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1.
Drugs Today (Barc) ; 56(12): 787-793, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33332485

RESUMO

As many other conferences held in 2020, the 17th Drug Information Association (DIA) Japan Annual Meeting 2020 was held virtually for the first time due to the COVID-19 crisis. The virtual platform delivered 64 sessions across 3 days and allowed participants to join the sessions flexibly, interactively participate in Q and A and connect with fellows without boundaries. The opening speech was addressed by Hajime Saijo (DIA Japan) to introduce the conference theme "Beyond Innovation" and key sessions featured discussions on future healthcare, the International Council for Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Pharmaceuticals for Human Use (ICH) 30-year anniversary, the Pharmaceuticals and Medical Devices Agency (PMDA) town hall, patient-focused drug development and global drug development. This meeting report covers the topics discussed from the programs featuring patient engagement, innovative drug development and new technologies.


Assuntos
Associação , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos , Equipamentos e Provisões , Humanos , Japão
2.
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 31(4): e1663, oct.-dic. 2020. fig
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156346

RESUMO

La enfermedad COVID-19 ha puesto en emergencia sanitaria al mundo. La búsqueda de información a través de internet refleja en gran medida el interés de las personas acerca de esta pandemia. El presente estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la asociación entre el volumen relativo de búsqueda del término combinado [coronavirus + covid-19 + "nuevo coronavirus" + covid + SARS-CoV-2] y el número de casos confirmados y de muertes diarias por la COVID-19. Se utilizó Google TrendsTM para proporcionar datos sobre el volumen relativo de búsqueda en Google de los términos seleccionados y compararlos con el número de casos confirmados y de muertes diarias por la COVID-19 en los 10 países más afectados de Latinoamérica, reportados por el panel de control de la Organización Mundial de la Salud. El período de evaluación fue del 01 de enero al 14 de junio del año 2020. Para obtener la asociación de las variables cuantitativas se utilizó el coeficiente de correlación de Spearman, con un nivel de significancia (p≤ 0,05). Se encontró una correlación positiva y significativa (p< 0,001) entre el volumen relativo de búsqueda del término combinado con el número de casos confirmados y de muertes cada día por la COVID-19. Por lo tanto, se puede utilizar un modelo basado en el interés de búsqueda en internet para predecir el desarrollo y el momento pico del brote de la COVID-19(AU)


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has put the world in a health emergency. The search for information through the Internet largely reflects the interest of people in this pandemic. The present study aimed to determine the association between the relative search volume of the combined term [coronavirus + covid-19 + "new coronavirus" + covid + SARS-CoV-2], and the number of confirmed cases and daily deaths from the COVID-19. Google TrendsTM was used to provide data on the relative search volume in Google for the selected terms and compare it with the number of confirmed cases and daily deaths from COVID-19 in the 10 most affected countries in Latin America, reported by the control panel of the World Health Organization on COVID-19 disease. The evaluation period was from January 01 to June 14, 2020. To obtain the relationship between quantitative variables, the Spearman correlation coefficient was used, with a level of significance (p≤ 0.05). A positive and significant correlation (p< 0.001) was found between the relative search volume of the term combined with the number of confirmed cases and deaths by day because of COVID-19. Therefore, an interest-based internet search model can be used to predict the development and peak timing of the COVID-19 outbreak(AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Associação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Internet , Informação , Betacoronavirus
3.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 267-277, set. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130601

RESUMO

Diversos estudios evidencian la asociación entre los niveles elevados del colesterol de LDL (cLDL) y el riesgo de desarrollar enfermedad cardiovascular aterosclerótica. Con el objetivo de comparar los valores de cLDL obtenidos mediante la medición directa y los valores estimados por las ecuaciones de Friedewald tradicional, modificada y de regresión, se valoró el cLDL de 4.621 pacientes mediante el ensayo directo en el autoanalizador ADVIA 1800. Dichos resultados se agruparon en los estados de normolipemia, hipercolesterolemia, hiperlipemia mixta e hipertrigliceridemia y se establecieron diferencias de estimación con las mencionadas fórmulas en el total de la muestra y en los niveles de decisión clínica para el cLDL. Las tres fórmulas presentaron correlación significativa con el método directo en la totalidad de la muestra; sin embargo, cuando los niveles de triglicéridos de las muestras superaron los 200 mg/dL, la diferencia entre la fórmula de Friedewald y el método directo resultó -11,94%, y llegó a -19,13% para el nivel de triglicéridos mayor de 400 mg/dL. Por otro lado, las ecuaciones de Friedewald modificada y de regresión se vieron afectadas en menor cuantía por el nivel de triglicéridos. Las fórmulas de regresión y de Friedewald modificada se constituyen como alternativas razonables para estimar el cLDL y presentan buena concordancia con el método directo, incluso en niveles altos de colesterol y triglicéridos.


