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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(13)2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771923

RESUMO

Phyllotaxis, the distribution of organs such as leaves and flowers on their support, is a key attribute of plant architecture. The geometric regularity of phyllotaxis has attracted multidisciplinary interest for centuries, resulting in an understanding of the patterns in the model plants Arabidopsis and tomato down to the molecular level. Nevertheless, the iconic example of phyllotaxis, the arrangement of individual florets into spirals in the heads of the daisy family of plants (Asteraceae), has not been fully explained. We integrate experimental data and computational models to explain phyllotaxis in Gerbera hybrida We show that phyllotactic patterning in gerbera is governed by changes in the size of the morphogenetically active zone coordinated with the growth of the head. The dynamics of these changes divides the patterning process into three phases: the development of an approximately circular pattern with a Fibonacci number of primordia near the head rim, its gradual transition to a zigzag pattern, and the development of a spiral pattern that fills the head on the template of this zigzag pattern. Fibonacci spiral numbers arise due to the intercalary insertion and lateral displacement of incipient primordia in the first phase. Our results demonstrate the essential role of the growth and active zone dynamics in the patterning of flower heads.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/fisiologia , Inflorescência/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Organogênese Vegetal , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Genes Reporter , Ácidos Indolacéticos/metabolismo , Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
2.
Plant J ; 106(4): 1024-1038, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33638198

RESUMO

Evolutionary shifts among radiate, disciform and discoid flowerheads have occurred repeatedly in a number of major lineages across the Asteraceae phylogeny; such transitions may also appear within evolutionarily young groups. Although several studies have demonstrated that CYC2 genes partake in regulating floral morphogenesis in Asteraceae, the evolution of capitulum forms within a recently diverging lineage has remained poorly understood. Here, we study the molecular regulation of the shift from a radiate to a disciform capitulum within the Chrysanthemum group. This is a recently radiating group mainly comprising two genera, Chrysanthemum and Ajania, that are phylogenetically intermingled but distinct in flowerhead morphology: Chrysanthemum spp. with radiate capitula and Ajania spp. with disciform capitula. We found that the morphogenesis of zygomorphy in the marginal floret in Ajania was disrupted soon after floral primordium emergence; CYC2g, one of the CYC2 copies that was expressed prominently in the ray floret of Chrysanthemum was not expressed in flowerheads of Ajania. Weakening the expression of ClCYC2g in Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium led to the gradual transition of a ray flower toward the disc-like form. Molecular evolutionary analyses indicated that the disciform capitulum might have evolved only once, approximately 8 Mya, arising from dysfunction of the CYC2g orthologs. A 20-nt deletion, including a putative TATA-box of the Ajania-type CYC2g promoter, appeared to inhibit the expression of the gene. Considering the divergent habitats of Chrysanthemum and Ajania, we propose that the shift from radiate to disciform capitulum must have been related to changes in pollination strategies under selective pressure.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/genética , Chrysanthemum/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Chrysanthemum/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Molecular , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Morfogênese , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 21(23)2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33287411

RESUMO

Carlina acaulis L. has a long tradition of use in folk medicine. The chemical composition of the roots and green parts of the plant is quite well known. There is the lowest amount of data on the cypsela (fruit) of this plant. In this study, the microscopic structures and the chemical composition of the cypsela were investigated. Preliminary cytochemical studies of the structure of the Carlina acaulis L. cypsela showed the presence of substantial amounts of protein and lipophilic substances. The chemical composition of the cypsela was investigated using spectrophotometry, gas chromatography with mass spectrometry, and high-performance liquid chromatography with spectrophotometric and fluorescence detection. The cypsela has been shown to be a rich source of macro- and microelements, vegetable oil (25%), α-tocopherol (approx. 2 g/kg of oil), protein (approx. 36% seed weight), and chlorogenic acids (approx. 22 g/kg seed weight). It also contains a complex set of volatile compounds. The C. acaulis cypsela is, therefore, a valuable source of nutrients and bioactive substances.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/química , Fenótipo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Flores , Histocitoquímica , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Sementes , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise
4.
Food Chem ; 332: 127393, 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603921

