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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(2): 430-442, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725233

RESUMO

The chemical constituents in stem leaf, root, and flower of Ixeris sonchifolia were identified by the ultra performance li-quid chromatography coupled with linear ion trap quadrupole-orbitrap mass spectrometry(UPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS~n). The separation was performed on an Acquity UPLC BEH C_(18) column(2.1 mm×100 mm, 1.7 µm) with a mobile phase of water(containing 0.1% formic acid, A)-acetonitrile(B) with gradient elution. With electrospray ionization source, the data of 70% methanol extract from stem leaf, root and flower of I. sonchifolia were collected by high-resolution full-scan Fourier transform spectroscopy, data dependent acquisition, precursor ion scan, and selected ion monitoring in the negative and positive ion modes. The compounds were identified based on accurate molecular weight, retention time, fragment ions, comparison with reference standard, Clog P and references. A total of 131 compounds were identified from the 70% methanol extract of I. sonchifolia, including nucleosides, flavonoids, organic acids, terpenoids, and phenylpropanoids, and 119, 110, and 126 compounds were identified from the stem leaf, root and flower of I. sonchifolia, respectively. In addition, isorhamnetin, isorhamnetin-7-O-sambubioside and caffeylshikimic acid were discovered from I. sonchifolia for the first time. This study comprehensively analyzed and compared the chemical constituents in different parts of I. sonchifolia, which facilitated the discovery of effective substances and the development and application of medicinal material resources of I. sonchifolia.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Metanol , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Espectrometria de Massas
2.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677724

RESUMO

Saussurea costus (Falc) Lipsch is a traditional herb used to treat kidney stone problems because it contains several molecules used to treat this health problem, such as quercitrin. Infectious stones are the most painful of all urinary tract disorders, with ammonium phosphate (struvite) and carbapatite stones being the most common, caused by a bacterial infection with urease activity. These stones are treated with antibiotics, but antibiotic resistance is on the rise. The current study investigated the anti-urolithic activities of S. costus aqueous and ethanolic extracts of against struvite crystals synthesized using microscopic crystallization and turbidimetric methods, respectively. The utilized methods indicated that the ethanolic extract of this plant has a significant inhibitory effect on struvite crystallization, with a percentage inhibition of (87.45 ± 1.107) (p < 0.001) for a concentration of 1 mg mL-1 and a decrease in the number of struvite crystals, reaching values less than 100/mm3. For the number of struvite crystals inhibited by cystone, we found a value of 400/mm3 and with the aqueous extract we found 700/mm3. The antibacterial activity of the plant extracts studied was examined against several urease-producing bacteria, and this activity was evaluated by qualitative and quantitative evaluation methods; the highest minimum inhibitory concentration was seen in the ethanolic extract, with an MIC of 50 mg mL-1 for Staphylococcus aureus followed by an MIC of 200 mg mL-1 for Klebsiella pneumoniae. It showed a minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) against S. aureus and K. pneumoniae (>50 mg mL-1 and >200 mg mL-1, respectively). Furthermore, to determine the extract's anti-inflammatory activity, in vivo anti-inflammatory activity was investigated in rats. The results show that at a dose of 400 mg kg-1, the ethanolic extract has a maximum edema inhibition of 66%.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Asteraceae , Saussurea , Ratos , Animais , Saussurea/química , Staphylococcus aureus , Estruvita , Urease , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Etanol/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Água/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
3.
Chemosphere ; 315: 137677, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36608889

RESUMO

As one of the major pollutants in the environment, chromium (Cr), a heavy metal, poses a serious threat to urban green spaces and human life and health. Cosmos bipinnatus is considered a potential accumulator of Cr, and the differences in cellular Cr distribution and compartmentalization may uncover the mechanisms involved in its tolerance to Cr. To elucidate the effects of Cr stress on C. bipinnatus and determine the mechanism of Cr tolerance in C. bipinnatus, we investigated the physiological indicators, subcellular distribution and chemical forms, cell wall fractions and their Cr contents, uronic acid content in the cell wall fractions, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) of the cell wall. The results showed that the antioxidant enzyme activities in C. bipinnatus under Cr stress and most of the Cr were fixed in the cell wall. Notably, changes in the content of pectin fractions in the cell wall affected the accumulation of Cr in the cell wall of C. bipinnatus and the stability of negatively charged groups. In addition, the carboxyl and hydroxyl groups played a role in fixing metal in various parts of the C. bipinnatus cell wall.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Cromo , Humanos , Cromo/toxicidade , Antioxidantes , Parede Celular
4.
Molecules ; 28(2)2023 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36677882