Several studies show the association between high LDL cholesterol (LDLc) levels and the risk of developing atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. In order to compare the LDLc values obtained by direct measurement and the values estimated by the traditional, modified and regression Friedewald equations, the LDLc of 4,621 patients was assessed by means of the direct test in the ADVIA 1800 autoanalyzer.These results were grouped into the states of normolipemia, hypercholesterolemia, mixed hyperlipemia and hypertriglyceridemia, establishing differences in estimation with the aforementioned formulas in the total sample and in clinical decision levels for LDLc. The three formulas showed a significant correlation with the direct method in the entire sample; however, when the triglyceride levels of the samples exceeded 200 mg/dL, the difference between Friedewald's formula and the direct method was -11.94% reaching -19,13% for the triglyceride level greater than 400 mg/dL, while the modified Friedewald and regression equations were affected to a lesser extent by the triglyceride level. Regression and modified Friedewald formulas are constituted as reasonable alternatives to estimate LDLc and have good agreement with the direct method, even at high cholesterol and triglyceride levels.


Varios estudos evidenciam a associacao entre niveis elevados do colesterol LDL (cLDL) e o risco de desenvolver doenca cardiovascular aterosclerotica. Visando comparar os valores de cLDL obtidos atraves da medicao direta e os valores estimados pelas equacoes de Friedewald tradicional, modificada e de regressao, o cLDL de 4.621 pacientes foi avaliado por meio do teste direto no analisador automatico ADVIA 1800. Tais resultados foram agrupados nos estados de normolipemia, hipercolesterolemia, hiperlipemia mista e hipertrigliceridemia, estabelecendo-se diferencas na estimativa com as formulas mencionadas no total da amostra e nos niveis de decisao clinica para cLDL. As tres formulas apresentaram correlacao significativa com o metodo direto em toda a amostra, no entanto, quando os niveis de triglicerideos das amostras excederam 200 mg/dL, a diferenca entre a formula de Friedewald e o metodo direto foi de -11,94% atingindo -19,13% para o nivel de triglicerideos superior a 400 mg/dL. Por outra parte, as equacoes de Friedewald modificada e de regressao foram afetadas em menor grau pelo nivel de triglicerideos. As formulas de regressao e de Friedewald modificada se constituem como alternativas razoaveis para estimar o cLDL, e apresentam boa concordancia com o metodo direto, mesmo em niveis elevados de colesterol e triglicerideos.


Assuntos
Triglicerídeos , Hipertrigliceridemia , Colesterol , Hipercolesterolemia , Hiperlipidemias , Hiperlipoproteinemia Tipo V , LDL-Colesterol , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Pacientes , Associação , Doenças Cardiovasculares , Doença , Risco , Menores de Idade , Métodos
4.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(3): 257-266, set. 2020. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130600

RESUMO

EL HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) es un estimador de insulinorresistencia (IR) pero depende de la determinación de insulina. Los índices triglicéridos-glucosa (T-G)-circunferencia de la cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) o triglicéridos-glucosa-índice de masa corporal (TG- IMC) podrían ser sustitutos. Los objetivos de este trabajo consistieron en investigar en personas con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) los índices T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1; b) determinar su poder discriminante. Se realizó un estudio prospectivo en el que se estudiaron 223 individuos ≥45 años con riesgo de desarrollar diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). La relación T-G se calculó como ln [triglicéridos (mg/dL) x glucemia (mg/dL)/2]. La relación T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fue el producto de T-G por CC o IMC. Se utilizó análisis de regresión logística y se calcularon las áreas bajo las curvas ROC (receiver operating characteristic curves) (ABC) para comparar las asociaciones de T-G, T-G-CC y T-G-IMC con HOMA-IR>2,1. Mediante análisis discriminante se evaluó la clasificación de los sujetos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 y HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidad, especificidad, poder predictivo positivo y negativo para T-G-CC y T-G-IMC fueron mayores que para T-G, con los siguientes valores de corte: T-G=8,75, T-G-CC=821 y T-G-IMC=255. Los odds ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para confusores, fueron: T-G>8,75, OR: 4,85 (IC 95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-GIMC> 255, OR: 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Con el análisis discriminante T-G>8,75 clasificó correctamente 69,2% individuos con HOMA-IR≤2,1 y 68,3% con HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC y T-G-IMC clasificaron 74,4% y 78,2% respectivamente (p<0,001 en todos los casos). Se concluyó que T-GCC> 821 y T-G-IMC>255 fueron mejores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Estas son determinaciones simples y accesibles y podrían ser útiles en la práctica clínica y en estudios epidemiológicos.


