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1.
J Morphol ; 279(3): 312-318, 2018 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29148084

RESUMO

The ability to generate large closing forces is important for many animals. Several studies have demonstrated that bite or pinching force capacity is usually related to the linear dimensions of the closing apparatus. However, relatively few studies have applied geometric morphometrics to examine the effects of size-independent shape on force production, particularly in studies of crustacean pinching force. In this study, we utilized traditional and geometric morphometric techniques to compare the pinching force of Procambarus clarkii crayfish to their chela morphology. We found that males possessed larger chelae and pinched harder than females, but that their chela shape and size were weak predictors of strength. Female pinching force was significantly affected by both chela size and shape, with shape variation along the short axis of the claw contributing most to pinching force. We discuss our results in the context of reliable signaling of strength by males and females, and the different selective forces acting on chela shape in the two sexes.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Pontos de Referência Anatômicos , Animais , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
2.
Korean J Parasitol ; 55(3): 347-350, 2017 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28719962

RESUMO

An epidemiological study was performed to know the recent infection status of Paragonimus westermani metacercariae (PwMc) in freshwater crayfish, Cambaroides similis, from 2 streams in Jeollanam-do, Republic of Korea. Crayfish were collected from creeks in Bogil-do (Island), Wando-gun, and in a creek near Daeheung Temple in Haenam-gun. The infection rate of crayfish with PwMc in Bogil-do was 89.8%, and the metacercarial burden was 37 PwMc per the infected crayfish. Crayfish in a creek near Daeheung Temple were larger and twice heavier than those in Bogil-do. Of them, 96.5% were infected with PwMc. An average of 140 metacercariae was found in the infected crayfish, almost quadruple to those of Bogil-do. There was a strong correlation between the number of PwMc and body weight of the crayfish. These results suggest that P. westermani metacercariae are still prevalent in crayfish of the 2 regions in Jeollanam-do, Korea.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/parasitologia , Água Doce , Metacercárias/isolamento & purificação , Paragonimus westermani/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Peso Corporal , Incidência , Paragonimíase/epidemiologia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia
3.
J Struct Biol ; 198(2): 92-102, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28392452

RESUMO

Vertical organizations of skeletal elements are found in various vertebrate teeth and invertebrate exoskeletons. The molecular mechanism behind the development of such structural organizations is poorly known, although it is generally held that organic matrix proteins play an essential role. While most crustacean cuticular organizations exhibit horizontal chitinous layering, a typical vertical organization is found towards the surface of the teeth in the mandibles of the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus. Candidate genes encoding for mandible-forming structural proteins were mined in C. quadricarinatus molt-related transcriptomic libraries by using a binary patterning approach. A new protein family, termed the Mandible Alanine Rich Structural (MARS) protein family, with a modular sequence design predicted to form fibers, was found. Investigations of spatial and temporal expression of the different MARS genes suggested specific expression in the mandibular teeth-forming epithelium, particularly during the formation of the chitinous vertical organization. MARS loss-of-function RNAi experiments resulted in the collapse of the organization of the chitin fibers oriented vertically to the surface of the crayfish mandibular incisor tooth. A general search of transcriptomic libraries suggested conservation of MARS proteins across a wide array of crustaceans. Our results provide a first look into the molecular mechanism used to build the complex crustacean mandible and into the specialized vertical structural solution that has evolved in skeletal elements.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Astacoidea/química , Quitina/metabolismo , Mineração de Dados/métodos , Proteínas/química , Proteínas/genética , Esqueleto/química , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Transcriptoma
4.
Pestic Biochem Physiol ; 136: 29-33, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28187827

RESUMO

This study assessed the chronic effects of terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy (T2H), one of the main terbuthylazine degradation products, on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus fallax f. virginalis) by means of mortality, growth rate, early ontogeny, oxidative stress, antioxidant defence and histopathology. The crayfish were exposed to four concentrations of the tested substance as follows: 0.75µg/l (environmental concentration), 75, 375 and 750µg/l for 62days. Concentrations over 75µg/l caused lower weight compared to the control group. T2H at 750µg/l caused delay in ontogenetic development. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and total superoxide dismutase activity were significantly (p<0.01) lower in groups exposed to 375 and 750µg/l T2H. Crayfish in these treatments also showed alteration of tubular system including disintegration of tubular epithelium with complete loss of structure in some places of hepatopancreas and wall thinning up to disintegration of branchial filaments with focal infiltrations of hemocytes. In conclusion, chronic terbuthylazine-2-hydroxy exposure in concentrations up 75µg/l (100 times higher than environmental concentration) affected growth, ontogenetic development, antioxidant system, caused oxidative stress and pathological changes in hepatopancreas of early life stages of marbled crayfish.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Triazinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Astacoidea/metabolismo , Catalase/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/patologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Substâncias Reativas com Ácido Tiobarbitúrico/metabolismo
5.
Zootaxa ; 4208(2): zootaxa.4208.2.4, 2016 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27988532