RESUMO

This study elucidated the chemical composition of essential oil from Centipeda minima (EOCM) and its antibacterial and antioxidant activities with two chemical monomers thymol and carvacrol. The main chemical composition of EOCM, analyzed by GC-MS, were trans-chrysanthenyl acetate, thymol, aromadendrene and ß-caryophyllene. In the screening of antibacterial activity against S. aureus, two monomers with antibacterial activity were obtained: thymol and carvacrol. The MIC of EOCM, thymol and carvacrol were 0.625 mg/mL, 0.156 mg/mL and 0.156 mg/mL, respectively. The experimental results were shown that three drugs could inhibit the growth of S. aureus and inhibit the formation of biofilm by changing the permeability of cell membrane and interfering with the metabolic activities in bacteria. The scavenging effects of the three drugs on DPPH radical and hydroxyl radical showed that the antioxidant effect of the three drugs was EOCM > carvacrol > thymol.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/farmacologia , Óleos Voláteis/química , Timol/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Staphylococcus aureus , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana
5.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 55(1): 52, 2023 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36708452

RESUMO

Small-scale dairy systems require feeding strategies to improve their productivity and sustainability. These systems in central Mexico mostly sell their milk to local artisan cheese makers. Cow diets influence milk and dairy products composition; therefore, the objective was to evaluate the effect on physicochemical characteristics, sensory appraisal, and economic performance of cheese made with milk from cows fed different levels of sunflower silage (SFSL). Treatments were the inclusion of SFSL in the forage DM component of diets (T0 = 0% SFSL; T20 = 20%; T40 = 40%; and, T60 = 60%). Physicochemical composition was analysed by analysis of variance in a completely randomised design and the sensory assessment of the cheese was with a hedonistic five-point scale and the results were analysed by means of descriptive statistics and a radar graph. Partial budgets were used for economic analyses. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) for all physicochemical variables (moisture content, cheese yield, protein, fat content, and pH) of the cheese, with higher values for yield, protein, and fat content in the treatments that included SFSL. Sensory assessment values were in the average perception range of judges. Treatments that included SFSL had lower production costs, higher margins over costs, and higher returns/costs ratios. The inclusion of sunflower silage at 40 and 60% of the forage component of diets for dairy cows in small-scale dairy systems had positive effects. Yields of cheese as well as protein and fat content were higher. There were positive sensory attributes that meant acceptance by consumers, lower production costs, and higher incomes from cheese making.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Queijo , Helianthus , Feminino , Bovinos , Animais , Silagem/análise , Lactação/metabolismo , Queijo/análise , Leite/química , Dieta/veterinária , Zea mays/química
6.
Curr Microbiol ; 80(2): 61, 2023 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588145

RESUMO

Endophytic fungi live inside plant tissues but do not cause any disease. Several reports have now revealed that they have great influence on host. In this study, the beneficial role of endophytic fungi is highlighted and explored. Endophytic fungi isolated from healthy plants were identified as Aspergillus terreus, Curvularia lunata, C. hawaiiensis, Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium solani, Talaromyces assiutensis, and T. trachyspermus using 18S rRNA gene sequencing. In vitro, fungi evaluated for antimicrobial activity, showed significant activity. These fungi were tested in field application by exploring their broad spectrum. Talaromyces assiutensis and T. trachyspermus were applied in pots and field plot experiments using sunflower as test plants, along with endophytic Cephalosporium sp., and Chaetomium sp. Endophytic fungi showed significant activity against root rot pathogens affecting sunflower and improved plant biomass. They also improved production of plant defense biochemical markers (polyphenolic content and salicylic acid) with improvement in antioxidant potential. These fungi are used as biological control agents, so their culture filtrates are used to check the presence of metabolites by GC-MS. Several new compounds were isolated from T. assiutensis. The major bioactive compounds are Coumarin, 3,4-dihydro-6-methoxy-4,4-dimethyl, 1-Monolinoleoylglycerol trimethylsilyl ether, 1,2-Propanediol, 3-(octadecyloxy), Ethyl iso-allocholate, and 1H-Pyrazole, which possess antioxidant, antitumor, antibacterial, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. These findings will lead to further in-depth research toward the potential use of these endophytic fungi for their possible use in agriculture and drug formation.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos , Asteraceae , Helianthus , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Endófitos , Fungos/genética , Anti-Infecciosos/metabolismo , Plantas/microbiologia
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2545: 475-490, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36720829