HOMA-IR ((homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) is a surrogate estimator of insulin resistance (IR) but it depends on insulin determination. Triglyceride-glucose-waist circumference (T-G-WC) or triglyceride-glucose-body mass index (BMI) (T-G-BMI) could be substitutes. The objectives of this work were: to investigate in people at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D): a) T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI as estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 and b) to determine their discriminating power. A prospective study was conducted studying 223 individuals ≥45 years of age at risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D). The T-G ratio was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dL) x glycemia (mg/dL)/2]. The T-G-CC and T-G-BMI ratio was the product of T-G by CC or BMI. Logistic regression analysis was used and the areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROC) curves were calculated to compare the associations of T-G, T-G-CC and T-G-BMI with HOMA-IR>2.1. Using a discriminant analysis, the classification of the subjects between HOMA-IR>2.1 or HOMA-IR≤2.1 was evaluated. AUC, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive powers for T-G-CC and T-G-BMI were higher than for T-G, with the following cut-off values: TG=8.75, T-G-CC=821 and T-G-BMI=255. Odds ratios (OR) for HOMA-IR>2.1, adjusted for confounders, were: T-G>8.75, OR 4.85 (95% CI 2.73-8.62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53); T-G-BMI>255, OR 10.41 (95% CI 5.55-19.53). With the discriminant analysis T-G>8.75, 69.2% correctly classified with HOMA-IR≤2.1 and 68.3% with HOMA-IR>2.1; T-G-CC and T-G-BMI correctly classified 74.4% and 78.2% respectively (p <0.001 in all cases). It is concluded that T-G-CC>821 and T-G-BMI>255 were better estimators of HOMA-IR>2.1 than T-G>8.75. T-G-WC and T-G-BMI are simple and reliable determinations and could be useful in clinical practice and epidemiological studies.


O HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment-insulin-resistance) e um estimador de resistencia a insulina (RI), mas depende da determinacao da insulina. Triglicerideos-glicose (T-G), circunferencia da cintura (CC) (T-G-CC) ou triglicerideos-glicose-indice de massa corporal (T-G-IMC) poderiam ser substitutos. Os objetivos desse trabalho foram investigar em pessoas com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2): a) os indices T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC como estimadores de HOMA-IR> 2,1; b) determinar seu poder discriminante. Um estudo prospectivo foi realizado em 223 pessoas ≥45 anos com risco de desenvolver diabetes tipo 2 (DT2). A razao T-G foi calculada como ln [triglicerideos (mg/dL) x glicemia (mg/dL)/2]. A razao T-G-CC e T-G-IMC foi o produto de T-G por CC ou IMC. A analise de regressao logistica foi utilizada e as areas sob as curvas ROC (receiver operating features) ABC foram calculadas para comparar as associacoes de T-G, T-G-CC e T-G-IMC com HOMA-IR>2.1. Por meio de analise discriminante, avaliou-se a classificacao dos sujeitos entre HOMA-IR>2,1 e HOMA-IR≤2,1. ABC, sensibilidade, especificidade, poder preditivo positivo e negativo para TG-CC e TG-IMC foram maiores que para TG, com os seguintes valores de corte: TG=8,75, TG-CC=821 e TG-IMC=255. Odds Ratios (OR) para HOMA-IR>2,1, ajustados para fatores de confusao, foram: TG>8,75, OR 4,85 (IC95% 2,73-8,62); T-G-CC>821, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53); T-G-IMC>255, OR 10,41 (IC 95% 5,55-19,53). Com a analise discriminante T-G>8,75, 69,2% foram classificados corretamente com HOMA-IR≤2,1 e 68,3% com HOMA-IR>2,1; T-G-CC e T-G-IMC classificaram 74,4% e 78,2%, respectivamente (p<0,001 em todos os casos). Conclui-se que T-G-CC>821 e TG- IMC>255 foram melhores estimadores de HOMA-IR>2,1 que T-G>8,75. Elas sao determinacoes simples e acessiveis e poderiam ser uteis na pratica clinica e em estudos epidemiologicos.


