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1.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 211: 111896, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33440267

RESUMO

Maduramicin, an extensively used anticoccidial drug, has been introduced into environment due to poorly absorbed in the intestine of broiler chicken. To understand the potential ecological toxicity of maduramicin on aquatic organisms, acute and subacute toxicity, hemolymph biochemistry, histopathology and the expressions of drug metabolism and stress response genes of crayfish (Procambius clarkii) were investigated in this study. For the first time, the 96 h median lethal concentration (LC50) of maduramicin on crayfish was 67.03 mgL-1 with a 95% confidence interval (54.06-81.32 mgL-1). Then, the crayfish were exposed to 0.7 mgL-1 (1/100 LC50), 3.5 mgL-1 (1/20 LC50) and 7.0 mgL-1 (1/10 LC50) maduramicin for 28 days. Maduramicin significantly altered biochemical parameters including AST, ALT, CK, LDH and ALP of hemolymph in crayfish at several time points. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) of crayfish gills, hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle were significantly decreased or elevated by different concentrations of maduramicin treatment at varying time points. Furthermore, histopathological damage of crayfish gills, hepatopancreas and abdominal muscle were observed in a concentration-dependent manner. The expressions of metabolic and stress response genes (CYP450, GST, COX1, COX2, HSP70 and MT) in hepatopancreas of crayfish were significantly up-regulated by maduramicin (7.0 mgL-1) treatment for 8 h to 7 d, and returned to normal levels after the removal of maduramicin for 3-7 days. In conclusion, our findings demonstrated that environmental exposure of maduramicin threaten to the health of crayfish living in the areas nearby livestock farms or pharmaceutical factory. Crayfish exhibited resistance to the stress of maduramicin via activating drug metabolite and detoxification pathways.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/toxicidade , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Lactonas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Organismos Aquáticos/metabolismo , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Inativação Metabólica , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Alimentos Marinhos , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo
2.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111645, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396165

RESUMO

The effects of chloridazon (Ch) and its metabolite chloridazon-desphenyl (Ch-D) at the environmentally relevant concentrations of 0.45 µg/L and 2.7 µg/L on signal crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus were assessed in a 30-day exposure followed by a 15-day depuration period. Locomotion, biochemical haemolymph profile, oxidative and antioxidant parameters, and histopathology were evaluated. Crayfish exposed to Ch at 0.45 µg/L and 2.7 µg/L showed significantly (p < 0.01) higher CAT activity and GSH level in hepatopancreas and gill compared to controls. The concentration of Ch at 2.7 µg/L was associated with significantly (p < 0.01) higher levels of GLU, LACT, ALT, AST in haemolymph compared to controls. Chloridazon-desphenyl exposure at both tested concentrations caused significantly higher (p < 0.01) GLU, LACT, ALT, AST, NH3, and Ca in haemolymph; lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels in hepatopancreas; and CAT activity and GSH level in hepatopancreas and gill. Alterations of structure including focal dilatation of tubules, increased number of fibrillar cells, and haemocyte infiltration in the interstitium were observed with 2.7 µg/L Ch and with both Ch-D exposures. Locomotion patterns did not vary significantly among groups. A 15-day recovery period was insufficient to restore normal physiological parameters in exposed groups. Chloridazon and its metabolite Ch-D exerts harmful effects on crayfish.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Piridazinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Brânquias/patologia , Hemolinfa/citologia , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/patologia , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridazinas/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
3.
Aquat Toxicol ; 224: 105497, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388340