RESUMO

Jambu [Acmella oleracea (L.) R.K. Jansen] is an edible plant with a wide range of constituents of biological interest. In this study, the chemical composition of leaves, flowers and stems of jambu cultivated in hydroponic and conventional systems was investigated. In both crop systems, the leaves showed the highest total phenolic content, total flavonoid content and in vitro antioxidant capacity. The extracts were characterized by determining 45 compounds, including phenolic acids, glycosylated flavonoids, alkamides and fatty acids, by LC-MS analysis. Of these compounds, 31 are described for the first time in this species, five of which are reported for the first time in the literature. The PCA and cluster analysis results distinguished different anatomical parts (PC1 and PC2) and cultivation systems (PC3) into well-defined groups.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/química , Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Hidroponia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Estruturas Vegetais/química , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Cromatografia Líquida , Análise por Conglomerados , Espectrometria de Massas , Folhas de Planta/química , Análise de Componente Principal
5.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(8): 988-1006, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372492

RESUMO

In the present study anatomical characterization of 20 medicinally important Asteroideae species were done under light and scanning electron microscopy. Variety of qualitative and quantitative anatomical characters like epidermal cells, stomata, guard cells, subsidiary cells, trichomes and oil droplets were observed. Generally pentagonal, polygonal, irregular or hexagonal, smooth, undulating thick walled epidermal cells were observed in studied species. In abaxial surface Thymophylla tenuiloba L. possessed the largest length of epidermal cell that is, 221.6 (156.6-286.6) µm whereas Bellis perenis L. showed the smallest length that is, 46.4 (32.6-60.2) µm. Average width of epidermal cells ranged from 57 (22-92) µm to 169 (127.9-210.1) µm. Cosmos sulphureus Cav. had smallest width while Thymophylla tenuiloba L. had the largest width. In adaxial surface Artemisia absinthium L. possessed the largest length of epidermal cell that is, 269 (165.1-372.9) µm whereas Bellis perenis L. showed the smallest length that is, 61.4 (42.6-80.2) µm. Average width of epidermal cells ranged from 50.8 (32.6-69) µm to 260 (116-202) µm. Thymophylla tenuiloba L. had smallest width while Dahlia pinnata Cav. had the largest width. Among stomatal characters anisocytic, anomocytic, and diacytic stomata were observed in selected species of Asteroideae. Nonglandular uniserate, multicellular, unbranched pointed tips with bulbous base trichomes were reported in some Asteroideae members while some possessed glandular, capitates mushroom like multicellular trichomes covered with tubercle papicles. Rounded, oval, triangular shaped oil droplets were observed in some species. It is concluded that qualitative and qualitative anatomical variations in trichomes, stomata and epidermal cells are of good taxonomic value for the Asteroideae species.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Células Epidérmicas/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Estômatos de Plantas/ultraestrutura , Tricomas/ultraestrutura , Asteraceae/classificação , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Epiderme Vegetal/ultraestrutura
6.
Genes (Basel) ; 11(4)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32340299

RESUMO

The characterization of genetic diversity in elite breeding stocks is crucial for the registration and protection of new varieties. Moreover, experimental population structure analysis and information about the genetic distinctiveness of commercial materials are essential for crop breeding programs. The purpose of our research was to assess the genetic relationships of 32 endive (Cichorium endivia L.) breeding lines, 18 from var. latifolium (escarole) and 14 from var. crispum (curly), using heterologous Cichorium intybus-derived simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers. We found that 14 out of 29 SSR markers were successfully amplified, but only 8 of them were related to polymorphic loci. To overcome the limitation of the low number of informative SSR marker loci, an alternative SNP-based approach was employed. The 4621 SNPs produced by a restriction site-associated DNA marker sequencing approach were able to fully discriminate the 32 endive accessions; most importantly, as many as 50 marker loci were found to distinguish the curly group from the escarole group. Interestingly, 24 of the marker loci mapped within a peripheral segment of chromosome 8 of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.), spanning a chromosomal region of 49.6 Mb. Following Sanger sequencing-based validation, three genes were determined to carry nonsynonymous SNPs, and one of them matched a putative ortholog of AtELP1, subunit 1 of the Elongator complex. Considering that several previously characterized Elongator complex subunit mutants exhibited elongated and/or curly leaf phenotypes, this gene should be taken into consideration for a better understanding of the underlying mechanism controlling leaf shape in endive.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Repetições de Microssatélites , Folhas de Planta/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Filogenia , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia
7.
Microsc Res Tech ; 83(3): 239-248, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31713962

