors were assessed with specific items. Multiple regression analysis was used for predictor analysis. A total of 28.9% of the sample had clinical or subclinical symptoms of PTSD, and 21.2% and 20.5% were above the established cut-offs for anxiety and depression. Those working directly in contrast to indirectly with COVID-19 patients had significantly higher PTSD symptoms. Worries about job and economy, negative metacognitions, burnout, health anxiety and emotional support were significantly associated with PTSD symptoms, after controlling for demographic variables and psychological symptoms. Health workers and public service providers are experiencing high levels of PTSD symptoms, anxiety and depression during the COVID-19 pandemic. Health workers working directly with COVID-19 patients have significantly higher levels of PTSD symptoms and depression compared to those working indirectly. Appropriate action to monitor and reduce PTSD, anxiety, and depression among these groups of individuals working in the frontline of pandemic with crucial societal roles should be taken immediately.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/epidemiologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega , Pandemias , Questionário de Saúde do Paciente , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Textos contextos (Porto Alegre) ; 19(1): 33974, 30 out. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146835

RESUMO

O presente artigo propõe uma reflexão crítica no que tange ao cha-mamento do Serviço Social para intervenção em desastres, considerando que, majoritariamente, o exercício profissional de assistentes sociais neste campo encontra-se voltado para o atendimento da população após a ocorrência de impactos, o que contribui para o reforço de características presentes na pro-fissão desde a sua gênese, como o caráter subalterno e a ênfase na dimensão técnico-operativa, desvinculada das demais dimensões profissionais. Com base em situações recentes e no levantamento de pesquisas e estudos sobre o tema, são realizados apontamentos que buscam a alteração desta realidade, a partir de um maior alinhamento entre as ações desenvolvidas por assistentes sociais na gestão de desastres e o projeto ético-político que vem sendo construído por segmentos da categoria desde as últimas décadas do século XX


This article proposes a critical reflection regarding the call of the Social Work for intervention in disasters, considering that, mostly, the professional prac-tice of social workers in this field is focused on attending the population after the occurrence of impacts, which contributes to the reinforcement of characteristics present in the profession since its genesis, such as the subordinate character and the emphasis on the technical-operative dimension, unrelated to other profes-sional dimensions. Based on recent situations and the survey of researches and studies on the subject, notes are made that seek to change this reality, from a greater alignment between the actions developed by social workers in disaster management and the ethical-political project that has been built by segments of the category since the last decades of the twentieth century


Assuntos
Serviço Social , Administração de Desastres , Desastres , Assistentes Sociais
11.
Textos contextos (Porto Alegre) ; 19(1): 36597, 30 out. 2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146836

RESUMO

Este artigo apresenta resultados contidos na dissertação de mestrado que buscou caracterizar o estado da arte acerca do trabalho do assistente social no Brasil recente. Para tanto traça um retrato da realidade atual em que se inserem os trabalhadores assistentes sociais. Está assentado na análise de dissertações e teses defendidas no período de 2012 a 2016, vinculadas a programas de pós-graduação stricto sensu em Serviço Social que integram as universidades sediadas no estado do Rio de Janeiro: PUC-Rio, Uerj, UFFe UFRJ


This article presents results contained in the master's thesis that sought to characterize the state of the art about the work of the social worker in recent Brazil. To this end, it draws a picture of the current reality in which social workers work. It is based on the analysis of dissertations and theses defended from 2012 to 2016, linked to stricto sensu graduate programs in Social Work that integrate the universities based in the state of Rio de Janeiro: PUC-Rio, Uerj, UFF and UFRJ


Assuntos
Serviço Social , Assistentes Sociais , Pessoal de Saúde , Programas de Pós-Graduação em Saúde
12.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(12): 818-821, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32967988

