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1.
Eur J Ophthalmol ; 30(1): 189-195, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30474390

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of symptoms of computer vision syndrome and to identify its associated factors. The secondary objective was to assess knowledge and practices related to preventing computer vision syndrome symptoms. METHODS: The data for this cross-sectional study were collected through a self-administered questionnaire distributed to 713 female undergraduates studying business and medicine in Saudi Arabia. The questionnaire included computer vision syndrome validated symptoms and factors associated with computer vision syndrome development. RESULTS: The most common symptom due to prolonged computer use was neck or shoulder pain, reported by 82.2% of the subjects. Overall, 66.5% of the subjects suffered from headache and 51.5% from dry eyes, in mild, moderate, or severe form. Business students were 1.6 times as likely as medical students to suffer from computer vision syndrome (odds ratio = 1.65; 95% confidence interval: 1.22, 2.24). The use of electronic devices for more than 5 h (odds ratio = 1.52; 95% confidence interval: 1.07, 2.16) was also associated with experiencing computer vision syndrome symptoms. Regarding computer vision syndrome prevention, factors such as hours of use, screen distance, screen brightness, and room illumination showed statistically significant difference between the two groups (p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of computer vision syndrome symptoms was significantly higher among business students, who reported lower awareness and poor practice measures of computer use recommendations. Relevant awareness campaigns focusing on the appropriate use of computers are highly recommended.


Assuntos
Astenopia/epidemiologia , Computadores , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Cervicalgia/epidemiologia , Dor de Ombro/epidemiologia , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Transtornos da Visão/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Autorrevelação , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome , Universidades
2.
PLoS One ; 14(12): e0226042, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815965

RESUMO

Workers in the dry-cleaning industry are exposed to organic solvents that may cause eye irritation and tear film changes. Objective To quantify changes in the ocular surface and tear film in dry cleaners exposed to organic solvents and associate these changes with ocular irritation as reported in a symptom questionnaire for dry eye diagnosis. Methods This was a case and control study in which the characteristics and eye-irritation symptoms were compared between two groups of 62 participants that were either exposed or not exposed to organic solvents. A general optometric examination and the following test were performed: lipid interferometry, Lissamine Green Stain, tear breakup time, Schirmer I, conjunctival impression cytology and the Donate dry eye symptoms questionnaire. Results Sixty-five percent of exposed workers obtained a higher score than 13 on the Donate dry eye symptoms questionnaire which indicated the presence of more irritation symptoms than those in the non- exposed group. A Chi-square analysis indicated the exposed group reported significantly higher incidences (P <0.005) for eye irritation symptoms of sandy sensation; tearing eyes sensation; foreign body sensation; tearing; dry eye; dryness; eyestrain and heavy eyelids. A Mann Whitney-U indicated greater severity only for symptoms relating to dry eye; sandy sensation; foreign body sensation, tearing; tearing eyes and dryness. There was a statistically significant difference (P <0.05) for Schirmer I; tear break up time; and the ocular surface assessed with Lissamine green staining and conjunctival impression cytology between groups. A reduction in the thickness of the lipid layer in the exposed group compared to the non-exposed group was observed. Surprisingly, clinical test outcomes were not significantly correlated with dry eye symptoms nor years of exposure. Conclusion Workers in the dry-cleaning industry exposed to organic solvents are associated with changes in ocular surface and tear film generating irritation symptoms commonly present in evaporative dry eye.


Assuntos
Túnica Conjuntiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/diagnóstico , Compostos Orgânicos/toxicidade , Solventes/química , Lágrimas/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Astenopia/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Túnica Conjuntiva/patologia , Túnica Conjuntiva/fisiologia , Síndromes do Olho Seco/etiologia , Pálpebras/efeitos dos fármacos , Pálpebras/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lavanderia , Lipídeos/química , Masculino , Exposição Ocupacional , Compostos Orgânicos/química , Lágrimas/química , Lágrimas/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Biomed Eng Online ; 18(1): 111, 2019 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729983

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Head-mounted displays (HMDs) and virtual reality (VR) have been frequently used in recent years, and a user's experience and computation efficiency could be assessed by mounting eye-trackers. However, in addition to visually induced motion sickness (VIMS), eye fatigue has increasingly emerged during and after the viewing experience, highlighting the necessity of quantitatively assessment of the detrimental effects. As no measurement method for the eye fatigue caused by HMDs has been widely accepted, we detected parameters related to optometry test. We proposed a novel computational approach for estimation of eye fatigue by providing various verifiable models. RESULTS: We implemented three classifications and two regressions to investigate different feature sets, which led to present two valid assessment models for eye fatigue by employing blinking features and eye movement features with the ground truth of indicators for optometry test. Three graded results and one continuous result were provided by each model, respectively, which caused the whole result to be repeatable and comparable. CONCLUSION: We showed differences between VIMS and eye fatigue, and we also presented a new scheme to assess eye fatigue of HMDs users by analysis of parameters of the eye tracker.


