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1.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251583, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34010350

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Autorefractors allow non-specialists to quickly assess refractive error, and thus could be a useful component of large-scale vision screening programs. In order to better characterize the role of autorefraction for public health outreach programs in resource-limited settings, the diagnostic accuracy of two autorefractors was assessed relative to subjective refraction in an adult Indian population. METHODS: An optometrist refracted a series of patients aged ≥50 years at an eye clinic in Bangalore, India using the Nidek ARK-900 autorefractor first, followed by the 3nethra Royal autorefractor, and then subjective refraction. The diagnostic accuracy of each autorefractor for myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism was assessed using subjective refraction as the reference standard, and measures of agreement between refractions were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 197 eyes in 104 individuals (mean age 63 ± 8 years, 52% female) were evaluated. Both autorefractors produced spherical equivalent estimates that were on average more hyperopic than subjective refraction, with a measurement bias of +0.16 D (95%CI +0.09 to +0.23D) for Nidek and +0.42 D (95%CI +0.28 to +0.54D) for 3nethra. When comparing pairs of measurements from autorefraction and subjective refraction, the limits of agreement were approximately ±1D for the Nidek autorefractor and ±1.75D for the 3Nethra autorefractor. The sensitivity and specificity of detecting ≥1 diopter of myopia were 94.6% (95%CI 86.8-100%) and 92.5% (95%CI 88.9-97.5%) for the Nidek, and 89.2% (95%CI 66.7-97.4) and 77.5% (95%CI 71.2-99.4%) for the 3Nethra. The accuracy of each autorefractor increased at greater levels of refractive error. CONCLUSIONS: The sensitivity and specificity of the Nidek autorefractor for diagnosing refractive error among adults ≥50 years in an urban Indian clinic was sufficient for screening for visually significant refractive errors, although the relatively wide limits of agreement suggest that subjective refinement of the eyeglasses prescription would still be necessary.


Assuntos
Erros de Refração/diagnóstico , Idoso , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hiperopia/diagnóstico , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/diagnóstico , Miopia/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Refração Ocular , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Seleção Visual
2.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8195, 2021 04 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33854140

RESUMO

This population-based retrospective cohort study investigated the prevalence of myopia among patients with Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and evaluate risk factors for myopia in these groups. Records from 2000 to 2012 with at least one year of follow-up from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database were included. This study included 35,538 patients with DM and 71,076 patients without DM. Patients with DM had a significantly higher adjusted hazard ratio for myopia in all age groups and both sexes compared with patients without DM. The subgroup analysis results revealed that the rates of myopia and astigmatism were significantly higher among patients with DM compared with patients without DM aged < 60 years. However, the rates of high myopia or myopia progression to high myopia did not differ significantly between the two groups. These findings indicate that DM is a critical risk factor for myopia and astigmatism among patients aged < 60 years. Therefore, active surveillance and earlier treatment of myopia are critical for patients with DM.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Taiwan/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
3.
Digit J Ophthalmol ; 27(1): 6-12, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33907531

RESUMO

Purpose: To identify the information sources for patients undergoing laser vision correction. Methods: Individuals who underwent corneal refractive surgery at a private practice from December 2017 to August 2018 and agreed to complete an anonymous questionnaire were included. The manifest refraction and surgical method was recorded and correlated with the questionnaire results. Results: Data collected from 126 patients (mean age, 32.8 ± 8.6 years; 55.6% women) were analyzed. Of 121 patients, 120 (99.2%) identified the Internet as a source for information on refractive surgery, and 71 of 119 (59.7%) noted that the clinic's website influenced their choice of clinic. Patients with high myopia more commonly used contact lenses and had considered undergoing refractive surgery for a longer time compared with patients with other refractive errors (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01, resp.). Patients with hyperopia were less likely to know their own refractive error (P = 0.02). Conclusions: In this patient cohort, the Internet was the main source of information for those undergoing refractive surgery.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Hiperopia/cirurgia , Terapia a Laser/métodos , Lasers de Excimer/uso terapêutico , Miopia/cirurgia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Refrativos/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Idoso , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais Privados , Humanos , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Acuidade Visual , Adulto Jovem
4.
Vestn Oftalmol ; 137(2): 59-65, 2021.
Artigo em Russo | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881264