RESUMO

The genetic consequences following polyploidy (i.e., whole-genome duplication; WGD) vary greatly across organisms and through time since polyploidization. At the gene level in allopolyploids, changes include loss/retention of both parental gene copies, function/expression divergence between the two parental copies, and silencing of one parental copy. Functional studies of genes with different retention patterns contribute to a better understanding of the genetic factors underlying the success of polyploids. Most research on gene functions to date focuses on a few well-established genetic models or crops. However, many species that best exemplify the polyploidy process are nongenetic models; the lack of an efficient genome editing system hinders functional studies in these systems. In this chapter, we discuss the considerations of developing CRISPR, a robust and efficient genome editing system, in polyploid plants that are not genetic models. We use diploid and polyploid Tragopogon (Asteraceae) as examples of a well-studied evolutionary model system for which abundant genetic and genomic resources are lacking. Using this system, we provide our protocols for sgRNA design, plasmid construction, a useful protoplast transient assay, and a plant transformation method we developed for this system. We also provide suggestions for possible modifications to these protocols to help promote successful application to other non-models. With the rapid applications of CRISPR in plant sciences, the broad adaptation of CRISPR in studies of the evolutionary significance of WGD holds enormous potential. We hope our studies and methods developed for polyploid Tragopogon will provide a guideline for establishing a CRISPR system in other nongenetic model polyploids of evolutionary or other interest.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Repetições Palindrômicas Curtas Agrupadas e Regularmente Espaçadas , Aclimatação , Bioensaio , Poliploidia
8.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 195: 124-133, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634507

RESUMO

After harvest, the metabolism of Gynura bicolor DC (G. bicolor) is vigorous, resulting in sugar scarcity and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation, thus aggravating the quality deterioration. 1-Methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) shows crucial effect in alleviating the postharvest metabolism of vegetables and fruits. This research aimed to evaluate the effect of 1-MCP on ROS scavenging and sucrose metabolism in G. bicolor. In this research, G. bicolor was treated with 10 µL L-1 1-MCP for 12 h, followed by storage at 20 ± 2 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity in darkness for 7 days. During storage, the increases in the respiration rate, electrolytic leakage, weight loss rate, ROS levels, and membrane lipid oxidation were effectively inhibited by 1-MCP. Moreover, starch and hexose degradation was decreased in the 1-MCP group, as were sucrose synthesis and catabolism. Correlation analysis indicated that sugar starvation was associated with respiration, activities regulation of CAT, SOD, and enzymes involved in sucrose metabolism were associated with the levels of hydrogen peroxide at the early storage. In conclusion, 1-MCP delayed postharvest quality deterioration of G. bicolor by alleviating respiration, inducing oxidative stress to enhance ROS scavenging, and inhibiting sucrose metabolism.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos , Açúcares , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Frutas/metabolismo , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Sacarose/farmacologia , Açúcares/farmacologia , Asteraceae/metabolismo
9.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(6): e2214729120, 2023 Feb 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36716359

RESUMO

Understanding the processes that enable organisms to shift into more arid environments as they emerge is critical for gauging resilience to climate change, yet these forces remain poorly known. In a comprehensive clade-based study, we investigate recent shifts into North American deserts in the rock daisies (tribe Perityleae), a diverse tribe of desert sunflowers (Compositae). We sample rock daisies across two separate contact zones between tropical deciduous forest and desert biomes in western North America and infer a time-calibrated phylogeny based on target capture sequence data. We infer biome shifts using Bayesian inference with paleobiome-informed models and find evidence for seven independent shifts into desert habitats since the onset of aridification in the late Miocene. The earliest shift occurred out of tropical deciduous forests and led to an extensive radiation throughout North American deserts that accounts for the majority of extant desert rock daisies. Estimates of life history and micro-habitat in the rock daisies reveal a correlation between a suffrutescent perennial life history and edaphic endemism onto rocky outcrops, an ecological specialization that evolved prior to establishment and diversification in deserts. That the insular radiation of desert rock daisies stemmed from ancestors preadapted for dry conditions as edaphic endemics in otherwise densely vegetated tropical deciduous forests in northwest Mexico underscores the crucial role of exaptation and dispersal for shifts into arid environments.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Magnoliopsida , Teorema de Bayes , Clima Desértico , Filogenia , Ecossistema
10.
Ecotoxicology ; 32(1): 114-126, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652123