RESUMO

The crayfish subgenus Procericambarus (genus Orconectes) found in the Eastern Highlands of the United States represents a rich assemblage of stream-dwelling macroinvertebrates. While the taxonomic status and distribution of its members were clarified in a previous study, newly diagnosed characters and newly collected specimens warranted a revision to previous hypotheses of Procericambarus membership in the southeastern United States. Using morphological characters, we describe herein a new species of crayfish occurring in the Tennessee River drainage of northern Alabama and southwestern Tennessee. We also provide a revised key for the identification of members of O. juvenilis Species Complex.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Animais , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie
6.
Zootaxa ; 4193(2): zootaxa.4193.2.8, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27988721

RESUMO

Cambarus (Depressicambarus) clairitae, new species, is an epigean crayfish from two drainages of the Locust Fork system in Blount and Jefferson counties, Alabama. It belongs to the halli Group in the subgenus Depressicambarus. The new species is morphologically most similar to Cambarus (Depressicambarus) englishi. They differ in a several morphological characters. Cambarus englishi has a more strongly recurved central projection, a wider areola, and a more distinct and set off rostral acumen than the new species. It also has light gray to white antennae while the antennae of the new species are brown. In addition to the description of the new species, the halli Group in Alabama is discussed.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/classificação , Alabama , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
7.
Arh Hig Rada Toksikol ; 67(4): 289-296, 2016 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28033103

RESUMO

2,4-D is a widely used phenoxy herbicide, potentially toxic to humans and biota. The objective of the present study was to reveal short term sublethal effects of 2,4-D on narrow-clawed freshwater crayfish (Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz, 1823), based on histology, total haemocyte counts, selected haemolymph parameters, and oxidative stress parameters. In the laboratory conditions crayfish specimens were exposed to 9 mg L-1 of 2,4-D for one week. Experiments were conducted under semi-static conditions in 20 L-capacity aquaria where 10 freshwater crayfish were stocked per aquarium. Exposure (experimental) and control groups were used and the experiments were repeated two times. No mortality and behavioural changes were recorded during the experiments. Total haemocyte counts decreased significantly, while haemolymph glucose levels increased (P<0.05), when compared to the control group. Haemolymph levels of calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium, magnesium, total protein, and lactate did not change. Exposure resulted with increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) only in hepatopancreas. However, results of gill FOX assay showed a significant decrease in oxidative stress parameters (P<0.05). MDA levels of gill and abdominal muscle tissues and FOX levels of hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle tissues did not change when compared to the control group. Significant histopathological alterations were observed both in hepatopancreas (multifocal deformations in tubule lumen) and gill tissue (melanisation of gill lamella). Exposure of crayfish even to a sublethal concentration of 2,4-D alters histopathology and lipid peroxidation due to stress. Biomarkers studied here seem to be useful for the assessment of adverse/toxic effects of pesticides on non-target, indicator aquatic organisms.


Assuntos
Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/toxicidade , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido 2,4-Diclorofenoxiacético/metabolismo , Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Brânquias/anatomia & histologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/citologia , Hepatopâncreas/anatomia & histologia
8.
Int J Mol Sci ; 17(10)2016 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27763563