RESUMO

Previous research has identified microplastics as new environmental pollutants that are widely distributed in a variety of environments, including aquaculture environments. However, the potential hazard of microplastics to aquaculture animals, especially toward lipid metabolism involved with the survival and growth of aquatic animal, has not yet been investigated. In the present study, redclaw crayfish (Cherax quadricarinatus) were exposed to different concentrations of 200 nm-sized polystyrene microspheres (0, 0.5, and 5 mg/L) for 21 days, to investigate the effects of microplastics on lipid metabolism. After ingestion, the microplastics were distributed in the intestines and hepatopancreas, and appeared to inhibit the growth of Cherax quadricarinatus. Subsequently, the lipid levels in the hepatopancreas and hemolymph was detected, and found that after 21 days of exposure, the lipid content and free fatty acids in the hepatopancreas and hemolymph decreased significantly, and total cholesterol and triglycerides levels increased significantly in the hemolymph. This might have been caused by insufficient intake of exogenous fat. A significant decrease in lipase activity also supported this view. The activity of lipoprotein lipase related to lipolysis in the hepatopancreas increased significantly, while the activity of fatty acid synthase related to fat synthesis increased, and the activity of acetyl-CoA carboxylase decreased. These results indicated disturbed lipid metabolism in the hepatopancreas. The significant increase of lipid transport-related low-density lipoprotein indicated that the lipolytic capacity was higher than the lipid synthesis capacity. The expression levels of fatty acid metabolism-related genes FAD6 and FABP decreased significantly, indicating that the fatty acid utilization ability of hepatopancreas cells was inhibited, which was consistent with the results of enzyme activities. Thus, microplastics represent a potential hazard to redclaw crayfish, at least on lipid metabolism. This study provided basic data on the ecotoxicological effects of microplastics on crustaceans.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Poliestirenos/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Aquicultura , Astacoidea/metabolismo , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Microesferas , Poliestirenos/química , Poliestirenos/metabolismo , Poluentes Químicos da Água/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/metabolismo
4.
Chemosphere ; 257: 127189, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470540

RESUMO

The effects of chloridazon exposure at concentrations of 2.7 µg/L (maximal real environmental concentration in the Czech Republic), 27 µg/L, 135 µg/L and 270 µg/L on early life stages of marbled crayfish (Procambarus virginalis) were evaluated. Significantly higher glutathione S-transferase activity and reduced glutathione level was observed at all tested concentrations of chloridazon compared with the control. Chloridazon in concentrations 27, 135 and 270 µg/L caused delay ontogenetic development and slower growth. Histopathological changes in hepathopancreas were found in two highest tested concentrations (135 µg/L and 270 µg/L). Crayfish behaviour was not altered in control vs. exposed animals, while the activity parameters tend to decline with increasing chloridazon concentrations.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Praguicidas/toxicidade , Piridazinas/toxicidade , Testes de Toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , República Tcheca
5.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 99: 190-198, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32058094

RESUMO

There has been extensive research on local and systemic oxidative stress and immunosuppression in cadmium exposed crustaceans, but the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Because of multiple functions of epithelial cells, such as storing and detoxifying heavy metals, producing and secreting immune-related molecules (i.e. hemocyanin, NF-κB and CBS/H2S et al.), hepatopancreas may play an important role in immune system. In the present study, as an indication of systemic and local immune status in crayfish Procambarus clarkii, the relationship between PO activities in haemolymph and levels of CBS/H2S/NF-κBp65 in hepatopancreas was evaluated following a 96 h exposure to sub-lethal Cd2+ concentrations (1/40, 1/8 and 1/4 of the 96 h LC50). The results indicated that there was a significant increase in ROS contents accompanied by markedly decreased THC and PO levels (P < 0.01) in a dose- and time- dependent manner. The evolutionarily conserved CBS and NF-κB p65 showed obvious difference (P < 0.01) (including cellular distribution and expression level) between the healthy and pathological conditions based on IHC analysis. Even small change of endogenous H2S content may be closely related to NF-κB p65 level and PO activity (P < 0.01). There was significantly negative correlation (P < 0.05) between PO activity and expression levels of CBS and NF-κB p65. Obviously, crayfish innate immunity was a highly complex network of various cells, molecules, and signaling pathways which operate, at least partly, through small signaling molecules such as H2S. ROS-mediated CBS/H2S/NF-κB pathway probably allowed hepatopancreas to inhibit PO activity under cadmium stress.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/imunologia , Cádmio/toxicidade , Hepatopâncreas/imunologia , Imunidade Inata , Monofenol Mono-Oxigenase/metabolismo , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Masculino , Estresse Oxidativo , Transdução de Sinais , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo
6.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 96: 122-125, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31805411

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the effects of replacing different proportions of fishmeal with Antarctic krill (AK) on the growth performance, body composition and nonspecific immunity index of red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkia. AK was used to replace 0 (control), 25%, 50% and 100% of the fishmeal in the basic diet of crayfish to formulate four test feeds with basically equivalent nitrogen and lipid contents; these feeds were denoted AK0, AK25, AK50 and AK100, respectively. Compared with the control group, crayfish fed diets with AK replacement showed increased body weight gain; feed efficiency; survival rate; body protein content; phenoloxidase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities; total haemocyte counts; number of hyaline, semigranular and granular cells; and disease resistance against Aeromonas hydrophila. Conversely, the body lipid level of these crayfish decreased relative to that of the control. However, a high AK level (AK100) does not show improvements in efficiency compared with a moderate AK level (AK50). Based on the efficiency of AK in enhancing the growth performance and nonspecific immunity of crayfish, the optimum replacement proportion of fishmeal with AK was 50%. These results confirm that AK can promote the growth of crayfish and improve their disease resistance.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Astacoidea/imunologia , Euphausiacea/química , Imunidade Inata , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/microbiologia , Dieta , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
7.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 96: 290-296, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765791