Assuntos
Astenopia/diagnóstico , Movimentos Oculares , Cabeça , Adulto , Astenopia/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
4.
Appl Ergon ; 81: 102883, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422246

RESUMO

Vergence-accommodation conflict (VAC) is the main contributor to visual fatigue during immersion in virtual environments. Many studies have investigated the effects of VAC using 3D displays and expensive complex apparatus and setup to create natural and conflicting viewing conditions. However, a limited number of studies targeted virtual environments simulated using modern consumer-grade VR headsets. Our main objective, in this work, is to test how the modern VR headsets (VR simulated depth) could affect our vergence system, in addition to investigating the effect of the simulated depth on the eye-gaze performance. The virtual scenario used included a common virtual object (a cube) in a simple virtual environment with no constraints placed on the head and neck movement of the subjects. We used ocular biomechanics and eye tracking to compare between vergence angles in matching (ideal) and conflicting (real) viewing conditions. Real vergence angle during immersion was significantly higher than ideal vergence angle and exhibited higher variability which leads to incorrect depth cues that affects depth perception and also leads to visual fatigue for prolonged virtual experiences. Additionally, we found that as the simulated depth increases, the ability of users to manipulate virtual objects with their eyes decreases, thus, decreasing the possibilities of interaction through eye gaze. The biomechanics model used here can be further extended to study muscular activity of eye muscles during immersion. It presents an efficient and flexible assessment tool for virtual environments.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular , Convergência Ocular , Ergonomia/métodos , Óculos Inteligentes , Realidade Virtual , Adulto , Astenopia , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Sinais (Psicologia) , Percepção de Profundidade , Medições dos Movimentos Oculares , Feminino , Fixação Ocular , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
5.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 55(8): 595-600, 2019 Aug 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422638

RESUMO

Objective: To explore the effect of different types of visual display terminals (VDT) on visual fatigue. Methods: A total of 68 subjects were enrolled and divided into flat screen group, metal screen group and glass bead screen group. The subjects watched a video in the same environment for 60 minutes. Before and after watching, they were asked to fill in a visual fatigue rating scale and underwent visual function examinations. The blink rate of subjects was recorded during the experiment. Results: After watching the video, for the metal screen, glass bead screen, and flat screen group respectively: (1)The median (interquartile range, IQR) of visual fatigue rating increased significantly (before: 1.0 (1.2), 1.3 (1.6), 0.5 (0.9); after: 2.1 (1.9), 2.1 (1.7), 1.2 (1.0); Z=-4.72, -4.83, -3.75; all P<0.05). (2) The median (IQR) of blink frequency increased significantly (before: 11.5 (10.6), 15.3 (11.9), 7.0 (13.0) times/minute; after: 15.0 (13.0), 17.0 (16.0), 15.0 (12.0) times/minute; Z=-2.64, -2.74, -4.12; all P<0.05). (3) The mean (±standard deviation) of critical flicker fusion frequency (CFF) decreased significantly [before: (35.76±2.98), (35.84±2.79), (35.44±2.21) Hz; after: (35.09±2.78), (34.94±2.67), (34.57±2.33) Hz; t=-2.64, -2.38, -4.12; all P<0.05). (4)The median (IQR) of near point of convergence (NPC) became significantly larger [before: 3.9 (2.6), 4.0 (2.5), 4.3 (2.7) cm; after 5.4 (3.8), 4.8 (2.7), 6.1 (3.9) cm; Z=-3.39, -2.27, -3.36; all P<0.05]. (5)The median of negative relative accommodation (NRA) reduced significantly [before: 2.00 (0.50), 2.00 (0.56), 2.00 (0.25) cm; after 1.75 (0.50), 1.75 (0.25), 1.75 (0.50) cm; Z=-1.98, -2.09, -2.53; all P<0.05]. Meanwhile, no significant changes were found for the positive relative accommodation (PRA), accommodative amplitude, accommodative response, negative relative vergence in all groups after watching the video. The comparisons between the three groups showed that, after watching the video, the participants in the two kinds of projection screen group (the metal and glass bead screen group) had more subjective visual fatigue than those in the flat screen group respectively (Z=-2.09, -2.21; all P<0.05), while there was no significant difference in subjective visual fatigue between the two projection screen groups (P>0.05). In addition, positive fusional vergence recovery point and break point decreased after watching the video in the metal screen and glass bead screen group, respectively (t=4.15, 2.07; all P<0.05). However, no such change was found in the flat screen group. Conclusions: Short-term and long-distance VDT operations have significant effects on visual fatigue, which may be due to the decreased positive convergence ability. VDT operations over projection screens may result in more visual fatigue than LED flat panel display, while the effect of different projection screen types have insignificant influences on visual fatigue. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2019, 55:595-600).