RESUMO

Ecdysone receptor and retinoid X receptor are key regulators in molting. Here, full length ecdysone receptor (PcEcR) and retinoid X receptor (PcRXR) cDNAs from Procambarus clarkii were cloned. Full length cDNA of PcEcR has 2500 bp, encoding 576 amino acid proteins, and full length cDNA of PcRXR has 2593 bp, in which a 15 bp and a 204 bp insert/deletion splice variant regions in DNA binding domain and hinge domain were identified. The two splice variant regions in PcRXR result four isoforms: PcRXR1-4, encoding 525, 520, 457 and 452 amino acids respectively. PcEcR was highly expressed in the hepatopancreas and eyestalk and PcRXR was highly expressed in the eyestalk among eight examined tissues. Both PcEcR and PcRXR had induced expression after eyestalk ablation (ESA) in the three examined tissues. In muscle, PcEcR and PcRXR were upregulated after ESA, PcEcR reached the highest level on day 3 after ESA and increased 33.5-fold relative to day 0, and PcRXR reached highest the level on day 1 after ESA and increased 2.7-fold relative to day 0. In the hepatopancreas, PcEcR and PcRXR dEcReased continuously after ESA, and the expression levels of PcEcR and PcRXR were only 0.7% and 1.7% on day 7 after ESA relative to day 0, respectively. In the ovaries, PcEcR was upregulated after ESA, reached the highest level on day 3 after ESA, increased 3.0-fold relative to day 0, and the expression level of PcRXR changed insignificantly after ESA (p > 0.05). The different responses of PcEcR and PcRXR after ESA indicates that different tissues play different roles (and coordinates their functions) in molting.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Astacoidea/genética , Clonagem Molecular , Muda , Receptores de Esteroides/genética , Receptores X Retinoide/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/análise , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Sequência de Bases , DNA Complementar/genética , Deleção de Genes , Expressão Gênica , Filogenia , Receptores de Esteroides/análise , Receptores X Retinoide/análise , Alinhamento de Sequência
9.
Zootaxa ; 4158(3): 301-24, 2016 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615888

RESUMO

Two new species of Parastacus Huxley, 1879 are described from material collected in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, southern Brazil: Parastacus fluviatilis sp. nov. from highland streams and Parastacus caeruleodactylus sp. nov. from wetlands. Parastacus fluviatilis sp. nov. is distinguished mainly by large chelipeds with dense setae cover on the cutting edge of fingers, telson subtriangular with two lateral blunt spines and strongly concave ventral surface of lateral process of thoracic sternites 6 and 7. Parastacus caeruleodactylus sp. nov. is distinguished mainly by blue cheliped fingers and a large gap between them, reduced abdomen, dorsal and ventral margins of dactylus, propodus and carpus of second pair of pereiopods with tufts of long setae and mid-dorsal carina of exopod of uropods unarmed. According to IUCN Red List criteria both species are considered endangered. Habitat characterization and a method for defining the shape of second abdominal pleura are also provided.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/classificação , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho Corporal , Brasil , Ecossistema , Feminino , Água Doce/análise , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão
10.
Zootaxa ; 4162(1): 173-87, 2016 Sep 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27615965

RESUMO

A new species of burrowing crayfish, Cambarus (Jugicambarus) adustus, is described from Lewis County in northeastern Kentucky, USA. The new species is most similar morphologically to C. dubius. Cambarus adustus coloration differs from C. dubius by lacking red, orange and blue hues, and instead is brown over the entire body surface. Morphological differences between C. dubius and C. adustus exist in the form I male gonopod, with C. adustus possessing a caudal knob, while C. dubius does not. In addition, the lateral carapace of C. adustus is distinctly tuberculate, whereas in C. dubius the carapace lacks extensive tuberculation. Cambarus (J.) adustus appears to have an extremely small geographic range (~19.5 km2), and as such we suggest its consideration for both state and federal levels of protection.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/classificação , Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Complexo IV da Cadeia de Transporte de Elétrons/genética , Feminino , Kentucky , Masculino , Filogenia , Especificidade da Espécie
11.
J Struct Biol ; 196(2): 206-222, 2016 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27612582