RESUMO

Most of the allelopathic studies have focused on the independent allelopathy of one invasive plant, but have ignored the co-allelopathy of the two invasives. The variations in the type of acid rain can modulate the invasiveness of invasives via the changes in the allelopathy. Thus, it is vital to elucidate the allelopathy of invasives, particularly the co-allelopathy of the two invasives, under acid rain with different types, to illuminate the mechanisms driving the co-invasion of two invasives under diversified acid rain. However, little progress has been finished in this aspect presently. This study aimed to evaluate the co-allelopathy of two Asteraceae invasives Solidago canadensis L. and Erigeron annuus L. treated with acid rain with different nitrogen-to-sulfur ratios on seed germination and seedling growth of the horticultural Asteraceae species Lactuca sativa L. via a hydroponic experiment. Aqueous extracts of the two Asteraceae invasives generated obvious allelopathy on L. sativa. S. canadensis aqueous extracts caused stronger allelopathy. There may be an antagonistic effect for the co-allelopathy of the two Asteraceae invasives. Nitric acid at pH 5.6 weakened the allelopathy of the two Asteraceae invasives, but the other types of acid rain strengthened the allelopathy of the two Asteraceae invasives. The allelopathy of the two Asteraceae invasives increases with the increasing acidity of acid rain, but the allelopathy of the two Asteraceae invasives decreases with the increasing nitrogen-to-sulfur ratio of acid rain. Accordingly, the species number of invasives, and the acidity and type of acid rain modulated the impacts of acid rain on the allelopathy of the two Asteraceae invasives.


Assuntos
Chuva Ácida , Asteraceae , Solidago , Germinação , Alelopatia , Plântula , Extratos Vegetais
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e251198, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339350

RESUMO

Abstract The present study was designed to investigate the effects of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract on different tissues in terms of DNA damage, biochemical and antioxidant parameter values in rats with high-calorie diets. With this aim, Wistar albino male rats were divided into 4 groups containing 6 rats each and the study was completed over 12 weeks duration. At the end of the implementation process over the 12 weeks, rats were sacrificed and blood and tissue samples were obtained. Analyses were performed on blood and tissue samples. According to results for DNA damage (8-OHdG), in brain tissue the OG2 group was significantly reduced compared to the NC group. For MDA results in liver tissue, OG1 and OG2 groups were determined to increase by a significant degree compared to the control group, while the OG2 group was also increased significantly compared to the obese group. In terms of the other parameters, comparison between the groups linked to consumption of a high calorie diet (HCD) and administration of Gundelia tournefortii L. in terms of antioxidant activities and serum samples obtained statistically significant results. Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extracts had effects that may be counted as positive on antioxidant parameter activity and were especially identified to improve DNA damage and MDA levels in brain tissues. Additionally, consumption of Gundelia tournefortii L. plant extract in the diet may have antiobesity effects; thus, it should be evaluated for use as an effective weight-loss method and as a new therapeutic agent targeting obesity.