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To analyze the prevalence, magnitude of corneal astigmatism, anatomical parameters of the eye and age of patients with the condition, as well as to assess the prospects of its correction with intraocular lenses (IOLs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved a retrospective analysis of initial biometric data of 128 379 patients (256 630 eyes) referred to the S.N. Fedorov NMRC «MNTK «EYE MICROSURGERY¼ research center in the years 2013 to 2018. The patients previously operated for cataract were examined 6 months after surgery. RESULTS: In 5 years, corneal astigmatism of over 1.0 D was diagnosed in 66 610 (25.96%) eyes. Among them, low astigmatism was observed in 86.30% of cases, with-the-rule - in 56.10%, compound - in 78.72%, and astigmatism combined with myopic refraction - in 61.48%. More severe astigmatism is characterized by thinner cornea and lens (p<0.05). Cataract surgery with implantation of toric IOLs was performed only on 2.56% of eyes. The average age of the operated patients was 68.42±13.3. Patients with implanted toric IOLs had 23% better uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA), and 15% better corrected visual acuity compared with outcomes of spherical IOL implantation. CONCLUSION: Corneal astigmatism of more than 1.0 D was observed in 25.96% of examined subjects. Patients with corneal astigmatism apply for cataract surgery 10 years earlier, when they are still in the working age, due to inability to engage in professional activities; in most cases, those patients are female. Astigmatism of up to 0.75 D is more common on the right dominant eye, of 2.0 D and higher - on the left. The correlation coefficients determined for study data indicate a barely noticeable relationship between biometric parameters and the degree of astigmatism. The use of toric intraocular lenses provides a 2-fold increase in uncorrected visual acuity compared to spherical IOLs.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Catarata , Lentes Intraoculares , Facoemulsificação , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Astigmatismo/etiologia , Catarata/complicações , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Implante de Lente Intraocular , Refração Ocular , Estudos Retrospectivos
5.
Environ Res ; 196: 110976, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33684414

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid urbanization has led to reduced greenness in many areas, this has been linked to adverse health outcomes. The aim was to determine the association between residential greenness experienced during very early childhood with preschool myopia and astigmatism and to explore the potential mediating role of screen time on any associations. METHOD: Information regarding socio-demographic characteristics, home address, screen time during early childhood, and refraction data from vision screenings of 53,575 preschoolers from Longhua Child Cohort Study were collected via questionnaires. Residential greenness was calculated as the average of satellite-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index in buffers of 100, 250, and 500 m around each child's home address. Logistic and linear regression models were used to examine the relationships between residential greenness, screen time, and preschool myopia and astigmatism. RESULT: The mean (SD) age of the 53,575 preschoolers was 5.0 (0.7) years, and 24,849 (46.4%) were girls. A total of 1236 (2.3%) preschoolers had myopia and 5347 (10.0%) had astigmatism. In the adjusted model, a higher neighborhood greenness level within 100 m buffers around the home address was associated with decreased risk of myopia (adjusted odds ratios (AOR): 0.62, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.38-0.99), and higher neighborhood greenness levels within 100, 250, and 500 m decreased the risk of astigmatism, and their AORs (95% CIs) were 0.55 (0.43-0.70) for 100 m, 0.59 (0.41-0.83) for 250 m, 0.61 (0.42-0.90) for 500 m, respectively. Greater screen time during early childhood increased the risk of myopia (AOR = 1.33) and astigmatism (AOR = 1.23). Reduction in screen time fully mediated the benefits of greater residential greenness on preschool myopia, but partially mediated that on preschool astigmatism (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Higher residential greenness reduces the risk of preschool myopia and astigmatism; the benefits of residential greenness were mediated through reduced daily screen time.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Miopia , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Miopia/epidemiologia , Características de Residência , Instituições Acadêmicas
6.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 14(1): 58-68, ene.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-200293