RESUMO

During premolt, crayfish develop deposits of calcium ions, called gastroliths, in their stomach wall. The stored calcium is used for the calcification of parts of the skeleton regularly renewed for allowing growth. Structural and molecular analyses of gastroliths have been primarily performed on three crayfish species, Orconectes virilis, Procambarus clarkii, and more recently, Cherax quadricarinatus. We have performed high-resolution analyses of gastroliths from the native noble crayfish, Astacus astacus, focusing on the microstructure, the mineralogical and elemental composition and distribution in a comparative perspective. Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) observations showed a classical layered microstructure composed of 200-nm diameter granules aligned along fibers. These granules are themselves composed of agglomerated nanogranules of 50nm-mean diameters. Denser regions of bigger fused granules are also present. Micro-Raman spectroscopy show that if A. astacus gastroliths, similarly to the other analyzed gastroliths, are mainly composed of amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC), they are also rich in amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP). The presence of a carotenoid pigment is also observed in A. astacus gastrolith contrary to C. quadricarinatus. Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analyses demonstrate the presence of minor elements such as Mg, Sr, Si and P. The distribution of this last element is particularly heterogeneous. X-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy (XANES) reveals an alternation of layers more or less rich in phosphorus evidenced in the mineral phase as well as in the organic matrix in different molecular forms. Putative functions of the different P-comprising molecules are discussed.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Calcificação Fisiológica , Cálcio/metabolismo , Animais , Astacoidea/química , Carbonato de Cálcio/análise , Fosfatos de Cálcio/análise
12.
Zootaxa ; 4144(4): 575-83, 2016 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27470874

RESUMO

A new primary burrowing crayfish, Fallicambarus schusteri, is described from the Red River drainage of extreme southeastern Oklahoma and southwestern Arkansas and is placed in the subgenus Fallicambarus. The species occurs in roadside ditches that seasonally flood and have silt and silt-loam dominated soils. Falllicambarus schusteri differs from all other members of the genus Fallicambarus in possessing a thin gradually tapering central projection and a wide triangular cephalic process on the first pleopod of form I males, a sufflamen on the cheliped, and an antennal scale that is widest at its midpoint.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/classificação , Distribuição Animal/fisiologia , Animais , Arkansas , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal , Feminino , Masculino , Oklahoma , Rios , Especificidade da Espécie
13.
Zootaxa ; 4103(1): 43-53, 2016 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27394612

RESUMO

Examination of specimens of the crayfish species Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) longirostris and two recently described crayfish revealed the existence of an undescribed species from the Flint River watershed in northern Alabama and southern Tennessee. Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) lentiginosus differs from C. longirostris, C. (Hiaticambarus) andersoni, and C. (Hiaticambarus) diupalma in aspects of carapace and chela morphology and pigmentation pattern. Cambarus (H.) lentiginosus possesses a median carina on the dorsal surface of the acumen of the rostrum, a distinctly enlarged tubercle near the base of the opposable surface of the dactyl, and a speckled pigmentation pattern over a light base color; these characters are lacking in other known Hiaticambarus species. The known range of the species is restricted to the Flint River watershed. Cambarus (H.) lentiginosus is considered Endangered using American Fisheries Society conservation categorization.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/classificação , Alabama , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Rios , Tennessee
14.
Biol Bull ; 230(2): 152-64, 2016 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27132137

RESUMO

Like most social animals, crayfish readily form dominance relationships and linear social hierarchies when competing for limited resources. Competition often entails dyadic aggressive interactions, from which one animal emerges as the dominant and one as the subordinate. Once dominance relationships are formed, they typically remain stable for extended periods of time; thus, access to future resources is divided unequally among conspecifics. We previously showed that firmly established dominance relationships in juvenile crayfish can be disrupted by briefly adding a larger conspecific to the original pair. This finding suggested that the stability of social relationships in crayfish was highly context-dependent and more transient than previously assumed. We now report results that further identify the mechanisms underlying the destabilization of crayfish dominance relationships. We found that rank orders remained stable when conspecifics of smaller or equal size were added to the original pair, suggesting that both dominant and subordinate must be defeated by a larger crayfish in order to destabilize dominance relationships. We also found that dominance relationships remained stable when both members of the original pair were defeated by larger conspecifics in the absence of their original opponent. This showed that dominance relationships are not destabilized unless both animals experience defeat together. Lastly, we found that dominance relationships of pairs were successfully disrupted by larger intruders, although with reduced magnitude, after all chemical cues associated with earlier agonistic experiences were eliminated. These findings provide important new insights into the contextual features that regulate the stability of social dominance relationships in crayfish and probably in other species as well.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Meio Ambiente , Predomínio Social , Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho Corporal , Comportamento Social
15.
Int. j. morphol ; 34(1): 168-178, Mar. 2016. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-780491

RESUMO

The aim of the present study was focused on and describes the gross morphological and scanning electron microscopical features of the gill of the red swamp freshwater crayfish. Our results noted that: all gills have the same general structure and appearance. The gill consists of axis with numerous finger-like filaments, having three morphological types; round, pointed and somewhat hooked shaped. There is a variation in the direction of filaments according to their position, in middle part were nearly perpendicular to gill axis while in the apex were nearly parallel to axis. There were characteristic system of gill spines on central axis, basal plate, setobranch and on the bilobed epipodal plate. There are four shape of spinated-like parts of setobranch seta, two pointed processes and two broad processes. The bilobed epipodal plate is devoid from any filaments and under SEM, its apical part has serrated free border and corrugated surface while the middle part has no serrated free border.