Resumo O presente estudo foi desenhado para investigar os efeitos do extrato da planta Gundelia tournefortii L. em diferentes tecidos em termos de danos ao DNA, valores de parâmetros bioquímicos e antioxidantes em ratos com dietas hipercalóricas. Com esse objetivo, ratos Wistar albinos machos foram divididos em 4 grupos contendo 6 ratos cada e o estudo foi concluído ao longo de 12 semanas de duração. No final desse processo de implementação, os ratos foram sacrificados e amostras de sangue e tecido foram obtidas. As análises foram realizadas em amostras de sangue e tecido. De acordo com os resultados para danos ao DNA (8-OHdG), no tecido cerebral o grupo OG2 foi significativamente reduzido em comparação com o grupo NC. Para os resultados de MDA no tecido hepático, os grupos OG1 e OG2 aumentaram significativamente em comparação ao grupo controle, enquanto o grupo OG2 também aumentou significativamente em comparação ao grupo obeso. Quanto aos demais parâmetros, a comparação entre os grupos ligados ao consumo de dieta hipercalórica (DC) e à administração de Gundelia tournefortii L. em termos de atividades antioxidantes e amostras de soro obteve resultados estatisticamente significativos. Os extratos de plantas de Gundelia tournefortii L. tiveram efeitos que podem ser considerados positivos na atividade dos parâmetros antioxidantes e foram especialmente identificados para melhorar os danos ao DNA e os níveis de MDA nos tecidos cerebrais. Além disso, o consumo de extrato vegetal de Gundelia tournefortii L. na dieta pode ter efeitos antiobesidade; portanto, deve ser avaliado para uso como um método eficaz de perda de peso e como um novo agente terapêutico voltado para a obesidade.


Assuntos
Animais , Ratos , Asteraceae , Antioxidantes , Dano ao DNA , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos Wistar , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico
12.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(1): e202200905, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36487190

RESUMO

This study investigated the phytochemical characteristics of the aerial parts of Acanthospermum hispidum, by chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods, and evaluated the antioxidant and antifungal activities of the crude extract and polyphenol-enriched fractions of the species. The phytochemical prospection showed the presence of polyphenols from the groups of hydroxycinnamic derivatives and flavonoids in the crude extract (CE) and fractions of the aerial parts of A. hispidum. In the chromatographic analysis, it was possible to observe that the fractionation process of the CE with hexane and ethyl acetate was efficient in enriching the fractions in phenolic compounds. This enrichment provided an increase in antioxidant activity by the DPPH and ABTS methods, in which it was observed a higher antioxidant activity for EAF in the DPPH test and higher activity against the ABTS radical by the fractions AqF and RAqF. The extract and fractions were effective against Candida non-Candida albicans strains, mainly against C. glabrata, C. parapsilosis and C. krusei, acting predominantly fungicidal. The results indicate that the aerial parts of A. hispidum can serve as a basis for the development of new antioxidant and antifungal products. Moreover, the fractionation process can contribute to increasing the biological potential of the species.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Asteraceae , Antioxidantes/química , Antifúngicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polifenóis/análise , Asteraceae/química , Componentes Aéreos da Planta/química
13.
Chem Biodivers ; 20(1): e202201022, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36520049

RESUMO

Cladanthus scariosus (Ball) Oberpr. & Vogt is endemic to Moroccan High Atlas. It is known under the vernacular names Irezghi or Irezgui. Three essential oil samples have been isolated from aerial parts and analyzed by combination of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques [gas chromatography (GC) in combination with retention indices (RI), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) and 13 C-NMR spectroscopy]. The compositions of oil samples were dominated by monoterpenes: α-pinene sabinene, and terpinen-4-ol. Chamazulene and dihydrochamazulene isomers as well as various hemiterpene esters and analogs have been identified. To evidence a chemical variability, statistical analysis performed on 13 oil sample compositions allowed partitioning into three groups, mainly differentiated by their contents of sabinene, camphor, borneol, terpinen-4-ol, and germacrene D.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Óleos Voláteis , Óleos Voláteis/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas , Componentes Aéreos da Planta
14.
Phytochemistry ; 206: 113562, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526100

RESUMO

Elephantopus tomentosus L. is a perennial herb taxonomically belonging to the family Asteraceae, which has been used as a folk medicine for the treatment of hepatobiliary diseases. Sesquiterpenoids from this plant have broad biological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and antibacterial effects. In this study, fifteen structurally diverse sesquiterpenoids comprised 11 germacrane-type and 4 eudesmane-type sesquiterpenoids were prioritized to isolated from Elephantopus tomentosus L. based on the HSQC-based Small Molecule Accurate Recognition Technology (SMART) strategy. Among them, ten sesquiterpenoids were previously unreported, and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data, computational methods, single-crystal X-ray diffraction crystallographic data or electronic circular dichroism calculations. In addition, the structures of two known sesquiterpenoids, molephantin A and B, which were reported to possess E-geometry for the Δ1(10) double bond, were revised by reanalyzing their spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic data. Some sesquiterpenoids exhibited significant cytotoxic activities against Hep3B and HepG2 cell lines.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos , Asteraceae , Sesquiterpenos , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Sesquiterpenos/química , Plantas , Asteraceae/química , Estrutura Molecular
15.
Am Nat ; 201(1): 78-90, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36524927