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic is an impacting challenge for occupational health. Epidemiological surveillance of COVID-19 includes systematic tracking and reporting of the total cases and deaths, but suitable experiences of surveillance systems for identifying the occupational risk factors involved in the COVID-19 pandemic are still missing, despite the interest for occupational safety and health. METHODS: A methodological approach has been implemented in Italy to estimate the occupational risk of infection, classifying each economic sector as at low, medium-low, medium-high and high risk, based on three parameters: exposure probability, proximity index and aggregation factor. Furthermore, during the epidemic emergency, the Italian Workers' Compensation Authority introduced the notation of COVID-19 work-related infection as an occupational injury and collected compensation claims of workers from the entire national territory. RESULTS: According to compensation claims applications, COVID-19 infection in Italy has been acquired at the workplace in a substantial portion of the total cases (19.4%). The distribution of the economic sectors involved is coherent with the activities classified at risk in the lockdown period. The economic sectors mostly involved were human health and social work activities, but occupational compensation claims also include cases in meat and poultry processing plants workers, store clerks, postal workers, pharmacists and cleaning workers. CONCLUSIONS: There is a need to go towards an occupational surveillance system for COVID-19 cases, including an individual anamnestic analysis of the circumstances in which the infection is acquired, for the prevention of occupational infectious risk, supporting insurance system effectiveness and managing vaccination policies.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Exposição Ocupacional , Saúde do Trabalhador , Ocupações , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Indenização aos Trabalhadores , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Comércio , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Indústria Alimentícia , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Traumatismos Ocupacionais , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Serviços Postais , Fatores de Risco , Assistentes Sociais
13.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 511-522, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970546

RESUMO

Covid-19 is a virus that has created tension and devastation around the globe. This study is designed to specifically find out the effect of Covid-19 on the socioeconomic well-being of Nigerians, the health sector preparedness to handle the pandemic, and the role of Nigerian social workers in the fight against Covid-19 in Nigeria. The study employed a phenomenological and exploratory research design in its inquiry. Sixteen respondents made up the sample size for the study. A Focus Group Discussion Guide and an In-Depth Interview Guide were the instruments for data collection. The result of the study shows that the Covid-19 pandemic has had a devastating impact on the socioeconomic well-being of Nigerians. Second, the Nigerian health system is ill equipped and underprepared to handle the Covid-19 pandemic. Third, Nigerian social workers, most especially medical social workers, have played a significant role in passing out information on Covid-19 preventive measures to the general public. The study recommends that the Nigerian government should wake up and fix the health sector and make it proactive to handle epidemics/pandemics in the future. Social work practice in Nigeria should be promoted by the government through institutionalization of the profession.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Papel Profissional , Assistentes Sociais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos
14.
Soc Work Public Health ; 35(7): 523-532, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970547

RESUMO

The authors assert that art-based inquiry can serve as a powerful medium for understanding the connection between faith and resilience as perceived and understood by older African-Americans adults disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Utilizing the CRT method of counterstorytelling as our conduit to elucidate our culturally situated responses to the COVID-19 pandemic. We seek to explore the connections between faith and resilience in social work practice during this public health crisis. Drawing from our shared experiences as two Black social workers we discuss the role spirituality plays in mitigating loneliness and stress among socially isolated older African-American adults (i.e., social distancing). Finally, with physical contact limited (i.e., social distancing) because of COVID-19, implications and recommendations for using spiritual-based practices with older African-American adults and families are discussed.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Espiritualidade , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Humanos , Solidão , Narração , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630072

RESUMO

Planning for future health and social services (HSS) workforces must be informed by an understanding of how workers view their work within the context of their life and the challenges they will face across the course of life. There is a range of policies and provisions that states and organisations can adopt to create sustainable careers, support wellbeing at work, and extend working lives where appropriate, but the potential impact of these policies on the make-up of the workforce remains under investigation. This paper makes the case that service planners need to appreciate complex interplay between wellbeing and career decisions when planning the future workforce. It makes use of a recent survey of United Kingdom (UK) social workers (n = 1434) to illustrate this interplay in two ways. First, we present the analysis of how social workers' perception of retirement and extended working lives are associated with dimensions of Work-Related Quality of Life (WRQL). We find that social workers who agreed that a flexible working policy would encourage them to delay their retirement scored lower on the Home-Work Interface and Control at Work dimensions of WRQL, while social workers who indicated a perception that their employer would not wish them to work beyond a certain age had lower Job and Career Satisfaction scores. Second, we propose a new typology of retirement outlooks using latent class analysis of these attitudinal measures. An 8-class solution is proposed, and we demonstrate the predictive utility of this scheme. Results are discussed in terms of the challenges for ageing Western populations and the usefulness of analysis such as this in estimating the potential uptake and impact of age-friendly policies and provisions.