El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir las características morfológicas macroscópicas y mediante microscopio electrónico de barrido las branquias del cangrejo rojo de pantano de agua dulce. Nuestros resultados señalan que todas las branquias tienen la misma estructura y apariencia general. Las branquias se componen de ejes con numerosos filamentos similares a dedos, que tiene tres tipos morfológicos; redondo, punteado y con forma de gancho. Hay una variación en la dirección de los filamentos de acuerdo con su posición, en la parte media eran casi perpendicular al eje branquial, mientras que en el ápice fueron casi paralelas al eje. Hubo un sistema característico de espinas branquiales sobre el eje central, placa basal, espinas dorsales y sobre las placas epipodales bilobuladas. Se observaron cuatro formas de las ramas similares a espinas, dos procesos apuntados y dos procesos amplios. La placa epipodal bilobulada estaba desprovista de filamentos bajo microscopía electrónicas, su parte apical tiene una margen libre aserrado, con una superficie ondulada, mientras que la parte media no tiene margenes aserrados.


Assuntos
Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Brânquias/anatomia & histologia , Egito , Coluna Vertebral/anatomia & histologia
16.
Sci Rep ; 6: 22118, 2016 Feb 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26906263

RESUMO

Crustaceans, like most mineralized invertebrates, adopted calcium carbonate mineralization for bulk skeleton reinforcement. Here, we show that a major part of the crustacean class Malacostraca (which includes lobsters, crayfishes, prawns and shrimps) shifted toward the formation of calcium phosphate as the main mineral at specified locations of the mandibular teeth. In these structures, calcium phosphate is not merely co-precipitated with the bulk calcium carbonate but rather creates specialized structures in which a layer of calcium phosphate, frequently in the form of crystalline fluorapatite, is mounted over a calcareous "jaw". From a functional perspective, the co-existence of carbonate and phosphate mineralization demonstrates a biomineralization system that provides a versatile route to control the physico-chemical properties of skeletal elements. This system enables the deposition of amorphous calcium carbonate, amorphous calcium phosphate, calcite and apatite at various skeletal locations, as well as combinations of these minerals, to form graded composites materials. This study demonstrates the widespread occurrence of the dual mineralization strategy in the Malacostraca, suggesting that in terms of evolution, this feature of phosphatic teeth did not evolve independently in the different groups but rather represents an early common trait.


Assuntos
Calcificação Fisiológica , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Crustáceos/química , Mandíbula/química , Animais , Apatitas/metabolismo , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/química , Evolução Biológica , Carbonato de Cálcio/metabolismo , Crustáceos/anatomia & histologia , Crustáceos/classificação , Mandíbula/anatomia & histologia , Minerais/metabolismo , Penaeidae/anatomia & histologia , Penaeidae/química , Espectrometria por Raios X , Análise Espectral Raman , Dente/anatomia & histologia , Dente/química , Difração de Raios X
17.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 48: 190-5, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26611721