Assuntos
Astenopia , Cristais Líquidos , Acomodação Ocular , Astenopia/etiologia , Humanos , Visão Ocular
6.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2019: 9680697, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354804

RESUMO

Recent studies on brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on the steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) have demonstrated their use to control objects or generate commands in virtual reality (VR) environments. However, most SSVEP-based BCI studies performed in VR environments have adopted visual stimuli that are typically used in conventional LCD environments without considering the differences in the rendering devices (head-mounted displays (HMDs) used in the VR environments). The proximity between the visual stimuli and the eyes in HMDs can readily cause eyestrain, degrading the overall performance of SSVEP-based BCIs. Therefore, in the present study, we have tested two different types of visual stimuli-pattern-reversal checkerboard stimulus (PRCS) and grow/shrink stimulus (GSS)-on young healthy participants wearing HMDs. Preliminary experiments were conducted to investigate the visual comfort of each participant during the presentation of the visual stimuli. In subsequent online avatar control experiments, we observed considerable differences in the classification accuracy of individual participants based on the type of visual stimuli used to elicit SSVEP. Interestingly, there was a close relationship between the subjective visual comfort score and the online performance of the SSVEP-based BCI: most participants showed better classification accuracy under visual stimulus they were more comfortable with. Our experimental results suggest the importance of an appropriate visual stimulus to enhance the overall performance of the SSVEP-based BCIs in VR environments. In addition, it is expected that the appropriate visual stimulus for a certain user might be readily selected by surveying the user's visual comfort for different visual stimuli, without the need for the actual BCI experiments.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Potenciais Evocados Visuais , Estimulação Luminosa , Realidade Virtual , Astenopia/etiologia , Astenopia/prevenção & controle , Encéfalo/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
7.
Appl Ergon ; 80: 50-56, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31280810

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sixty-four to 90% of computer users experience symptoms of computer vision syndrome (CVS). People with CVS symptoms experience neck pain (NP), and people with NP can have visual symptoms. OBJECTIVES: (1) To examine differences in CVS symptoms in computer users with and without persistent NP. (2) To determine relationships between visual ergonomics, demographics, and CVS in those with and without persistent NP DESIGN: Comparative cross-sectional observational study METHOD: An online survey consisting of multiple questionnaires including the Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire (CVS-Q), Visual Symptoms Survey (VSS), and Convergence Insufficiency Symptoms Survey (CISS) was completed by 167 participants. RESULTS: The persistent NP group had significantly higher CVS-Q, VSS, and CISS scores (p <0.01) compared to controls. No relationships were found between visual ergonomics, demographics, and visual symptoms in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: People with persitent NP are more likely to present with CVS than controls. Clinicians should consider assessing visual symptoms in people presenting with persisting NP.


Assuntos
Astenopia/epidemiologia , Cervicalgia/epidemiologia , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Astenopia/etiologia , Terminais de Computador , Computadores , Estudos Transversais , Ergonomia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cervicalgia/etiologia , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Síndrome , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto Jovem
8.
Zhongguo Zhen Jiu ; 39(7): 721-5, 2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31286734