RESUMO

Nitrite and sulfide are harmful pollutants in water ecosystems that negatively influence the survival and growth of crayfish. It is currently known that the intestine of crustaceans acts as a significant immune organ, serving as the front line of defense against diseases. In this study, we investigated how the oxidative damage parameters, antioxidant status and microbial composition of the intestine of Procambarus clarkii were influenced under acute nitrite (60 mg/L) and sulfide (18 mg/L) stress for 72 h. Compared with the control, after exposure to nitrite and sulfide stress, the production of reactive oxygen species, and the lipid peroxide and malondialdehyde contents increased in the intestines and were significantly higher after 72 h of exposure. The superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities increased to maximum levels at 6, 24 and 12 h, respectively. These activities then decreased gradually and were significantly lower than those of the control after 48 or 72 h of exposure. In the crayfish exposed to stress, the expression of antioxidant genes including heat shock protein 70, ferritin and metallothionein increased to their maximum values at 12, 48 and 12 h, respectively. The expression levels then decreased gradually, and after 72 h, were lower than, or lacked significant differences with, the expression levels in the control. Additionally, nitrite and sulfide exposure restructured the intestinal microbial community of P. clarkii. This led to decreases in the abundance of some genera such as Citrobacter. However, the abundance of other genera, such as Shewanella and Acinetobacter, increased. Therefore, the health of P. clarkii was seriously impaired when exposed to nitrite and sulfide stress.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata , Nitritos/toxicidade , Sulfetos/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/microbiologia , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Distribuição Aleatória
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 96: 32-40, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31786343

RESUMO

The red-swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) is the most important economic shrimp species in China, and is an important model crustacean organism in many fields of research. In crustaceans, gills interface directly with the ambient environment and thus play a vital role in the toxicology. In the context of increasing environmental heavy metal pollution, the relationship between copper (Cu2+) stress and the immune response of P. clarkii has recently received considerable attention. However, impact of Cu2+ on the crayfish immune system is still not fully understood. In this study, we used Illumina sequencing technology to perform a transcriptome analysis of the gills of P. clarkii after 24 h of Cu2+ treatment. A total of 37,226,812 unigenes were assembled, and 1943 unigenes were significantly differentially expressed between the control and Cu2+ treatment groups. Functional categorization of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) revealed that genes related to antioxidant activity, detoxication, metabolic processes, biosynthetic processes, and immune system processes were differentially regulated during Cu2+ stress. In addition, DEGs in the immune system were classified as being related to the MAPK signaling pathway, purine metabolism, Toll and Imd signaling pathway, PI3K-Akt signaling pathway and Hippo signaling pathway. Five genes (CuZnSOD, CAT, IDH1, PHYH and DECR2) were significantly up-regulated in the peroxisome pathway, which plays an important role in reacting to oxidative stress. Importantly, qRT-PCR validation of the results for seven genes chosen at random (NDK, ATP6L, ATP5C1, RPS14, RPL22e, CTSF and HSP90A) confirmed the Illumina sequencing results. This study provides a valuable starting point for further studies to elucidate the molecular basis of the immune system's response to Cu2+ stress in crayfish.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/imunologia , Cobre/efeitos adversos , Imunidade Inata/genética , Transcriptoma/imunologia , Poluentes Químicos da Água/efeitos adversos , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Brânquias/efeitos dos fármacos , Brânquias/metabolismo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Distribuição Aleatória , Estresse Fisiológico , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos
9.
Chemosphere ; 242: 125105, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31675589