RESUMO

AbstractEmpirical evidence for the climate variability and performance trade-off hypotheses is limited to animals, and it is unclear whether climate constrains the photosynthetic strategies of plants. The plant genus Scalesia Arn. ex Lindl (family Asteraceae), endemic to the Galápagos archipelago, provides an ideal study system to test these hypotheses because of its species with markedly different leaf morphologies that occupy distinct climatic zones. In this study we tested the classic hypotheses that (1) climate constrains leaf size, (2) high climatic temperature variability selects for thermal generalists (i.e., the climate variability hypothesis), and (3) there is a trade-off between the breadth and rate of photosynthetic performance (i.e., jack-of-all-trades but master of none hypothesis). To do this we measured the leaf morphologies and photosynthetic temperature response curves of 11 Scalesia species. In support of a priori predictions, we found that small-leaved Scalesia species were more likely to occupy hotter and drier climates than large-leaved species, there was a positive relationship between climatic temperature variability and the breadth of photosynthetic performance, and photosynthetic performance was negatively correlated with photosynthetic breadth. Our study is among the first to provide evidence for the performance-breadth trade-off hypothesis in photosynthesis, suggesting that climate change may select for photosynthetic thermal generalists.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Fotossíntese , Animais , Fotossíntese/fisiologia , Temperatura , Mudança Climática , Folhas de Planta , Plantas
16.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 194: 638-642, 2023 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36535103

RESUMO

Fructans are important polysaccharides synthesized from sucrose which are present in about 12-15% of angiosperms. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) is considered a non-fructan bearing plant even though its close relative, Helianthus tuberosus, accumulates the inulin type of the polymer in large amounts. Previous work suggested that putative fructan-synthesizing enzymes may be expressed in sunflower, but only very limited amounts of the trisaccharide isokestose were found in stems of plants storing high levels of sucrose due to capitulum removal. The present work is aimed at investigating whether intact sunflower plants may indeed synthesize fructans in any of its parts when grown in conditions that favor sucrose availability. Plants were grown in the field at a low density, resulting in a high light availability and low competition for resources, in comparison with controls (usual crop planting density). Plants were harvested at anthesis. Thinned treatment led to an increase in carbohydrates level especially in the capitulum. Carbohydrates analysis of this tissue in thinned plants revealed, for the first time in this species, the presence of inulin-type fructans. The amount of each member of the series appeared to decline starting from isokestose, being DP = 15 the longest fructan detected. Results suggest that, in sunflower, fructans could be synthesized only when sucrose availability exceeds a high threshold, which may not be attained under usual growing conditions. Given the relationship between fructans and tolerance to abiotic stresses including drought, the present finding opens a new perspective for breeding and management of this crop.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Helianthus , Inulina , Melhoramento Vegetal , Frutanos , Carboidratos/análise , Sacarose
17.
Pan Afr Med J ; 43: 18, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451719

RESUMO

Measles is a rapidly growing disease in the world with 869,770 cases and 207,500 deaths recorded in 2019. Niger continues to record epidemic outbreaks despite the actions taken. This study aims to analyze the national database from 2010 to 2019 to characterize the epidemiology of measles in Niger. This is a descriptive retrospective study. Our sample is exhaustive of suspected and positive measles cases from the database of the department of surveillance and response to epidemics for 10 years. Data extraction and analysis was done using Epi Info 7.2.3.1 software. In our study we found n=11,784 suspected measles cases notified from 2010 to 2019 with 37.2% of positive cases (IgM+). All regions are concerned. The female/male sex ratio was 1.1. The 1-to-5-year age group was the most representative (44.44%); 28.3% received at least one dose of vaccine; 62.22% lived in urban areas. The number of deaths was 225 (1.9%). The proportion of samples received at the laboratory within 3 days is 70.38%. The baseline analysis allowed us to find that all regions recorded cases and deaths with a low vaccination rate of 28.3%. Improved response and immunization strategies are recommended.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Sarampo , Feminino , Masculino , Humanos , Níger/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Sarampo/epidemiologia , Vacinação
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 319, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451983