Assuntos
Humanos , Triglicerídeos , Poder Psicológico , Estudos Epidemiológicos , Modelos Logísticos , Razão de Chances , Fatores de Confusão Epidemiológicos , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Classificação , Área Sob a Curva , Corte , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Glucose , Objetivos , Insulina , Pessoas , Organização e Administração , Associação , Glicemia , Resistência à Insulina , Índice de Massa Corporal , Análise Discriminante , Risco , Análise de Regressão , Circunferência da Cintura
5.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(10): 1021-1028, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32747806

RESUMO

Cultural stereotypes such as the idea that men are more suited for paid work and women are more suited for taking care of the home and family, may contribute to gender imbalances in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) fields, among other undesirable gender disparities. Might these stereotypes be learned from language? Here we examine whether gender stereotypes are reflected in the large-scale distributional structure of natural language semantics. We measure gender associations embedded in the statistics of 25 languages and relate these to data on an international dataset of psychological gender associations (N = 656,636). People's implicit gender associations are strongly predicted by gender associations encoded in the statistics of the language they speak. These associations are further related to the extent that languages mark gender in occupation terms (for example, 'waiter'/'waitress'). Our pattern of findings is consistent with the possibility that linguistic associations shape people's implicit judgements.


Assuntos
Associação , Feminilidade , Masculinidade , Psicolinguística , Semântica , Estereotipagem , Adulto , Humanos
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645034

RESUMO

Recent studies suggest that we rapidly and effortlessly associate neutral information with the self, leading to subsequent prioritization of this information in perception. However, the exact underlying processes behind these effects are not fully known. Here, we focus specifically on top-down and bottom-up processes involved in self-prioritization, and report results from three experiments involving face detection, using a sequential match-non-match task. Across the three experiments we asked participants to associate an unfamiliar face with the self (Experiment 1), to associate one's face with a stranger's name (Experiment 2), and to establish both associations simultaneously (Experiment 3). We found that while participants showed evidence of bottom-up prioritization of their real faces, they did not show such an effect for self-associated strangers' faces. However, the participants showed a robust self-related top-down effect; when presented with a self-related cue, they were later faster at classifying both subsequent correct and incorrect targets. Together, our results suggest that self-prioritization is underpinned by distinct top-down and bottom-up processes. We discuss our findings in the context of the proposal that the self acts as an "integrative glue", and suggest an interpretation of our results within the framework of predictive coding.


Assuntos
Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adulto , Associação , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo , Autoimagem
7.
Nat Hum Behav ; 4(9): 937-948, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32601459

RESUMO

Despite large individual differences in memory performance, people remember certain stimuli with overwhelming consistency. This phenomenon is referred to as the memorability of an individual item. However, it remains unknown whether memorability also affects our ability to retrieve associations between items. Here, using a paired-associates verbal memory task, we combine behavioural data, computational modelling and direct recordings from the human brain to examine how memorability influences associative memory retrieval. We find that certain words are correctly retrieved across participants irrespective of the cues used to initiate memory retrieval. These words, which share greater semantic similarity with other words, are more readily available during retrieval and lead to more intrusions when retrieval fails. Successful retrieval of these memorable items, relative to less memorable ones, results in faster reinstatement of neural activity in the anterior temporal lobe. Collectively, our data reveal how the brain prioritizes certain information to facilitate memory retrieval.