RESUMO

In this study, Procambarus clarkii (P. clarkii) were exposed to different concentrations (0, 2, 5 and 10 mg/L) of cadmium (Cd). We studied the effects of Cd exposure on intestinal histology and microbiota in P. clarkii. The results demonstrated that exposure to Cd caused histological alterations in the intestines of P. clarkii. Meanwhile, high-throughput sequencing analysis revealed that Cd exposure could alter the richness, diversity, and composition of intestinal microbiota in P. clarkii. At the phylum level, the relative abundances of the prevalent phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria changed significantly after exposure to Cd. At the genus level, the most prevalent genera with significant difference in relative abundance were Bacteroides, Clostridium XlVb, Hafnia, Buttiauxella, Shewanella, Anaerorhabdus, Alistipes, Arcobacter, Azoarcus, Chryseobacterium, and so on. Furthermore, functional prediction analysis of intestinal microbial communities showed that Cd exposure could significantly alter the pathways related to metabolism, diseases, cellular processes, and so on. Taken together, exposure to Cd could induce intestinal histological damage and affect intestinal microbiota composition and functions of P. clarkii. Our study can be an important step toward a better understanding of the toxic effects of Cd on aquatic crustaceans.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/toxicidade , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Intestinos/anatomia & histologia , Microbiota/efeitos dos fármacos , Actinobacteria , Animais , Bacteroidetes , Firmicutes , Água Doce , Intestinos/efeitos dos fármacos
10.
Chemosphere ; 239: 124786, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31520975

RESUMO

The herbicide atrazine is heavily applied in agricultural areas in the Midwestern United States and can run-off and seep into surrounding aquatic habitats where concentrations can reach over 300 ppb. It is known that acute exposures to 80 ppb atrazine cause lasting deficiencies in the chemoreception of food and mate odors. Since atrazine impairs chemosensory responses, the goal of this study was to determine the effect of atrazine on cells, including olfactory sensory neurons, located in the lateral antennules of crayfish. In this experiment, we treated crayfish for 10 days with ecologically relevant concentrations of 0, 10, 40, 80, 100 and 300 ppb (µg L-1) of atrazine. Following treatments, the distal portion of the lateral antennules was cryosectioned. We used a TdT mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assay to determine if any cells had DNA damage and may be thus undergoing apoptosis. We found that as atrazine concentrations increase above 10 ppb, the number of TUNEL-positive cells, visualized in the lateral antennules, significantly increases. Our data show that atrazine exposure causes DNA damage in cells of the lateral antennules, including olfactory sensory neurons, thus leading to impairments in chemosensory abilities. Because crayfish rely heavily on chemoreception for survival, changes in their ability to perceive odors following atrazine exposure may have detrimental effects on population size.


Assuntos
Antenas de Artrópodes/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/genética , Atrazina/toxicidade , Dano ao DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Antenas de Artrópodes/citologia , Astacoidea/citologia , Ecotoxicologia , Exposição Ambiental , Feminino , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Masculino
11.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 95: 140-150, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629063

RESUMO

To learn more about red swamp crayfish related genes in response to bacterial infections, we investigated immune-related genes induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the hepatopancreas using high-throughput sequencing method. In present the study, a total of 55,107 unigenes were identified, with an average length of 678 bp. A total of 2215 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found, including 669 up-regulated genes and 1546 down-regulated genes. The result of Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that 3017 DEGs were enriched in 19 biological process subcategories, 17 cellular component subcategories and 15 molecular function subcategories. The top 20 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathways showed that "ribosome" was the most abundant group, which had 34 DEGs. KEGG enrichment analysis identified several immune response pathways. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) results exhibited that several immune responsive genes were greatly up-regulated following LPS stimulation as observed in the results of high-throughput sequencing. Overall, this study provides new insight into the immune defense mechanisms of P. clarkii against LPS infection.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/administração & dosagem , Transcriptoma , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala
12.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(5): 663-669, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473775

RESUMO

Climate change is expected to alter hydrological cycles on global and regional scales, impacting groundwater and surface water inputs to stream habitats. In the midwestern United States, the volume and frequency of inputs are expected to become increasingly variable. This region has a high incidence of agriculture, creating enormous potential for transport of pesticides and herbicides into aquatic ecosystems. Metolachlor, an herbicide for corn and soybean crops, has been demonstrated to contaminate surface water and groundwater in the region. This study examines the impact of variable flow conditions on the toxicity of environmentally relevant concentrations of metolachlor in a macroinvertebrate found in midwestern streams, the rusty crayfish (Faxonius rusticus). Changes in crayfish foraging behavior were analyzed using a Mixed Model ANCOVA. Under toxicant exposure, crayfish significantly increased their consumption of macrophytes, but only under the variable flow regime. Thus, the increased variability in toxicant exposure impacted crayfish foraging behavior more than other flow regimes. This significant interaction between flow regime and metolachlor exposure suggests that the greater variability in toxicant inputs to streams may lead to more severe changes in behavior for exposed organisms.