RESUMO

Introduction: the number of people with diabetes continues to increase worldwide. In Morocco, two million adults are estimated to be diabetic in 2018. The Moroccan population is known for the use of medicinal plants and natural recipes for the treatment of chronic diseases including diabetes. The present study aimed to make an inventory of plant species used in folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes mellitus by diabetic patients in Ksar Elkebir City (North-west, Morocco). Methods: an ethnobotanical study was carried out among 250 diabetic patients by means of a semi-structured questionnaire by direct interviews. Results: a total of 29 species of plants belonging to 23 families were identified. The most represented families were Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Asteraceae, fabaceae, and Lauraceae. While the most frequently cited plant species were Olea europaea l, Trigonella foenum graecum l, Origanum compactum benth l and salvia officinalis l. Leaves were the most used part of plants and the decoction was the most cited mode of preparation used by the population included in the study. Conclusion: people with diabetes in Ksar Elkebir Region use a variety of herbal remedies in several ways to treat diabetes. This result can be an important database for the following studies to confirm the efficiency of these plants in vitro and in vivo.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Diabetes Mellitus , Plantas Medicinais , Adulto , Humanos , Marrocos , Diabetes Mellitus/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Etnobotânica
19.
Food Res Int ; 162(Pt A): 111996, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36461298

RESUMO

Chlorogenic acid (CGA) is an ester between caffeic and quinic acid. It is found in many foods and reacts with free amino groups in proteins at alkaline pH, leading to the formation of an undesirable green pigment in sunflower seed-derived ingredients. This paper presents the biochemical characterization and application of a highly active chlorogenic acid esterase from Lactobacillus helveticus. The enzyme is one of the most active CGA esterases known to date with a Km of 0.090 mM and a kcat of 82.1 s-1. The CGA esterase is easily expressed recombinantly in E. coli in large yields and is stable over a wide range of pH and temperatures. We characterized CGA esterase's kinetic properties in sunflower meal and demonstrated that the enzyme completely hydrolyzes CGA in the meal. Finally, we showed that CGA esterase treatment of sunflower seed meal enables the production of pale brown sunflower protein isolates using alkaline extraction. This work will allow for more widespread use of sunflower-derived products in applications where neutrally-colored food products are desired.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Helianthus , Lactobacillus helveticus , Ácido Clorogênico , Escherichia coli , Refeições
20.
BMC Plant Biol ; 22(1): 605, 2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550394

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heteroplexis Chang is an endangered genus endemic to China with important ecological and medicinal value. However, due to the lack of genetic data, our conservation strategies have repeatedly been delayed by controversial phylogenetic (molecular) relationships within the genera. In this study, we reported three new Heteroplexis chloroplast (cp.) genomes (H. vernonioides, H. impressinervia and H. microcephala) to clarify phylogenetic relationships between species allocated in this genus and other related Compositae. RESULTS: All three new cp. genomes were highly conserved, showing the classic four regions. Size ranged from 152,984 - 153,221 bp and contained 130 genes (85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA, eight rRNA) and two pseudogenes. By comparative genomic and phylogenetic analyses, we found a large-scale inversion of the entire large single-copy (LSC) region in H. vernonioides, H. impressinervia and H. microcephala, being experimentally verified by PCR. The inverted repeat (IR) regions showed high similarity within the five Heteroplexis plastomes, showing small-size contractions. Phylogenetic analyses did not support the monophyly of Heteroplexis genus, whereas clustered the five species within two differentiated clades within Aster genus. These phylogenetic analyses suggested that the five Heteroplexis species might be subsumed into the Aster genus. CONCLUSION: Our results enrich the data on the cp. genomes of the genus Heteroplexis, providing valuable genetic resources for future studies on the taxonomy, phylogeny, and evolution of Aster genus.


Assuntos
Asteraceae , Genoma de Cloroplastos , Filogenia , Genoma de Cloroplastos/genética , Genômica , RNA Ribossômico
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