Assuntos
Emprego , Aposentadoria , Assistentes Sociais , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Reino Unido
18.
J Interprof Care ; 34(5): 655-661, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32674701

RESUMO

The first cases of Coronavirus (COVID-19) were reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. Globally millions of people have been diagnosed with the virus whilst thousands have died. As the virus kept spreading health and social care frontline workers (HSCFW) were faced with difficulties when discharging their duties. This paper was set out to explore the challenges faced by different frontline workers in health and social care during the COVID-19 pandemic. The research utilized an explorative qualitative approach. A total of forty (N = 40) in-depth one-to-one semi-structured interviews were undertaken with HSCFW who included support workers (n = 15), nurses (n = 15), and managers (N = 10). Health and social care workers were drawn from domiciliary care and care homes (with and without nursing services). All the interviews were done online. The data were thematically analyzed, and the emergent themes were supported by quotes from the interviews held with participants. Following data analysis the research study found that lack of pandemic preparedness, shortage of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), anxiety and fear amongst professionals, challenges in enforcing social distancing, challenges in fulfilling social shielding responsibility, anxiety and fear amongst residents and service users, delay in testing, evolving PPE guidance and shortage of staff were challenges faced by frontline health and social care workers during COVID-19 pandemic. The results of the current study point to a need for adequate pandemic preparedness within the health and social care sector to protect both frontline workers and the individuals they look after.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Nível de Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Inglaterra , Medo , Feminino , Mão de Obra em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0233494, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649715

RESUMO

IMPORTANCE: In the Kilimanjaro region of Tanzania, there are no advance care planning (ACP) protocols being used to document patient preferences for end-of-life (EoL) care. There is a general avoidance of the topic and contemplating ACP in healthcare-limited regions can be an ethically complex subject. Nonetheless, evidence from similar settings indicate that an appropriate quality of life is valued, even as one is dying. What differs amongst cultures is the definition of a 'good death'. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate perceptions of quality of death and advance EoL preparation in Moshi, Tanzania. DESIGN: 13 focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in Swahili using a semi-structured guide. These discussions were audio-recorded, transcribed, translated, and coded using an inductive approach. SETTING: Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre (KCMC), referral hospital for northern Tanzania. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 122 participants, including patients with life-threatening illnesses (34), their relatives/friends (29), healthcare professionals (29; HCPs; doctors and nurses), and allied HCPs (30; community health workers, religious leaders, and social workers) from KCMC, or nearby within Moshi, participated in this study. FINDINGS: In characterizing Good Death, 7 first-order themes emerged, and, of these themes, Religious & Spiritual Wellness, Family & Interpersonal Wellness, Grief Coping & Emotional Wellness, and Optimal Timing comprised the second-order theme, EoL Preparation and Life Completion. The other first-order themes for Good Death were Minimal Suffering & Burden, Quality of Care by Formal Caregivers, and Quality of Care by Informal Caregivers. INTERPRETATION: The results of this study provide a robust thematic description of Good Death in northern Tanzania and they lay the groundwork for future clinical and research endeavors to improve the quality of EoL care at KCMC.


Assuntos
Família/psicologia , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Assistência Terminal/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde , Religião , Assistentes Sociais/psicologia , Tanzânia
20.
Gerontology ; 66(5): 427-430, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32516766

RESUMO

The large scale and rapid spread of the current COVID-19 pandemic has changed the way hospitals and other health services operate. Opportunities for patient-centered decision-making at the end of life are being jeopardized by a scarcity of health system resources. In response, the traditional doctor-initiated advanced care planning (ACP) for critical illness may also need to be readjusted. We propose nurse-led and allied health-led ACP discussions to ensure patient and family inclusion and understanding of the disease prognosis, prevention of overtreatment, and potential outcomes in crisis times. We highlight known barriers and list enablers, long-term and short-term opportunities to assist in the culture change.


Assuntos
Planejamento Antecipado de Cuidados , Betacoronavirus , Comunicação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Sobremedicalização/prevenção & controle , Papel do Profissional de Enfermagem , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Assistentes Sociais , Tomada de Decisões , Humanos , Pandemias , Assistência Terminal
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