RESUMO

The current study deals with the detailed morphology investigation of eight Cypsela species belonging to tribe Cichoreae. The different Cypsela types were described, explained, compared, and their taxonomic significance is discussed in detail. Light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been used to highlight quantitative and qualitative characters of underestudied species. Cypsela exhibit great diversity in macro and micromorphological features such as shape, color, length, width, anticlinal and periclinal wall patterns, surface patterns, epicuticular projections. Majority of Cypsela species were brownish in color and their size ranges from 2.16 to 3.98 mm in length and 1.16 to 0.82 mm in breadth. A great diversity in Cypsela shapes like oblanceolate to obovate, obovoid to cylindrical, obvate, narrowly lanceolate were observed. Most of the platelets having epicuticular projections were observed. The surface pattern on the cypsela surface varied from rugose papillate, verrucose papillate, and striated. On the basis of considerable variations observed, the present study can assist as useful constraints at various taxonomic levels. The aim of the present study is to provide a comprehensive description of the Cypsela morphology and to determine the extent to which these micro morphological data can be used as a taxonomic character to delineate various taxa belonging to the tribe Cichoreae.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/classificação , Sementes/ultraestrutura , Microscopia , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura
8.
BMC Genomics ; 20(1): 600, 2019 Jul 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31331262

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Gerbera hybrida is one of the most popular cut flowers in the world; however, stem bending, which always happens when gerbera flower harvested from the field, greatly limits its vase life. To date the molecular mechanisms underlying stem bending remain poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of gerbera during stem bending using the Illumina sequencing technology. Three cDNA libraries constructed from mRNAs of gerbera stem at stem bending stage 0, 2 and 4 were sequenced. More than 300 million high-quality reads were generated and assembled into 96,492 unigenes. Among them, 34,166 unigenes were functionally annotated based on similarity search with known protein. Sequences derived from plants at different stem bending stages were mapped to the assembled transcriptome, and 9,406 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Through Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis, specific pathways were identified during the stem bending process, such as phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, phenylalanine metabolism pathway, starch and sucrose metabolism pathway, and plant hormone signal transduction pathway. A total of 211 transcription factors (TFs), including TF families involved in plant senescence, such as NAC, MYB, WRKY, and AP2/ERF members, as well as TFs related to water stress tolerance, were shown to be regulated during stem bending. Gene Onotology (GO) functional enrichment analysis indicated that key genes involved in responses to osmotic and oxidative stresses were also varied in expression during this process. Furthermore, analysis of DEGs involved in the hormone signaling pathways and determination of endogenous abscisic acid (ABA) content showed that stem bending may be an ethylene-independent process, but regulated by ABA. In short, our findings suggested that the stem bending of cut gerbera may be caused by the involvement of water stress and regulation of ABA during the postharvest life. CONCLUSIONS: The transcriptome sequences provide a valuable resource in revealing the molecular mechanism underlying stem bending of cut flower and offer novel genes that can be used to guide future studies for ornamental plant breeding.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/genética , Desidratação/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Caules de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Asteraceae/fisiologia , Lignina/biossíntese , Pressão Osmótica , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(10)2019 May 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31117210

RESUMO

LEAFY (LFY) and UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO) homologous genes have been reported to play key roles in promoting the initiation of floral meristems in raceme- and cyme-type plants. Asteraceae, a large family of plants with more than 23,000 species, has a unique head-like inflorescence termed capitulum. Here, we report a floral defective plant of the garden cosmos named green head (gh), which shows homogeneous inflorescence, indistinguishable inflorescence periphery and center, and the replacement of flower meristems by indeterminate inflorescence meristems, coupled with iterative production of bract-like organs and higher order of inflorescences. A comparison of the LFY- and UFO-like genes (CbFLY and CbUFO) isolated from both the wild-type and gh cosmos revealed that CbUFO may play an important role in inflorescence differentiation into different structures and promotion of flower initiation, and the reduced expression of CbUFO in the gh cosmos could be associated with the phenotypes of the flower-defective plants. Further expression analysis indicated that CbUFO may promote the conversion of inflorescence meristem into floral meristem in early ray flower formation, but does not play a role in its later growth period.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Inflorescência/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Inflorescência/anatomia & histologia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(3): 277-288, mayo 2019. ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1007989