Assuntos
Acetamidas/toxicidade , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Ciclo Hidrológico , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Água Subterrânea/química , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Rios/química
13.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 10-16, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465869

RESUMO

In crustaceans, it has been suggested that specific protection against pathogens could be triggered by vaccines and biological response modifiers; although the specific mechanisms of this protection have not been clarified yet. In the crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, a humoral lectin (CqL) binds its own granular hemocytes through a specific receptor (CqLR) and increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In the present study, we challenged in vivo crayfishes with immunostimulants, ß-glucan (200 µg/kg) or LPS (20 µg/kg), and identified the participation of cellular and humoral mechanisms. The stimulants generated a complex modification in the total hemocytes count (THC), as well as in the proportion of hemocyte subsets. At 2 h after the challenge, the largest value in THC was observed in either challenged crayfishes. Furthermore, at the same time, hyaline hemocytes were the most abundant subset in the hemolymph; after 6 h, granular hemocytes (GH) were the most abundant hemocyte subset. It has been observed that a specific subset of GH possesses a CqLR that has been related to ROS production. After 2 and 6 h of the ß-glucan challenge, a significant increase in CqLR expression was observed in the three circulating hemocyte subsets; also, an increased expression of CqL was detected in a granular hemocytes sub-population. After 2 and 6 h of stimulation, the specific activity of the serum lectin challenged with ß-glucan was 250% and 160% higher than in the LPS-treated-group, respectively (P < 0.05). Hemocytes from challenged crayfishes were stimulated ex vivo with CqL, ROS production was 180% higher in hemocytes treated with ß-glucan + CqL than in hemocytes treated with LPS + CqL (P < 0.05). The results evidence the effectivity of immune stimulators to activate specific crayfish defense mechanisms, the participation of CqL and its receptor (CqLR) could play an important role in the regulation of immune cellular functions, like ROS production, in Cherax quadricarinatus.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/genética , Imunidade Humoral/genética , Lectinas/genética , Receptores Mitogênicos/genética , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos , Hemolinfa/metabolismo , Lectinas/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Receptores Mitogênicos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
14.
Arch Environ Contam Toxicol ; 77(3): 452-460, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31451889

RESUMO

The adoption of genetically modified (GM) crops has occurred rapidly in the United States. The transfer of GM corn byproducts from agricultural fields to nearby streams after harvest is significant and occurs well into the post-harvest year. These corn leaves, stems, and cobs then become a detrital food source for organisms, such as shredders in the stream ecosystem. Considering that the nontarget effects of Bt corn have been observed in some terrestrial organisms, we assessed whether Bt toxins affect an important aquatic organism, juvenile F. rusticus crayfish. Juvenile crayfish were fed six distinct diet treatments: two varieties of Bt corn, two non-Bt controls of herbicide tolerant corn, and two controls: fish gelatin and river detritus. Juveniles were fed these diets while housed in flow-through artificial streams that received natural stream water from a local source. Specific growth rate and survivorship of the crayfish were measured throughout the study. Juveniles fed corn diets grew significantly less and had reduced survival compared with juveniles fed fish gelatin or river detritus diets. Furthermore, juveniles fed one Bt variety of corn (VT Triple Pro®) exhibited significantly less growth than those fed one of the herbicide tolerant varieties (Roundup Ready 2®). Our study shows that corn inputs to streams may be detrimental to the growth and survivorship of juvenile crayfish and that certain Bt varieties may exacerbate these negative effects. These effects on crayfish will have repercussions for the entire ecosystem, because crayfish are conduits of energy between many trophic levels.