Assuntos
Associação , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/fisiologia , Adulto , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234032, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32479538

RESUMO

There is great variability in the ways that humans treat one another, ranging from extreme compassion (e.g., philanthropy, organ donation) to self-interested cruelty (e.g., theft, murder). What underlies and explains this variability? Past research has primarily examined human prosociality using explicit self-report scales, which are susceptible to self-presentation biases. However, these concerns can be alleviated with the use of implicit attitude tests that assess automatic associations. Here, we introduce and assess the validity of a new test of implicit prosociality-the Self versus Other Interest Implicit Association Test (SOI-IAT)-administered to two samples in pre-registered studies: regular blood donors (Study 1; N = 153) and a nationally representative sample of Americans (Study 2; N = 467). To assess validity, we investigated whether SOI-IAT scores were correlated with explicit measures of prosociality within each sample and compared SOI-IAT scores of the control sample (representative sample of Americans) with the prosocial sample (blood donors). While SOI-IAT scores were higher in the prosocial blood donor sample, SOI-IAT scores were generally uncorrelated with explicit measures and actual prosocial behaviour. Thus, the SOI-IAT may be able to detect group differences in everyday prosociality, but future testing is needed for a more robust validation of the SOI-IAT. These unexpected findings underscore the importance of sharing null and mixed results to fill gaps in the scientific record and highlight the challenges of conducting research on implicit processes.


Assuntos
Associação , Relações Interpessoais , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Adulto Jovem
10.
Behav Processes ; 175: 104121, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32259625

RESUMO

Nowadays we can find a number of experiments that have showed the importance of learning in several situations related with survival of many animal species. For instance, knowledge acquired in the early stages of life could be crucial on the choice of egg-laying site. In this study we explored the influence of Pavlovian conditioning of silkworm larvae on their oviposition behaviour as adult female moths. For this, the larvae learning have to survive the metamorphosis and be shown in oviposition choice. In acquisition phase, a larvae group experienced an odour (conditioned stimulus) paired with mulberry leaves (unconditioned stimulus), another one experienced the odour and the mulberry leaves in an unpaired way and the last one experienced the odour alone during this phase. The results show that when these larvae became moths, only the first group preferred to lay their eggs near the odour when it was present during the test, so that associations learned during the larval stage seem to influence oviposition behaviour during adulthood.


Assuntos
Associação , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Bombyx/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Larva/fisiologia , Oviposição/fisiologia , Animais , Feminino
11.
J. nurs. health ; 10(4): 20104035, abr.2020.
Artigo em Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1145277

RESUMO

Objetivo: descrever as evidências clínicas do Novo Coronavírus em pacientes com Hipertensão Arterial. Método: revisão integrativa da literatura, com levantamentos de artigos em bibliotecas virtuais. Os critérios de inclusão foram: responder à pergunta norteadora, estarem disponíveis na íntegra, serem estudos primários e terem sido publicados no último ano (2019-2020). Resultados: evidenciou-se que pacientes hipertensos infectados pelo novo coronavírus apresentaram níveis baixos de linfócitos, possuíram números maiores de receptores para Enzima Angiotensina II e que o uso dos anti-hipertensivos não interfere na evolução da infecção. Conclusão: a relação entre as duas patologias é devida ao grande número de receptores para Enzima Angiotensina II, baixo número de linfócitos e que os estudos recomendaram não ser necessário a interrupção do tratamento anti-hipertensivo em pacientes com o Coronavírus. A discussão é pertinente para o desenvolvimento de melhores métodos de tratamento e assistência aos pacientes.(AU)


Objective: to describe the clinicalevidence of the new Coronavirus inpatients with hypertension. Method: integrative literature review, with surveys of articles in virtual libraries. The inclusion criteria were:answer the guiding question, be available in full, be primary studies and have been published in the last year (2019-2020). Results:it was evidenced that hypertensive patients infected by the new coronavirus had low levels of lymphocytes, had higher numbers of receptors for Enzyme Angiotensin II and that the use of antihypertensive drugs does not interfere in the evolution of the infection. Conclusion:the relationbetween the two pathologies is due to the large number of receptors for Enzyme Angiotensin II, low number of lymphocytes and that studies have recommended that it is not necessary to interrupt antihypertensive treatment in patients with Coronavirus. Thisdiscussionis pertinent to the development of better methods of treatment and assistanceto patients.(AU)