RESUMO

Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex Cass. (Asteraceae)Is a popular folk remedy for in Central America. The plant is of commercial value in Guatemala but so far there is not any monograph to guide regional laboratories on ensuring identity and chemical tests for this species. As identity test we here run macro and micro morphoanatomical studies of the characters of the vegetative organs. We also developed standard chemical tests for quality by both TLC and HPLC for infusions and tinctures of varying alcoholic strength. Their radical scavenging activities in DPPH and NO were also measured. Macro and micro morphoanatomical characters of the vegetative organs present a set of characteristics to facilitate the identification of dry powdered samples of this species. We developed optimal conditions for the TLC and HPLC phytochemical fingerprints of the 4 most common pharmacopoeial liquid herbal preparations from this herbal drug, namely infusion, 70%, 45% and 20% hydroalcoholic tinctures. Our work provides the Latin-American industry with a set of analyses to establish the identity and chemistry of N. lobata samples for quality control purposes.


Neurolaena lobata (L.) R.Br. ex cass. (Asteraceae) es un remedio popular popular en América Central. La planta tiene un valor comercial en Guatemala, pero hasta el momento no existe una monografía que guíe a los laboratorios regionales para garantizar la identidad y las pruebas químicas para esta especie. Como prueba de identidad proponemos estudios macro y micro morfoanatómicos de los caracteres de los órganos vegetativos. También desarrollamos pruebas químicas de calidad mediante CCF y CLAR para infusiones y tinturas de grado alcohólico variable. También se midieron sus actividades de captación de radicales en DPPH y NO. Los caracteres macro y micro morfoanatómicos de los órganos vegetativos presentan un conjunto de características para facilitar la identificación de muestras de polvo seco de esta especie. Desarrollamos condiciones óptimas para las huellas dactilares fitoquímicas de CCF y CLAR de las 4 preparaciones herbales líquidas farmacopéicas más comunes de esta droga herbal, a saber, infusión, 70%, 45% y 20% tinturas hidroalcohólicas. Nuestro trabajo proporciona a la industria latinoamericana un conjunto de análisis base para establecer la identidad y la química de las muestras de N. lobata con fines de control de calidad.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/química , Compostos Fitoquímicos/análise , Controle de Qualidade , Espectrofotometria Ultravioleta , Sequestradores de Radicais Livres , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cromatografia em Camada Delgada , Asteraceae/ultraestrutura , Guatemala , Microscopia
11.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1897): 20181713, 2019 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963824

RESUMO

Thousands of species have been introduced to new ranges worldwide. These introductions provide opportunities for researchers to study evolutionary changes in form and function in response to new environmental conditions. However, almost all previous studies of morphological change in introduced species have compared introduced populations to populations from across the species' native range, so variation within native ranges probably confounds estimates of evolutionary change. In this study, we used microsatellites to locate the source population for the beach daisy Arctotheca populifolia that had been introduced to eastern Australia. We then compared four introduced populations from Australia with their original South African source population in a common-environment experiment. Despite being separated for less than 100 years, source and introduced populations of A. populifolia display substantial heritable morphological differences. Contrary to the evolution of increased competitive ability hypothesis, introduced plants were shorter than source plants, and introduced and source plants did not differ in total biomass. Contrary to predictions based on higher rainfall in the introduced range, introduced plants had smaller, thicker leaves than source plants. Finally, while source plants develop lobed adult leaves, introduced plants retain their spathulate juvenile leaf shape into adulthood. These changes indicate that rapid evolution in introduced species happens, but not always in the direction predicted by theory.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Espécies Introduzidas , Fenótipo , Austrália , Biomassa , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , África do Sul
12.
Am J Bot ; 106(2): 231-243, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30801674