Assuntos
Ração Animal/efeitos adversos , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/toxicidade , Zea mays/genética , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/toxicidade , Produtos Agrícolas , Ecossistema , Endotoxinas/genética , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Gelatina/farmacologia , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/genética , Rios
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446066

RESUMO

Eatable crustaceans are susceptible to bacterial septicemia from injury or a compromised immune defense, which can possibly have detrimental effects in mammals that consume them. Since many crustaceans (i.e., crabs, lobsters and crayfish) are used for animal food and human consumption, it is of interest to understand the effects potential bacterial infections can have on their health as well as ours, including effects on cardiovascular and neuromuscular activities. The Red Swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) was used as a model crustacean to investigate the effect of direct exposure to isolated endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the associated peptidoglycans from gram-negative bacteria (Serratia marcescens). S. marcescens is a common strain identified to cause septicemia in mammals and is prevalently found in nature. LPS injection into the hemolymph of crayfish revealed acute changes in heart rate and effects on survival. Direct LPS exposure on an in situ sensory-CNS-motor circuit produces a decrease in recruiting of the motor nerve at 500 µg/ml but has no significant effect at 100 µg/ml. At the isolated neuromuscular junction, the direct action of the LPS endotoxin (500 µg/ml) enhances evoked synaptic transmission, while not altering facilitation. Also, the amplitude and the frequency of spontaneous vesicle fusion events was not altered by LPS exposure. However, the resting membrane potential of the muscle transiently hyperpolarizes. These direct actions on tissues appear to be independent of innate immune responses and suggest the LPS targets on these tissues have a role in excitability of cellular function. {242 words}.


Assuntos
Crustáceos/efeitos dos fármacos , Endotoxinas/farmacologia , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/fisiologia , Sistema Nervoso Central/efeitos dos fármacos , Crustáceos/microbiologia , Crustáceos/fisiologia , Endotoxinas/toxicidade , Coração/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemolinfa/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipopolissacarídeos/toxicidade , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Mamíferos/fisiologia , Neurônios Motores/efeitos dos fármacos , Junção Neuromuscular , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/toxicidade , Células Receptoras Sensoriais/efeitos dos fármacos , Serratia marcescens/patogenicidade , Transmissão Sináptica/efeitos dos fármacos
16.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 137: 177-186, 2019 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255619

RESUMO

Gracilaria is a genus of red algae widely cultivated in Asia and is notable for its economic importance as food ingredients. Neoagaro oligosaccharides (NAOSs) are products of Gracilaria that have excellent water solubility, antioxidant activity and prebiotic effect. In this study, Gracilaria crude polysaccharide was treated with agarase and hydrolyzed into NAOSs with different degrees of polymerization (DP). The compositions of the hydrolyzed NAOSs were analyzed by electrospray ionization-time of flight-mass spectrometry and thin layer chromatography. The antioxidant capacity and prebiotic effects of NAOSs with different DPs were investigated and the results showed that DP could affect the antioxidant capacity of NAOSs. The prebiotic effects of NAOSs with different DP were evaluated based on the influence on the growth of four intestinal bacteria. NAOSs promoted the growth of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Sterptococcus thermophilus. The protective effect of Gracilaria NAOSs in simulated gastrointestinal juice was also studied. Finally, NAOSs with best prebiotic effects were used in Procambarus feeding experiment and exhibited promotion effect on Procambarus growth. The present study showed that Gracilaria NAOSs can be utilized as antioxidant and prebiotic additive, which had a considerable potential in food and feed industry.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Glicosídeo Hidrolases/metabolismo , Gracilaria/química , Oligossacarídeos/química , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Prebióticos , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Biomimética , Indústria Alimentícia , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Oligossacarídeos/metabolismo
17.
Aquat Toxicol ; 214: 105262, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31351400

RESUMO

To understand the toxic effects of nitrite exposure on crayfish, expression of genes involved in the immune system, the antioxidant defense, and the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) was measured after 12, 24, and 48 h of different nitrite concentrations exposure in the hepatopancreas and hemocytes of Procambarus clarkii. Nitrite exposure up-regulated mRNA levels of cytoplasmic Mn superoxide dismutase (cMn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), after 24 h nitrite exposure. At 48 h, nitrite exposure decreased the mRNA levels of mitochondrial MnSOD (mMn-SOD), CAT, and GPx. High concentrations of nitrite at 48 h of exposure decreased expression of ß-1,3-glucan-bingding protein in the hepatopancreas, and lysozyme expression in hemocytes. Nitrite exposure caused little effect on the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in hemocytes. Through overall clustering analysis, we found that 24 h of nitrite exposure caused stronger transcriptional responses. Our study indicated that the response of P. clarkii to acute nitrite exposure was exposure time-dependent. These results will help to understand the dynamic response pattern of crustaceans to nitrite pollution, and improve our understanding of the toxicological mechanisms of nitrite in crustaceans.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/genética , Astacoidea/imunologia , Exposição Ambiental , Nitritos/toxicidade , Transcrição Genética , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Catalase/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/metabolismo , Hemócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Hemócitos/enzimologia , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Hepatopâncreas/enzimologia , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Fatores de Tempo , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade
18.
Bull Environ Contam Toxicol ; 103(4): 579-584, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31273423