Objetivo: describir la evidencia clínicadel nuevo Coronavirus enpacientes con hipertensión.Método:revisión integradora de literatura, con levantamientos de artículos en bibliotecas virtuales. Los criterios de inclusión fueron:responder a la pregunta orientadora, estar disponible en su totalidad, ser estudios primarios y haber sido publicados en el último año (2019-2020). Resultados:se evidenció que pacientes hipertensos infectados por el nuevo coronavirus presentaban niveles bajos de linfocitos, mayor número de receptores para la Enzima Angiotensina II y que el uso de antihipertensivos no interfiere en la evolución de la infección. Conclusión:la relación entre las dos patologías se debe a la gran cantidad de receptores para la Enzima Angiotensina II, bajo número de linfocitos y que los estudios han recomendado que noes necesario interrumpir el tratamiento antihipertensivo en pacientes conCoronavirus. La discusión es pertinente para el desarrollo de mejores métodos de tratamiento y asistencia a los pacientes.(AU)


Assuntos
Associação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Hipertensão
12.
Body Image ; 33: 101-105, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193166

RESUMO

Social media content can negatively influence body esteem in young women by reinforcing beliefs that to be considered attractive, people must look a certain way. The current study examines how text associated with attractive social media images impacts on female users' mood and feelings about their own body. Female participants (N = 109) aged between 18 and 25 years were randomly allocated to one of three conditions in which they viewed the same fitspiration-style images from Instagram. However, the captions associated with each image were experimentally manipulated to reflect either a fitspiration, body positive, or neutral theme. Images associated with fitspiration captions encouraging observers to improve their personal fitness led to increased negative mood. When body-positive captions encouraging the self-acceptance of appearance or highlighting the unrealistic nature of social media content were viewed with the same images, no increase in negative affect was observed, and participants reported greater body esteem post exposure. The findings provide partial support for the idea that body positive comments accompanying images on Instagram may have some protective value for female body esteem. Captions may play an important part in observers' reactions to social media images, beyond the influence of the images alone.


Assuntos
Afeto , Associação , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Emoções , Reforço Verbal , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
13.
Body Image ; 33: 66-76, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113009

RESUMO

Social media (SM) can create a climate of social comparison and preoccupation with appearance, which can pose risks for emotional problems, such as depression and social anxiety. In this study, 763 adolescents and young adults reported time spent and intensity of social media use and preoccupation with both general and appearance-related (AR) social media activities and content. Associations were investigated with markers of depression and social anxiety symptoms and appearance sensitivities - appearance anxiety and appearance rejection sensitivity (appearance-RS). Social media use was positively associated with symptoms of depression, social anxiety, appearance anxiety, and appearance-RS. General and AR preoccupation had unique and positive associations with depression and social anxiety symptoms and with appearance sensitivities. AR preoccupation was also found to strengthen the relationship between time spent on social media and appearance-RS. Although there were gender differences on all measures, with young women scoring higher on all measures, there was no evidence that gender moderated the effects of AR social media preoccupation. Findings support emerging evidence that social media engagement and behavior, particularly activities involving appearance comparisons and judgements, may be more of a risk to depression and social anxiety symptoms and appearance sensitivities than simply the frequency of social media use.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Imagem Corporal/psicologia , Depressão/psicologia , Aparência Física , Rejeição em Psicologia , Mídias Sociais , Adolescente , Adulto , Associação , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
14.
Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil ; 18(1): 65-75, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32160987

RESUMO

False memories refer to falsely remembering something that did not happen or that happened differently. The effects of age on episodic memory underlie both the decline in real memories and the increase in false memories. But, what is the richness and what is the feeling of reality of false memories in the elderly? This mini-review on false memory in young and older adults presents the results from the literature using one of the most used paradigms in the laboratory to study false memories - the Deese-Roediger-McDermott paradigm. This paradigm generally consists in the presentation of semantically associated items-lists (words or images) related to a non-presented critical lure (e.g., bed, rest, awake …, the critical lure is sleep). During free recall or recognition tests, the participants regularly produce false memories (intrusions or false recognitions of the critical lures), increasingly with aging. We specifically ask the question of the richness of the false memory trace in young and older adults in terms of contextual associations (What-Where-When-Details binding) and phenomenological characteristics (remembering, knowing, guessing). We propose to examine this issue using a naturalistic episodic memory task via navigation in a virtual environment enriched with series of associated elements (e.g., vegetables stand) linked to non-presented critical lures (e.g., carrots). Based on preliminary results, we propose an integrative model of memory trace which can explain the differences observed between young and old people on the richness of their false memories.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Idoso , Associação , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Psychophysiol ; 148: 59-66, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31904394