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Ray flowers commonly observed in daisies' flowering heads are a well-known example of advertising structures for enhancing pollinator attraction. Despite this, ray loss has occurred in multiple lineages, which still rely on pollinators, suggesting that rayless phenotypes could also be adaptive for animal-pollination. Here, we investigate the benefits and costs of these specialized floral advertising structures by comparing rayed and rayless phenotypes in two hybridizing closely related species. METHODS: We assessed the advantages and costs of ray production in terms of floral visitor's attraction, pollen limitation, and female reproductive success using the broad natural variation on ray size and number at the contact zone of A. clavatus (rayed) and A. valentinus (rayless). In addition, we experimentally explored the effect of rays under controlled neighborhoods and the effect of ray removal on fruit production. KEY RESULTS: In sympatry, rayed phenotypes attracted significantly more visitors than rayless plants, in which seed production was pollen limited. However, rayed phenotypes did not show higher fruit set or seed production than rayless phenotypes. Fruit set and seed production benefited from denser neighborhood displays and larger individual floral displays, respectively. The removal of ray florets did not appear to enable resource reallocation to fruit production. CONCLUSIONS: Rayless heads compensated their lower visitation rate by means of a higher number of flowers per head achieving similar fecundity levels to rayed plants. The larger size of rayless heads might thus indicate an inflorescence-level trade-off between attraction and fertility.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/fisiologia , Flores/fisiologia , Aptidão Genética , Animais , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Frutas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fenótipo
13.
Protoplasma ; 256(3): 789-803, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30604244

RESUMO

Two types of glandular tichomes (GTs) develop on the leaves in three Doronicum species. The purpose of the work was to establish common and distinctive morphological, anatomical, histochemical, and ultrustructural features of the trichomes. It turned out that differences between types of trichomes are more significant than interspecific ones. For each Doronicum species, differences between GTs of two types include the dimensions, intensity of coloration by histochemical dyes, as well as ultrastructural features of the cells. The GTs of the first type are higher than GTs of the second type. Two to three upper cell layers of the first trichomes develop histochemical staining, whereas in the second ones, only apical cells give a positive histochemical reaction. In all trichomes, polysaccharides, polyphenols, and terpenoids are detected. In the GTs of the first type, polysaccharides are synthesized in larger quantity; in the GTs of the second type, synthesis of the secondary metabolites predominates. Main ultrastructural features of the GTs of the first type include proliferation of RER and an activity of Golgi apparatus denoting the synthesis of enzymes and pectin; however, development of SER, diversiform leucoplasts with reticular sheaths, and chloroplasts with peripheral plastid reticulum also demonstrate the synthesis of lipid substances. The ultrastructural characteristics of the second type GTs indicate the primary synthesis of lipid components. Secretion is localized in a periplasmic space of the upper cell layers. The secretory products pass through the cell wall, accumulate in the subcuticular cavity, and rupture it.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Tricomas/anatomia & histologia , Tricomas/ultraestrutura , Asteraceae/citologia , Parede Celular/ultraestrutura , Folhas de Planta/citologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Tricomas/citologia
15.
Am J Bot ; 105(12): 2065-2074, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30536384

RESUMO

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although an evolutionary link between breeding system and dispersibility has been proposed, to date empirical data and theoretical models of plants show contrasting trends. METHODS: We tested two competing hypotheses for the association between breeding systems and dispersibility in the heterocarpic Hypochaeris salzmanniana (Asteraceae) by using both an experimental approach and surveys over 2 years of five natural populations along an environmental cline with a gradient of pollinator availability. KEY RESULTS: Hypochaeris salzmanniana produced two types of fruits, beaked (BF) and nonbeaked (NBF), which differ in their dispersal ability. The BF were lighter and had a lower dropping velocity and higher dispersal distance than the NBF. Potential for long-distance dispersal, measured as BF ratio per head, had high narrow-sense heritability. Greater dispersibility and selfing ability were linked at all the scales studied. Both selfed BF and NBF fruits had longer plumes and lower plume loading than outcrossed fruits, characteristics that promote farther dispersal. Natural populations with a higher percentage of self-compatible plants showed a higher BF ratio. Moreover, selfing led to a higher BF ratio than outcrossing. CONCLUSIONS: The avoidance of inbreeding depression seems to be the most plausible selective pressure for the greater dispersibility traits of selfed seeds. Furthermore, the ability to modulate the BF ratio and thus the potential for long-distance dispersal of offspring based on its selfed or outcrossed origin could be advantageous, and therefore selected, under unpredictable pollination environments that favor higher dispersive selfers, which overcome both pollen limitation and inbreeding avoidance.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/fisiologia , Frutas/fisiologia , Polinização , Dispersão de Sementes , Autofertilização , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Evolução Biológica , Frutas/anatomia & histologia , Seleção Genética
16.
Plant Biol (Stuttg) ; 20(5): 848-856, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29673051