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the therapeutic effects on the relevant symtoms in the patients with dry eye syndrome treated with the acupoint thread-embedding therapy versus topical artificial tears eye drops. METHODS: A total of 88 patients with dry eye syndrome of deficiency lacrima production were randomized into an acupoint thread-embedding therapy group (thread-embedding group) and a control group with topical artificial tears eye drops (medication group), 44 cases in each one. In the thread-embedding group, 3 cases were dropped out. In the thread-embedding group, Ganshu (BL 18), Pishu (BL 20) and Shenshu (BL 23) etc. were selected and the acupoint thread-embedding therapy was operated once every 30 days, totally for two treatments. In the medication group, the topical artificial tears eye drops was used, 4 to 6 times a day, one drop each time, for 8 weeks totally. Separately, before treatment, after 4-week treatment and 8-week treatment as well as in 8 weeks and 12 weeks of the follow-up, the levels of lactoferrin in tears were determined and the scores of the relevant symptoms of ocular surface such as eye dryness, foreign body sensation in the eyes and eye fatigue were evaluated. RESULTS: In the thread-embedding group, after 4-week and 8-week of treatment as well as in 8-week and 12-week follow-up, the scores of eye dryness, foreign body sensation, burning sensation of eye, phengophobia and eye fatigue were reduced significantly as compared with those before treatment (all P<0.05). In the medication group, the relevant symptoms of ocular surface were reduced after 4-week and 8-week treatment as compared with those before treatment (all P<0.05). In the follow-up, the scores of the relevant symptoms of ocular surface in the thread-embedding group were significantly lower than the medication group (all P<0.05). Separately, after 4-week treatment and 8-week treatment as well as in 8 weeks and 12 weeks of the follow-up, the levels of lactoferrin in tears in the thread-embedding group were significantly increased as compared with those before treatment (all P<0.05). The change was not obvious as compared with that before treatment in the medication group (P>0.05). The levels of lactoferrin in tears at each time point after treatment in the thread-embedding group were higher than the medication group (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The acupoint thread-embedding therapy effectively improves in the relevant symptoms of ocular surface, such as eye dryness, foreign body sensation, burning sensation of eye, phengophobia and eye fatigue, and increases the level of lactoferrin in tears in the patients with dry eye syndrome of deficiency aqueous production. In the follow-up, the therapeutic effects of the acupoint thread-embedding therapy are significantly better than artificial tears eye drops.


Assuntos
Astenopia , Síndromes do Olho Seco , Pontos de Acupuntura , Síndromes do Olho Seco/terapia , Humanos
9.
Optom Vis Sci ; 96(8): 568-578, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343514

RESUMO

SIGNIFICANCE: The present study addresses the accommodative response and its dependence on the type of optical correction used. The results are discussed relative to their possible implications for myopia progression and visual fatigue. PURPOSE: The accommodative response has been investigated owing to its possible relationship with the onset and progression of myopia and visual fatigue. This study explored the influence of wearing soft contact lenses in comparison with spectacles in terms of magnitude and variability of accommodation. In addition, we analyzed the intersession and intermethod repeatability. METHODS: Dynamic accommodative response was recorded during 30-second epochs, at five different distances (50, 40, 33, 25, and 20 cm), in 21 individuals (mean refractive error ± SD, -0.79 ± 1.39 D) while wearing either soft contact lenses or spectacles on two different days. To assess repeatability, a second identical intervention was conducted. RESULTS: Higher lags of accommodation were obtained with the use of soft contact lenses in comparison with the spectacle condition (P = .04, partial η [ηp] = 0.204), and similarly, a higher variability of accommodation at near distances was found during the soft contact lens measurement (P < .001, ηp = 0.647). There was a strong intersession repeatability at all the distances tested for both optical correction methods. CONCLUSIONS: The higher accommodative lag and fluctuations found while wearing soft contact lenses in comparison with spectacles may help to understand the mechanisms underlying myopia progression and asthenopia. These findings may be also considered when testing the accommodative response in research settings. Our test-retest design confirmed that there is a very good intersession repeatability for all the distances in both optical correction methods.


Assuntos
Acomodação Ocular/fisiologia , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Óculos , Miopia Degenerativa/terapia , Adulto , Astenopia/diagnóstico , Astenopia/fisiopatologia , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia Degenerativa/diagnóstico , Miopia Degenerativa/fisiopatologia , Testes Visuais , Visão Binocular/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31337021

RESUMO

Visual fatigue and discomfort are very common complaints for video display operators (VDTs). The aim of our study was to study work-related visual symptoms in relation to refractive disorders and psychosocial factors in 3054 public employees by way of follow-ups for 10 years with periodic medical examinations with eye evaluation in the period 2000-2009. Factors related to visual fatigue were evaluated in the follow-up using generalized equation estimation. Visual fatigue was very common in VDT operators (64.03%). During the follow-up, no relationship between visual fatigue and age, sex, seniority of work, visual acuity and refractory disorders was found. Visual fatigue was significantly associated with anxiety perception in a dose-related matter (odds ratio (OR) 7.40, confidence interval (CI) 95% 1.77-31.3), psychosocial factors (OR 1.03, CI 95% 1.01-1.07), use of lenses (OR 1.34, CI 95% 1.09-1.64) and time of VDT usage (OR 1.27, CI 95% 1.04-1.53). This study confirmed that visual fatigue is common in VDT users and is related to anxiety perception, time of VDT usage, use of lenses and stress. No relationship was found between visual fatigue and refractory disorders or visual acuity.