RESUMO

Peracetic acid (PAA) is a powerful disinfectant recently adopted as a therapeutic agent in aquaculture. A concentration of 10 mg L(-1) PAA effectively suppresses zoospores of Aphanomyces astaci, the agent of crayfish plague. To aid in establishing safe therapeutic guideline, the effects of PAA on treated crayfish were investigated through assessment of histological changes and oxidative damage. Adult female signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus (n = 135) were exposed to 2 mg L(-1) and 10 mg L(-1) of PAA for 7 days followed by a 7 day recovery period in clean water. Superoxide dismutase activity was significantly lower in gill and hepatopancreas after three days exposure to 10 mg L(1) PAA than in the group treated with 2 mg L(-1) PAA and a control in only clean water. Catalase activity in gill and hepatopancreas remained unaffected by both exposures. Glutathione reductase was significantly decreased in gill of 10 mg L(-1) PAA treated crayfish and increased in group exposed to 2 mg L(-1) compared to control after 7 days exposure. Antioxidant enzyme activity in exposed groups returned to control values after recovery period. Gill, hepatopancreas, and antennal gland showed slight damage in crayfish treated with 2 mg L(-1) of PAA compared to the control group. The extent and frequency of histological alterations were more pronounced in animals exposed to 10 mg L(-1). The gill was the most affected organ, infiltrated by granular hemocytes and displaying malformations of lamella tips and disorganization of epithelial cells. After a 7 day recovery period, the infiltrating cells in affected tissues of the exposed crayfish began to return to normal levels. Results suggested that the given concentrations could be applied to signal crayfish against crayfish plague agent in aquaculture; however, further studies are required for safe use.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Desinfetantes/toxicidade , Oxidantes/toxicidade , Ácido Peracético/toxicidade , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Antenas de Artrópodes/patologia , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/enzimologia , Catalase/metabolismo , Feminino , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/enzimologia , Brânquias/patologia , Glutationa Redutase/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/enzimologia , Hepatopâncreas/patologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
18.
Zootaxa ; 4058(2): 151-74, 2015 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26701517

RESUMO

Multivariate and univariate statistical analyses of morphometric data and examination of morphological characters of the crayfish species Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) longirostris revealed the existence of two undescribed species from populations previously considered to be C. longirostris in tributaries of the Tennessee River in north Alabama and central south Tennessee. Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) andersoni and Cambarus (Hiaticambarus) diupalma differed from C. longirostris and from each other in aspects of chela morphometrics and in the presence or absence of qualitative characters. Cambarus andersoni has a corneous spine on the base of the ventral surface of the rostrum that is absent in the other two species; C. diupalma abdominal pleura are acute whereas they are subtruncate in C. andersoni and in C. longirostris. The known range of both of the new species is restricted to northern tributaries of the Tennessee River in south Tennessee and north Alabama. Cambarus diupalma is considered Endangered and C. andersoni is considered Vulnerable using American Fisheries Society conservation categorization.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/classificação , Alabama , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Tamanho Corporal , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Tennessee
19.
Zootaxa ; 4021(1): 1-32, 2015 Sep 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624118

RESUMO

Procambarus (Girardiella) holifieldi, new species, is a primary burrowing crayfish from a low-lying field in Perry County, Alabama. It belongs to the Hagenianus Group in the subgenus Girardiella.  The new species is morphologically most similar to Procambarus (Girardiella) barbiger.  They differ in the size and shape of the caudal processes.  Procambarus barbiger has a beard along the mesial margin of the palm of the chela, while the new species lacks the beard.  In addition to the description of the new species, the Hagenianus Group is reviewed and new synonymies are provided. We demonstrate that a cephalic process is indeed present in the Hagenianus Group.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Astacoidea/classificação , Alabama , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Animais , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Feminino , Masculino , Pigmentação/fisiologia
20.
Zoology (Jena) ; 118(6): 424-32, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26358988

RESUMO

Invasion is one of the most consequential phenomena affecting the distribution of native species. Few in number of species, European crayfish are losing the competition with introduced North American crayfish. The spiny-cheek crayfish, Orconectes limosus, is an outstanding example, successfully competing against the native narrow-clawed crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus. For four years, we collected data regarding crayfish occurrences, their relative abundance, and the structure of populations in the ongoing colonisation process of O. limosus in the lower Danube. The mature females of both invasive and indigenous crayfish species were analysed with respect to biometry and production of oocytes in relation to the dynamics of invasion. The interspecific comparisons showed no significant differences regarding body size, with an average of approximately 102 mm total length and 31 g wet weight for both species. However, the fecundity of the indigenous species was found to be constant throughout the investigated area, whereas the number of eggs produced by the invasive females was significantly increased at the active front of the invasion. The maximum number of ovarian eggs found was 887 and 1156 in the indigenous species and the invasive species, respectively. We propose the scenario that the invasive species, which carries the deadly crayfish plague, creates an ecological advantage by reducing the populations of indigenous crayfish. Subsequently, the invasive females opportunistically use the available resources to enhance their fecundity, resulting in the acute growth of populations. However, the long-term competitiveness and colonisation success of O. limosus still remain in question.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Espécies Introduzidas , Animais , Astacoidea/anatomia & histologia , Tamanho Corporal , Peso Corporal , Feminino , Fertilidade/fisiologia , Especificidade da Espécie
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