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of astigmatism and its determinants in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. METHODS: The students selected by stratified cluster random sampling in Shahroud, north of Iran. Optometric examination included uncorrected visual acuity, refraction with autorefractometer, manifest refraction with retinoscopy followed by subjective and cycloplegic refraction (after two drops of cyclopentolate 1% with 5min interval were instilled in each eye). A cylinder power ≥ 0.75 diopter (D) in at least one eye was considered as astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism was reported based on a cylinder power higher than 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00 D in cycloplegic refraction, followed by power vector analysis. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, the data of 5528 children were analyzed. The prevalence of astigmatism was 16.7% (95% CI: 15.6-17.7) in total, 16.6% (95% CI: 15.2-18.0) in boys and 16.8% (95% CI: 15.2-18.3) in girls (p = 0.920) and decreased from 21.5% in 6-year-old children to 13.7% in 10-year-olds, and then again increased to 18.3% in children aged 12 years. Moreover, 17.2% (95% CI: 16.0-18.3) of urban and 12.1% (95% CI: 10.0-14.1) of rural children had astigmatism (p < 0.001). The prevalence of with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism was 14.2%, 2.1%, and 0.33%, respectively. The mean cylinder power was -1.31, -0.46, and -0.44D in children with spherical myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia, respectively (p < 0.001). Urban students had a higher J0 and boys had a higher J45. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of astigmatism in this study was lower than previous studies. Astigmatism prevalence was markedly higher in urban children


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Distribuição por Idade e Sexo , População Urbana , População Rural , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Logísticos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Testes Visuais
7.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 21(1): 67, 2021 Feb 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33535994

RESUMO

BACKGROUNDS: Aniso-astigmatism may hinder normal visual development in preschool children. Knowing its prevalence, biometric parameters and risk factors is fundamental to children eye care. The purpose of this study was to determine the biometric components of aniso-astigmatism and associated maternal risk factors in Chinese preschool children. METHODS: In the population-based, prospective cohort Nanjing Eye Study, children were measured for noncycloplegic refractive error using an autorefractor and for biometric parameters using an optical low-coherent reflectometry. The difference of total astigmatism (TA) between both eyes was calculated using cylinder power (non-vectorial aniso-TA was defined as ≥1.00 Dioptre Cylinder [DC] between both eyes) and by vector analysis (vectorial aniso-TA was defined as a difference of ≥0.5 in J0 or J45 between both eyes which is equivalent to 1.00 DC). The prevalence of aniso-TA was presented. Interocular biometric parameters were compared between with vs. without aniso-astigmatism group. In addition, risk factors were determined using multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of 1131 children (66.90 ± 3.38 months, 53.31% male), the prevalence of non-vectorial aniso-TA was 1.95% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) = 1.14-2.75%), while the prevalence of vectorial aniso-TA was twice as common as non-vectorial aniso-TA, neither varying with sex or age. With aniso-TA eyes were more asymmetric in axial length and corneal curvature radius than without aniso-TA eyes. In multivariate logistic regression model, 5-min Apgar score less than 7 was significantly associated with higher risk of aniso-TA (vectorial aniso-TA: Odds Ratio (OR) = 6.42, 95%CI = 2.63-15.69, P < 0.001; non-vectorial aniso-TA: OR = 4.99, 95%CI = 1.41-17.68, P = 0.01). Being twin or triple was significantly associated with higher risk of vectorial aniso-CA (OR = 2.43, 95%CI = 1.05-5.60, P = 0.04). Pre-term delivery (OR = 2.60, 95%CI = 1.09-6.15, P = 0.03) and post-term delivery (OR = 3.61, 95%CI = 1.31-9.96, P = 0.01) were significantly associated with higher risk of vectorial aniso-CA. CONCLUSIONS: Both corneal curvature radius and axial length asymmetry were correlated with aniso-TA. Children with 5-min Apgar score < 7 were more likely to have aniso-TA, while twin or triple, pre-term or post-term delivery were more likely to have vectorial aniso-CA.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Biometria , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
8.
Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi ; 57(1): 56-62, 2021 Jan 11.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33412643