Assuntos
Astenopia/etiologia , Terminais de Computador , Doenças Profissionais/etiologia , Erros de Refração/etiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Doenças Profissionais/complicações , Acuidade Visual
11.
Appl Opt ; 58(13): 3467-3480, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31044844

RESUMO

This study was carried out to evaluate a method used to measure three-dimensional (3D) cognitive fatigue based on the pupillary response. This technique was designed to overcome measurement burdens by using non-contact methods. The pupillary response is related to cognitive function by a neural pathway and may be an indicator of 3D cognitive fatigue. Twenty-six undergraduate students (including 14 women) watched both 2D and 3D versions of a video for 70 min. The participants experienced visual fatigue after viewing the 3D content. Measures such as subjective rating, response time, event-related potential latency, heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP) alpha power, and task-evoked pupillary response (TEPR) latency were significantly different. Multitrait-multimethod matrix analysis indicated that HEP and TEPR latency measures had stronger reliability and higher correlations with 3D cognitive fatigue than other measures. TEPR latency may be useful for quantitatively determining 3D visual fatigue, as it can be easily used to evaluate 3D visual fatigue using a non-contact method without measuring burden.


Assuntos
Astenopia/diagnóstico , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Raios Infravermelhos , Fotografação/instrumentação , Pupila/fisiologia , Adulto , Astenopia/fisiopatologia , Cognição , Eletrocardiografia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31126060

RESUMO

To examine the effects of prolonged visual display terminal (VDT) working hours and exercise frequency on VDT-related symptoms, we recruited 944 Chinese internet staff for the study. A self-administered questionnaire survey was used to obtain the hours of daily VDT work, exercise frequency, and the physical and mental health of the participants. The daily VDT working time of participants was 8.7 hours. Musculoskeletal pain and eye complaints were prevalent, and the participants had poor mental health status. When daily VDT operation time was more than 11 hours, VDT-related symptoms, including backache (odds ratios (OR) = 3.59), wrist pain (OR = 1.88), hip pain (OR = 2.42), dry eyes (OR = 2.22), and ocular soreness (OR = 2.16) were more likely to occur, and an increased risk of serious occupational stress (OR = 6.75) and job burnout (OR = 2.66) was found in internet workers. Compared with those who never exercised, appropriate exercise frequency (three times per week) was helpful to relieve pain in the shoulders (OR = 0.28), neck (OR = 0.45), back (OR = 0.30), lower back (OR = 0.25), and wrists (OR = 0.38), as well as to prevent vision loss (OR = 0.33) and job burnout (OR = 0.42). Therefore, avoiding excessive VDT exposure and performing moderate exercise could protect the physical and mental health of internet staff from the adverse effects of VDT.


Assuntos
Astenopia/epidemiologia , Terminais de Computador , Nível de Saúde , Internet , Saúde Mental , Doenças Profissionais/epidemiologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Inquéritos e Questionários
13.
Acta Med Port ; 32(4): 260-265, 2019 Apr 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31067419