RESUMO

The ability of leaves to absorb fog water can positively contribute to the water and carbon balance of plants in montane ecosystems, especially in periods of soil water deficit. However, the ecophysiological traits and mechanisms responsible for variations in the speed and total water absorption capacity of leaves are still poorly known. This study investigated leaf anatomical attributes of seven species occurring in seasonal tropical high-altitude ecosystems (rocky outcrop and forest), which could explain differences in leaf water uptake (LWU) capacities. We tested the hypothesis that different sets of anatomical leaf attributes will be more marked in plant individuals living under these contrasting environmental conditions. Anatomical variations will affect the initial rate of water absorption and the total storage capacity, resulting in different strategies for using the water supplied by fog events. Water absorption by leaves was inferred indirectly, based on leaf anatomical structure and visual observation of the main access routes (using an apoplastic marker), the diffusion of water through the cuticle, and non-glandular or glandular trichomes in all species. The results suggest that three LWU strategies coexist in the species studied. The different anatomical patterns influenced the speed and maximum LWU capacity. The three LWU strategies can provide different adaptive advantages to adjust to temporal and spatial variations of water availability in these tropical high-altitude environments.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Água/metabolismo , Altitude , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/metabolismo , Ecossistema , Fabaceae/anatomia & histologia , Fabaceae/metabolismo , Fluorescência , Malpighiaceae/anatomia & histologia , Malpighiaceae/metabolismo , Melastomataceae/anatomia & histologia , Melastomataceae/metabolismo , Myrtaceae/anatomia & histologia , Myrtaceae/metabolismo , Ochnaceae/anatomia & histologia , Ochnaceae/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo
17.
PLoS One ; 13(1): e0190705, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29300760

RESUMO

Species may become invasive after introduction to a new range because phenotypic traits pre-adapt them to spread and become dominant. In addition, adaptation to novel selection pressures in the introduced range may further increase their potential to become invasive. The diploid Leucanthemum vulgare and the tetraploid L. ircutianum are native to Eurasia and have been introduced to North America, but only L. vulgare has become invasive. To investigate whether phenotypic differences between the two species in Eurasia could explain the higher abundance of L. vulgare in North America and whether rapid evolution in the introduced range may have contributed to its invasion success, we grew 20 L. vulgare and 21 L. ircutianum populations from Eurasia and 21 L. vulgare populations from North America under standardized conditions and recorded performance and functional traits. In addition, we recorded morphological traits to investigate whether the two closely related species can be clearly distinguished by morphological means and to what extent morphological traits have changed in L. vulgare post-introduction. We found pronounced phenotypic differences between L. vulgare and L. ircutianum from the native range as well as between L. vulgare from the native and introduced ranges. The two species differed significantly in morphology but only moderately in functional or performance traits that could have explained the higher invasion success of L. vulgare in North America. In contrast, leaf morphology was similar between L. vulgare from the native and introduced range, but plants from North America flowered later, were larger and had more and larger flower heads than those from Eurasia. In summary, we found litte evidence that specific traits of L. vulgare may have pre-adapted this species to become more invasive than L. ircutianum, but our results indicate that rapid evolution in the introduced range likely contributed to the invasion success of L. vulgare.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/genética , Espécies Introduzidas , Aclimatação , Asteraceae/fisiologia , Evolução Biológica , Biomassa , Europa (Continente) , Inflorescência/genética , Inflorescência/fisiologia , Modelos Lineares , Oriente Médio , América do Norte , Fenótipo , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Folhas de Planta/genética , Análise de Componente Principal
18.
PLoS One ; 12(4): e0175671, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28414764