RESUMO

Previous research (Herring et al., 2011) indicated that certain types of incongruent verbal priming enhance responding to the subsequent (primed) stimuli. By priming participants in a P300-based Concealed Information Test (CIT), we examined the possible enhancement effects of priming stimuli in the P300 based Complex Trial Protocol (CTP) for face recognition. Participants were divided into two groups: one group with priming and one control group without. The probe (Pr) and irrelevants (Iall) of the two groups were faces, namely, pictures of the actor Tom Cruise (Pr) and of other unknown faces (Iall). One group had priming before Pr/Iall and one control group had no priming. The priming group was called the non-identical priming (NIP) group in which the verbal priming item (the name, "Bill Smith") is identical with neither Pr nor any of the Ialls. The group without priming is the control group which is called the non-priming group (NP) that simply experiences the basic Complex Trial Protocol. Results were that non-identical priming produced larger CIT effects than the control group, which is consistent with earlier findings. Also, the amplitude of the probe of the NIP group is larger than that of the NP group, while their irrelevants didn't show any significant difference. This means that the incongruent verbal priming did enhance the P300 CIT effect for the probe, which could further improve the accuracy of CTP for the concealed information test.


Assuntos
Associação , Córtex Cerebral/fisiologia , Potencial Evocado P300/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Eletroencefalografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos de Pesquisa , Adulto Jovem
16.
J Exp Psychol Gen ; 149(7): 1311-1332, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31763867

RESUMO

Associations with colors are a rich source of meaning, and there has been considerable interest in understanding the capacity of color to shape our functioning and behavior as a result of color associations. However, abstract conceptual color associations have not been comprehensively investigated, and many of the effects of color on psychological functioning reported in the literature are therefore reliant on ad hoc rationalizations of conceptual associations with color (e.g., blue = openness) to explain effects. In the present work we conduct a systematic, cross-cultural, mapping of conceptual color associations using the full set of hues from the World Color Survey (WCS). In Experiments 1a and 1b we explored the conceptual associations that English monolingual, Chinese bilingual, and Chinese monolingual speaking adults have with each of the 11 Basic English Color Terms (black, white, red, yellow, green, blue, brown, purple, pink, orange, gray). In Experiment 2 we determined which specific physical WCS colors are associated with which concepts in these three language groups. The findings reveal conceptual color associations that appear to be universal across all cultures (e.g., white - purity; blue - water/skyrelated; green - health; purple - regal; pink - "female" traits) as well as culture specific (e.g., red and orange - enthusiastic in Chinese; red - attraction in English). Importantly, the findings provide a crucial constraint on, and resource for, future work that seeks to understand the effect of color on cognition and behavior, enabling stronger a priori predictions about universal as well as culturally relative effects of conceptual color associations on cognition and behavior to be systematically tested. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Associação , Cor , Formação de Conceito/fisiologia , Multilinguismo , Psicolinguística , Adulto , Comparação Transcultural , Humanos
17.
Neuron ; 105(5): 909-920.e5, 2020 03 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31879163

RESUMO

Dopamine neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) regulate reward association and motivation. It remains unclear whether there are distinct dopamine populations to mediate these functions. Using mouse genetics, we isolated two populations of dopamine-producing VTA neurons with divergent projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) core and shell. Inhibition of VTA-core-projecting neurons disrupted Pavlovian reward learning, and activation of these cells promoted the acquisition of an instrumental response. VTA-shell-projecting neurons did not regulate Pavlovian reward learning and could not facilitate acquisition of an instrumental response, but their activation could drive robust responding in a previously learned instrumental task. Both populations are activated simultaneously by cues, actions, and rewards, and this co-activation is required for robust reinforcement of behavior. Thus, there are functionally distinct dopamine populations in the VTA for promoting motivation and reward association, which operate on the same timescale to optimize behavioral reinforcement.