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Given the increasing use of electronic devices, and the increasing number of complaints with its use, we intend to evaluate the prevalence of manifestations of dry eye and ocular fatigue in a population of individuals, who use the computer daily to perform all their professional tasks, as well as to correlate these complaints with the number of hours of digital use as well as their possible improvement with behavioural measures and use of tear drops. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 77 individuals (154 eyes) were evaluated on two separate days with a 1-month interval. They completed two questionnaires: OSDI and PEG Eye Fatigue. An objective ocular surface assessment was performed: Schirmer test without anesthetic, DR-1a Dry Eye Monitor™, hyperemia evaluation, lacrimal break up, presence of keratitis and lesions in the conjunctiva, as well as near accommodation point and near convergence point. After the first evaluation, the subjects were divided into two groups: group A (< 2 hours of computer working) and group B (> 2 hours of computer working). Some environmental measures to reduce complaints and recommendation of use of artificial tears were explained to the latter. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference in the majority of the parameters evaluated in the group B, in relation to the morning period (group A) - tear film (p = 0.032), hyperemia (p < 0.001), BUT (p < 0.001), keratitis (p < 0.001), conjunctival lesion (p = 0.002) and accommodation point (p < 0.001). In the evaluation - one month later - there were no statistically significant differences in any of the parameters analysed in the group A, and in group B there was a decrease in most parameters at the end of that period - Schirmer test (p = 0.005), lacrimal film (p = 0.022), keratitis (p < 0.001), conjunctival lesion (p = 0.005) and fatigue score (p < 0.001). DISCUSSION: It was thus possible to show the appearance of ocular fatigue and ocular surface changes with prolonged use of computers (> 2 hours) as well as a significant improvement in symptomatology (subjective assessment) as well as of ocular surface changes (objective evaluation) with the implementation of postural measures, regular breaks and use of lubricants. This is the first study, to the best of our knowledge, of digital asthenopia in which, in addition to the subjective evaluation, the presence of ocular surface modifications (objective assessment) were evaluated and the respective improvement with the aforementioned ergophthalmological measures were evaluated. CONCLUSION: This survey highlights the increased overall level of awareness that we need to have to face the rapid and wide-scale changes driven by the emergence of digital technology and, more particularly, its impact on user's vision and posture. We concluded that the longer we use the electronic devices (more than two hours) the more severe the complaints and rates of ocular surface changes are. Environmental and ocular strategies can attenuate or even eliminate the discomfort caused by this syndrome, and increase professional performance and quality of life.


Assuntos
Astenopia/epidemiologia , Terminais de Computador/estatística & dados numéricos , Síndromes do Olho Seco/epidemiologia , Adaptação Ocular , Adulto , Doenças da Túnica Conjuntiva/diagnóstico , Síndromes do Olho Seco/complicações , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Hiperemia/diagnóstico , Ceratoconjuntivite Seca/diagnóstico , Masculino , Portugal/epidemiologia , Lágrimas , Fatores de Tempo
14.
Appl Ergon ; 78: 26-36, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31046957

RESUMO

This study examined the effects of display curvature and task duration on proofreading performance, visual discomfort, visual fatigue, mental workload, and user satisfaction. Five 27″ rear-screen mock-ups with distinct curvature radii (600R, 1140R, 2000R, 4000R, and flat) were used. Ten individuals per display curvature completed a series of four 15 min comparison-proofreading trials at a 600 mm viewing distance. Only proofreading speed benefited from display curvature, with 600R providing the highest mean proofreading speed. Proofreading speed increased and accuracy decreased for all display curvatures over the 1 h proofreading period. Visual discomfort, visual fatigue, and mental workload increased during the first 15 min of proofreading. A decrease in critical fusion frequency during that period indicated increases in visual fatigue and mental workload. A short break between 15 min proofreading tasks could be considered to prevent further degradation of task performance and ocular health.


Assuntos
Astenopia/etiologia , Terminais de Computador , Desenho de Equipamento , Leitura , Carga de Trabalho , Comportamento do Consumidor , Eficiência , Desenho de Equipamento/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
15.
Cesk Slov Oftalmol ; 74(4): 154-157, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913891

RESUMO

The main goal of our study was to prove short-term objective influence of near addition and relieving prism on accommodative and vergence facility in group of young healthy persons. Further, we wanted to prove objective and subjective difference between two types of soft contact lenses during working with digital device. We had in total 37 subjects in our study. The first group contained 37 subjects with average age 23 years without important eye pathology. The second group contained 8 subjects with the same average age without important eye pathology. In the first group of subjects, we measured binocular accommodative facility (BAF) and binocular vergence facility (BVF) with and without addition 1 D and with and without relieving prism 2 pD BO at working distance 45 cm. In the second group, we evaluated BAF, BVF and standardized questionnaire (Computer Vision Syndrome Questionnaire - CVS-Q, Sequí M. 2015) during usage of two types of soft contact lenses. The first type of contact lenses (type 1) contained relieving prism for PC working and type 2 was soft contact lens with aspheric design. In the first group of subjects, we measured these values: BAF without addition = 12.78 cpm, BAF with addition = 11.57 cpm, BVF without prism = 12.32 cpm, BVF with prism = 11.59 cpm. In the second group of subjects, we measured with contact lens type 1 these values: BAF = 12.13 cpm, BVF = 13.63 cpm and questionnaire score 9.43 points. With contact lens type 2 we measured BAF = 11.75 cpm, BVF = 11.63 cpm and questionnaire score 12.86 points. We proved statistically important different between two variable only in the first group between BAF with and without addition and BVF with and without relieving prism. In conclusion, we found statistically important decrease in variable BAF and BVF with usage of addition and relieving prism. We found that neither addition nor prism have positive influence on increase of BAF and BVF. Subjects in second group had higher BAF and BVF values with both types of contact lenses in comparison with natural values. We found that with contact lens type 1 (with addition) subjects had higher BAF and BVF values in comparison with contact lens type 2 (aspheric). Subjects with contact lens type 1 had also lower (better) questionnaire score, i.e. 9.43 versus 12.86 point. Key words: Digital eyestrain syndrome, accommodative and vergence facility, addition, relieving prism.