RESUMO

Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation is a key but under-researched environmental factor that initiates diverse responses in plants, potentially affecting their distribution. To date, only a few macroecological studies have examined adaptations of plant species to different levels of UV-B. Here, we combined herbarium specimens of Hieracium pilosella L. and Echium vulgare L. with a novel UV-B dataset to examine differences in leaf hair traits between the plants' native and alien ranges. We analysed scans of 336 herbarium specimens using standardized measurements of leaf area, hair density (both species) and hair length (H. pilosella only). While accounting for other bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, precipitation) and effects of herbivory, we examined whether UV-B exposure explains the variability and geographical distribution of these traits in the native (Northern Hemisphere) vs. the alien (Southern Hemisphere) range. UV-B explained the largest proportion of the variability and geographical distribution of hair length in H. pilosella (relative influence 67.1%), and hair density in E. vulgare (66.2%). Corresponding with higher UV-B, foliar hairs were 25% longer for H. pilosella and 25% denser for E. vulgare in records from the Southern as compared to those from the Northern Hemisphere. However, focusing on each hemisphere separately or controlling for its effect in a regression analysis, we found no apparent influence of UV-B radiation on hair traits. Thus, our findings did not confirm previous experimental studies which suggested that foliar hairs may respond to higher UV-B intensities, presumably offering protection against detrimental levels of radiation. We cannot rule out UV-B radiation as a possible driver because UV-B radiation was the only considered variable that differed substantially between the hemispheres, while bioclimatic conditions (e.g. temperature, precipitation) and other considered variables (herbivory damage, collection date) were at similar levels. However, given that either non-significant or inconclusive relationships were detected within hemispheres, alternative explanations of the differences in foliar hairs are more likely, including the effects of environment, genotypes or herbivory.


Assuntos
Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/efeitos da radiação , Clima , Echium/anatomia & histologia , Echium/efeitos da radiação , Ecossistema , Espécies Introduzidas , Folhas de Planta/anatomia & histologia , Tecnologia de Sensoriamento Remoto , Raios Ultravioleta
19.
J Plant Res ; 130(2): 327-337, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28083783

RESUMO

Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, Asteraceae) is an ancient andean crop that has numerous dietary and medicinal properties. Morphological and anatomical features and developmental changes of the capitulum were studied. A ray floret is a pistillate, female flower, while a disc floret is a staminate male flower, and the former opens before the latter, being pseudanthium protogynous. The capitulum presents interesting attributes for pollinators such as flower structure, nectaries and pollenkitt. Gynoecial nectaries were found on undeveloped ovary in the disc floret, but not in the ray floret. Glandular trichomes were observed on the abaxial epidermis of corolla in the ray floret, but not in the disc floret. Capitulum development was divided into eight stages. Stigma receptivity varied with these stages. Pollen viability was low (15%). In accordance with low viability, pollen grains exhibit diverse sizes and shapes, reduction in length of spines, and abnormal protoplasm. Examination of ovary development in the ray floret showed that a mature ovule was formed, but fertilization did not occur. In advanced developmental stages, the capitulum showed proliferation of the endothelium, degeneration of the embryo sac, and all harvested cypselae had aborted seeds. Problems found in pollen viability and aborted cypselae could be the result of a history of vegetative propagation in the domestication process.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Argentina , Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/fisiologia , Flores/anatomia & histologia , Reprodução
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 24(5): 4731-4740, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27981477

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate whether root system morphology is involved in the interspecific variations in Cd accumulation in herbaceous plants. Biomasses, root morphology, and Cd accumulation of 18 herbaceous species were determined under 0, 2, and 10 mg kg-1 Cd conditions. Significant variations were found in biomass production, root system morphology, and Cd accumulation among the 18 species. Cd concentrations in the shoot had negative correlations with the biomass of roots and shoots in the 2 mg kg-1 Cd treatment. Total amounts of Cd in plants showed positive correlations with the biomass of roots and shoots, total root lengths, root surface areas, root volumes, and proportions of the fine roots (diameter <0.2 mm). Percentages of Cd in shoots were positively related to specific root lengths, root surface areas, and plant biomasses but negatively correlated with proportions of roots in the 0.6-0.8-mm diameter class. High-biomass species (rapeseed, Indian mustard, and four-o'clock) have high Cd uptake capacity due to their large root system. Longer and thinner roots might contribute to higher capacity for transferring Cd from roots to shoots, while coarse roots (i.e., diameter of 0.6-0.8 mm) could retain more Cd in the tissues and, consequently, reduce Cd transfer from roots to shoots.


Assuntos
Asteraceae/anatomia & histologia , Asteraceae/química , Cádmio/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/anatomia & histologia , Raízes de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomassa , Raízes de Plantas/química
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