Assuntos
Associação , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/fisiologia , Motivação , Núcleo Accumbens/fisiologia , Recompensa , Área Tegmentar Ventral/fisiologia , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/metabolismo , Dependovirus , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/citologia , Neurônios Dopaminérgicos/metabolismo , Vetores Genéticos , Proteínas Luminescentes/genética , Proteínas Luminescentes/metabolismo , Camundongos , Vias Neurais/fisiologia , Núcleo Accumbens/citologia , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/genética , Receptores de Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Reforço Psicológico , Área Tegmentar Ventral/citologia
18.
Neural Netw ; 122: 320-337, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31751846

RESUMO

In this paper, a novel kind of neural networks named fractional-order quaternion-valued bidirectional associative memory neural networks (FQVBAMNNs) is formulated. On one hand, applying Hamilton rules in quaternion multiplication which is essentially non-commutative, the system of FQVBAMNNs is separated into eight fractional-order real-valued systems. Meanwhile, the activation functions are considered to be quaternion-valued linear threshold ones which help to reduce the unnecessary computational complexity. On the other hand, based on fractional-order Lyapunov technology, a new fractional-order derivative inequality is established. Mainly by employing the new inequality technique, constructing three novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals (LKFs) and designing simple linear controllers, the global Mittag-Leffler synchronization problems are investigated and the corresponding criteria are acquired for the system of FQVBAMNNs and its special cases such as fractional-order complex-valued BAM neural networks (FCVBAMNNs) and fractional-order real-valued BAM neural networks (FRVBAMNNs), respectively. Finally, two numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and availability of the proposed results.


Assuntos
Associação , Memória , Redes Neurais de Computação , Algoritmos
19.
Neuropsychologia ; 138: 107296, 2020 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31811845

RESUMO

Many recent studies have shown that memory for correct answers is enhanced when an error is committed and then corrected, as compared to when the correct answer is provided without intervening error commission. The fact that the kind of errors that produced such a benefit, in past research, were those that were semantically related to the correct answer suggested that the effect may occur because the error provides a semantic stepping stone to the correct answer: the Semantic Mediation hypothesis. This hypothesis seems at odds with the finding that amnesicsgenerate answers, again including those studied by Tulving and his colleagues-who purportedly have spared semantic/implicit memory-experience enormous difficulties when they commit errors. Accordingly, the present experiments investigated whether the error-generation benefit seen in typicals was attributable Semantic Mediation or to Episodic Recollection. In Experiment 1, we used polysemous materials to create Congruent (e.g., wrist-palm) and Incongruent (e.g., tree-palm) cues for target words (e.g., HAND). In the Congruent condition, participants generated errors that were semantically related to the target (e.g., finger), and which could have provided a semantic mediator. In the Incongruent condition they generated errors that were unrelated to the target (e.g., coconut), and which, therefore, should not have provided a semantic mediator. The Congruent and Incongruent conditions both produced an error-generation benefit-contradicting the Semantic Mediation hypothesis. Experiment 2 showed that the error-generation benefit only occurred when the original error was also recollected on the final memory test. Indeed, in the Incongruent condition, when the error was not, itself, recalled, error generation resulted in a deficit in memory for the correct response. These results point to episodic/explicit, rather than semantic/implicit memory, as the locus of the 'learning from errors' benefits.


Assuntos
Associação , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória Episódica , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Adulto Jovem
20.
Cogn Process ; 21(1): 41-53, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586278

RESUMO

This study examined the interactive relationship between two measures of association (direct and indirect associations) when predicting relatedness judgments and cued-recall performance. Participants were recruited from Amazon's Mechanical Turk and were given word pairs of varying relatedness to judge for their semantic, thematic, and associative strength. After completing a distractor task, participants then completed a cued-recall task. First, we sought to expand previous work on judgments of associative memory to include semantic- and thematic-based judgments (judgments of relatedness), while also replicating bias and sensitivity findings. Next, we tested for an interaction between direct and indirect association when predicting participant judgments while also expanding upon previous work by examining that interaction when predicting recall. The interaction between direct and indirect association was significant for both judgments and recall. For low indirect association, direct association was the primary predictor of both judgment strength and recall proportions. However, this trend reversed for high indirect association, as higher levels of indirect relation decreased the effectiveness of direct relation as a predictor. Overall, our findings indicate the degree to which the processing of similarity information impacts cognitive processes such as retrieval and item judgments, while also parsing apart the underlying, interactive relationship that exists between the norms used to represent concept information.


Assuntos
Julgamento/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Adulto , Associação , Cognição/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Semântica , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Adulto Jovem
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