Assuntos
Astenopia , Lentes de Contato Hidrofílicas , Acomodação Ocular , Adulto , Astenopia/terapia , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Visão Ocular , Adulto Jovem
16.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 19(1): 76, 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of digital devices, reading habits and the prevalence of eyestrain among urban Indian school children, aged 11-17 years. METHODS: The study included 576 adolescents attending urban schools who were surveyed regarding their electronic device usage. Additional information on the factors that may have an effect on ocular symptoms was collected. RESULTS: Twenty percent of students aged 11 in the study population use digital devices on a daily basis, in comparison with 50% of students aged 17. In addition to using these devices as homework aids, one third of study participants reported using digital devices for reading instead of conventional textbooks. The majority of students preferred sitting on a chair while reading (77%; 445 students), with only 21% (123 students) preferring to lie on the bed and 8 students alternating between chair and bed. There was a significant association between the students who preferred to lie down and those who experienced eyestrain, as reported by a little over one fourth of the student population (27%). Out of 576 students, 18% (103) experienced eyestrain at the end of the day after working on digital devices. CONCLUSIONS: The increased use of digital devices by adolescents brings a new challenge of digital eyestrain at an early age. Our study reports the patterns of electronic device usage by school children, evaluates factors associated with eyestrain and highlights the need for further investigation of these issues.


Assuntos
Astenopia/epidemiologia , Computadores de Mão , Leitura , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Projetos Piloto , Prevalência
17.
J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil ; 69(1): 30-33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30821632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the efficacy of Smartphone-based exercises in conjunction with modified glasses prescription in the treatment of convergence insufficiency and fusion weakness. METHODS: A total of 150 patients using glasses and having asthenopia between 15 and 30 years of age were subjected to thorough eye examination including binocular vision testing and refraction. Of them 26 individuals were found to have convergence insufficiency with fusion weakness and exophoria >6 pd. Subjects with amblyopia, manifest strabismus and other ocular diseases were excluded from the study. Modified glasses (overcorrection of myopia by -0.5 D Sph & under correction of hypermetropia by +0.5 D Sph) were given along with newly designed Smartphone-based fusion exercises. RESULTS: Near point of convergence improved by 2.89 ± 1.08 cm, positive fusion vergence by -10.2 ± 3.25 pd and near phoria by 3.13 ± 0.32 pd (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The current study demonstrates the efficacy of Smartphone-based fusion exercises, in conjunction with modified glasses prescriptions, in the management of symptomatic convergence and fusion insufficiency. Indeed, this novel, newly designed approach for convergence insufficiency improves symptoms by reducing near point of convergence and degree of exophoria and increasing fusional vergence.


Assuntos
Astenopia/terapia , Terapia por Exercício , Óculos , Transtornos da Motilidade Ocular/terapia , Smartphone , Adolescente , Adulto , Convergência Ocular , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ortóptica , Prescrições , Adulto Jovem
18.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 7(3): e11251, 2019 03 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30843867

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The surgical microscope is used primarily for microsurgeries, which are more complicated than other surgical procedures and require delicate tasks for a long time. Therefore, during these surgical procedures, surgeons experience back and neck pain. To solve this problem, new technology, such as wearable displays, is required to help surgeons maintain comfortable postures and enjoy advanced functionality during microsurgery. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop a surgical microscope system that would work with wearable devices. It would include a head-mounted display (HMD) that can offer 3D surgical images and allow a flexible and comfortable posture instead of fixed eyepieces of surgical microscope and can also provide peripheral visual field with its optical see-through function. METHODS: We designed and fabricated a surgical microscope system that incorporates a see-through type 3D HMD, and we developed an image processing software to provide better image quality. The usability of the proposed system was confirmed with preclinical examination. Seven ENT (ear, nose, and throat) surgical specialists and 8 residents performed a mock surgery-axillary lymph node dissection on a rat. They alternated between looking through the eyepieces of the surgical microscope and viewing a 3D HMD screen connected to the surgical microscope. We examined the success of the surgery and asked the specialists and residents to grade eye fatigue on a scale of 0 (none) to 6 (severe) and posture discomfort on a scale of 1 (none) to 5 (severe). Furthermore, a statistical comparison was performed using 2-tailed paired t test, and P=.00083 was considered significant. RESULTS: Although 3D HMD case showed a slightly better result regarding visual discomfort (P=.097), the average eye fatigue was not significantly different between eyepiece and 3D HMD cases (P=.79). However, the average posture discomfort, especially in neck and shoulder, was lower with 3D HMD display use than with eyepiece use (P=.00083). CONCLUSIONS: We developed a see-through type 3D HMD-based surgical microscope system and showed through preclinical testing that the system could help reduce posture discomfort. The proposed system, with its advanced functions, could be a promising new technique for microsurgery.