RESUMO

The herbicide atrazine is heavily applied in the U.S. Midwest to control broadleaf weeds. It enters local streams and rivers through runoff and seepage, and exposure can affect non-target aquatic organisms, like crayfish. We examined sublethal effects of atrazine on the expression and activity of the detoxification enzymes cytochrome P450 (CYP450) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) in crayfish. Crayfish were exposed to 0, 10, 40, 80, 100 and 300 ppb atrazine for 1, 2, 4, 7 and 10 days. Their hepatopancreas was collected and CYP450 expression and GST activity was analyzed. Atrazine exposure caused differential expression and activity of CYP450 and GST. CYP450 expression varied over exposure concentrations and time. Further, GST activity significantly increased following a 2 day, 10 ppb exposure to atrazine and a 300 ppb atrazine exposure for all days tested. We found that atrazine detoxification is a dynamic process that changes with the length and intensity of atrazine exposure.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/fisiologia , Atrazina/toxicidade , Sistema Enzimático do Citocromo P-450/metabolismo , Glutationa Transferase/metabolismo , Herbicidas/toxicidade , Animais , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Atrazina/metabolismo , Exposição Ambiental , Glutationa/metabolismo , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Herbicidas/metabolismo , Rios , Alimentos Marinhos
19.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 182: 109388, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31299477

RESUMO

Iron in excess can have toxic effects on living organisms. In China, the freshwater crayfish Procambarus clarkii is a source of aquatic food with high-quality protein and has significant commercial value. P. clarkii shows oxidative stress on exposure to heavy metals, and antioxidant enzymes, such as ubiquitination enzymes and proteasomes, play important roles in oxidative stress. To understand the antioxidant defense system of P. clarkii, we analyzed the hepatopancreas transcriptomes of P. clarkii after stimulation with FeCl3. In total, 5199 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified (2747 upregulated and 2452 downregulated). GO analysis revealed that these DEGs belonged to 16 cellular component, 16 molecular function, and 19 biological process subcategories. A total of 1069 DEGs were classified into 25 categories by using COG. Some antioxidant defense pathways, such as "Ubiquitin mediated proteolysis" and "Glutathione metabolism," were identified using KEGG. In addition, quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) substantiated the up-regulation of a random selection of DEGs including antioxidant and immune defense genes. We obtained information for P. clarkii transcriptome databases and new insights into the responses of P. clarkii hepatopancreas to heavy metals.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Compostos Férricos/toxicidade , Hepatopâncreas/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/efeitos dos fármacos , Transcriptoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Astacoidea/genética , China , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Hepatopâncreas/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Distribuição Aleatória , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
20.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 93: 116-123, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302287

RESUMO

Hesperetin is a natural flavanone compound, which mainly exists in lemons and oranges, and has potential antiviral and anticancer activities. In this study, hesperetin was used in a crayfish pathogen challenge to discover its effects on the innate immune system of invertebrates. The crayfish Procambarus clarkii was used as an experimental model and challenged with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Pathogen challenge experiments showed that hesperetin treatment significantly reduced the mortality caused by WSSV infection, while the VP28 copies of WSSV were also reduced. Quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed that hesperetin increased the expression of several innate immune-related genes, including NF-kappaB and C-type lectin. Further analysis showed that hesperetin treatment plays a positive effects on three immune parameters like total hemocyte count, phenoloxidase and superoxide dismutase activity. Nevertheless, whether or not infected with WSSV, hesperetin treatment would significantly increase the hemocyte apoptosis rates in crayfish. These results indicated that hesperetin could regulate the innate immunity of crayfish, and delaying and reducing the mortality after WSSV challenge. Therefore, the present study provided novel insights into the potential therapeutic or preventive functions associated with hesperetin to regulate crayfish immunity and protect crayfish against WSSV infection, provide certain theoretical basis for production practice.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Hesperidina/metabolismo , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Replicação Viral/efeitos dos fármacos , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Astacoidea/imunologia , Astacoidea/virologia , Dieta , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Hesperidina/administração & dosagem , Longevidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/efeitos dos fármacos , Vírus da Síndrome da Mancha Branca 1/fisiologia
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