Assuntos
Microscopia/instrumentação , Microcirurgia/instrumentação , Cirurgiões Bucomaxilofaciais/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/normas , Adulto , Animais , Astenopia/etiologia , Astenopia/prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Imageamento Tridimensional/instrumentação , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Imageamento Tridimensional/normas , Masculino , Microscopia/normas , Microscopia/estatística & dados numéricos , Microcirurgia/métodos , Cirurgiões Bucomaxilofaciais/estatística & dados numéricos , Ratos , Óculos Inteligentes/normas , Óculos Inteligentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/normas , Instrumentos Cirúrgicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/psicologia , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis/estatística & dados numéricos
19.
Biomed Res Int ; 2019: 3014567, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809534

RESUMO

Eye fatigue is a common health problem across all age groups. Herein, we explored the correlation between eye fatigue and thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (NFL). Included in the NFL are intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which are associated with trigeminal pain. This retrospective cross-sectional study included outpatients with best-corrected visual acuity above 20/30 in both eyes and without dry eye, glaucoma, or retinal disease. A total of 1981 patients were initially enrolled and 377 patients were declared as eligible for the study analysis. We tested subjects for the presence of major ocular symptoms and measured thickness of ganglion cell complex (GCC) using optical coherence tomography. A total of 377 outpatients (46.4% men, mean age of 57.1 years) were enrolled for analysis, based on the interview-reported prevalence of six eye symptom, as follows: 31.5% for eye fatigue, 19.2% for blurring, 18.6% for dryness, 15.7% for photophobia, 13.5% for irritation, and 4.6% for pain. The macular GCC was significantly thicker in subjects with eye fatigue compared to the group not reporting eye fatigue (103.8 µm versus 100.3 µm, P = 0.014). Regression analysis identified eye fatigue (P = 0.026, ß=0.122, adjusted for age and sex) and dryness (P =0.024, ß=0.130) as significantly correlated with the macular GCC thickness, while the full macular thickness showed no significant correlation. In conclusions, eye fatigue and dryness were positively associated with thickness of the macular GCC. Nonvisual symptoms might therefore play a role in the development of eye fatigue.


Assuntos
Astenopia/fisiopatologia , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/diagnóstico por imagem , Fibras Nervosas/patologia , Disco Óptico/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astenopia/diagnóstico por imagem , Astenopia/epidemiologia , Feminino , Glaucoma de Ângulo Aberto/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fibras Nervosas/fisiologia , Disco Óptico/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/diagnóstico por imagem , Retina/patologia , Células Ganglionares da Retina/patologia , Tomografia de Coerência Óptica , Campos Visuais/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 14(1): e0211039, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30657792

RESUMO

Vergence prism adaptability was evaluated in subjects with high symptomatic and asymptomatic heterophoria and compared to individuals with a heterophoria within normal range (the control group). A computer haploscope was used to measure phoria values and changes in the eye position after introducing 6 prism diopters base out in front of the right eye. Phoria values were measured with a nonius paradigm every minute for a period of 10 minutes during adaptation. The results showed that subjects with symptomatic heterophoria are characterized by a lower rate of prism adaptation and adapted to a smaller extent with respect to the control group. The group with high but asymptomatic heterophoria showed prolonged adaptation time but after several minutes of binocular viewing the subjects were able to adapt to the prism to a level similar to the control group. These findings suggest that an impairment in the slow vergence control system may be responsible for the inability to fully reduce vergence effort, which results in poor vergence ranges and asthenopic symptoms during prolonged viewing.


Assuntos
Adaptação Ocular , Astenopia/fisiopatologia , Convergência Ocular , Estrabismo/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Visuais
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