RESUMO

Objective: To analyze the distribution characteristics of the anterior corneal astigmatism in 140 000 cataract patients from 18 hospitals in China. Methods: Retrospective study. A total of 143 889 patients (143 889 right eyes) over the age of 40 years with age-related catarac were admitted to 18 Aier eye hospitals in China from July 2015 to October 2018. The average values of the three measurements of the magnitude of anterior corneal astigmatism, the meridian of corneal astigmatism, anterior chamber depth, corneal refractive power, and axial length measured by IOLMaster 500 were obtained. The data acquisition method of each sub-center was to collect and analyze the electronic case data in accordance with the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and to provide them for the sponsor Wuhan Aier Eye Hospital. Non-normal distribution data are presented as M (P25, P75). Mann-Whitney test, Kruskal-Wallis test, Chi-square test were used to analyze the distribution differences of the magnitude of corneal astigmatism and the meridian of corneal astigmatism in gender, age, anterior chamber depth, corneal refractive power and axial length. Results: Among the 143 889 patients, 84 319 were females and 59 570 were males, the median age was 72 (65, 78) years old, the median corneal astigmatism was 0.84 (0.51, 1.33) D; the corneal astigmatism was ≥0.75 D in 80 895 patients (56.22%) and was ≥1.00 D in 57 304 patients (39.83%). The median corneal astigmatism was 0.87 (0.53, 1.37) D in women and 0.82 (0.50, 1.29) D in men; with statistical difference (U=-14.891; P<0.05). The proportion of with-the-rule (WTR) astigmatism was 33.26% (28 046/84 319) for women and 34.26% (20 408/59 570) for men; The proportion of against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism was 49.08% (41 385/84 319) for women and 46.91% (27 945/59 570) for men, with statistical difference (χ²=70.913; P<0.05). With the increase of age, the magnitude of corneal astigmatism first decreased from 0.94 (0.57, 1.48) D to 0.75 (0.46, 1.18) D, and then increased to 1.19 (0.74, 1.79) D, with statistical difference (H=1 263.438; P<0.05), and the change was at 61 to 70 years old. With the increase of age, the proportion of WTR astigmatism decreased from 77.50% (396/511) to 12.50% (3/24), the proportion of ATR astigmatism increased from 11.15% (57/511) to 79.07% (34/43), and the proportion of oblique astigmatism changed little from 17.02% (16/94) to 19.92% (245/1 230), the distribution difference was significant (χ²=10 174.496; P<0.05). As the anterior chamber became shallow, the magnitude of corneal astigmatism significantly increased from 0.82 (0.51, 1.31) D to 1.05 (0.61, 1.56) D, and the proportion of ATR astigmatism increased from 47.32% (60 207/127 227) to 51.69% (184/356) (H=409.961, χ²=120.995, both P<0.05). With the corneal refractive power rising, the magnitude of corneal astigmatism increased from 0.80 (0.49, 1.33) D to 0.95 (0.58, 1.53) D, the proportion of ATR astigmatism decreased from 52.84% (4 963/9 392) to 39.97% (9 023/22 577); the difference was significant (H=808.562, χ²=752.147, both P<0.05). When the axial length was>25.00 mm, the magnitude of corneal astigmatism was highest [1.04 (0.62, 1.65) D], and the proportion of ATR astigmatism was also highest [49.00% (10 964/22 376)]; the difference was significant (H=2 071.198, χ²=131.130, all P<0.05). Conclusions: The meridian of corneal astigmatism in middle-aged and elderly cataract patients is mainly ATR astigmatism. With the increasing of age, the magnitude of corneal astigmatism decreases first and then increases. The turning point from the proportion of WTR astigmatism to the proportion of ATR astigmatism is 65 years old. The shallower the anterior chamber is, the more the magnitude of corneal astigmatism and the proportion of ATR astigmatism increase. When the axial length is>25.00 mm, both the magnitude of corneal astigmatism and the proportion of ATR astigmatism reach the peak. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2021, 57: 56-62).


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Catarata , Idoso , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Biometria , Catarata/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Córnea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 44(1): 76-83, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33162179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To describe ocular biometric parameters and the prevalence of corneal astigmatism as well as age and gender correlations in a population of cataract surgery candidates and to estimate the number of eyes that would be candidates for a toric intraocular lens (IOL). METHODS: In consecutive patients requiring cataract surgery over a one-year period (June 2016 to June 2017), the following optical biometry measurements were performed on an IOLMaster 700 or Lenstar 900: axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth (ACD), lens thickness (LT), mean keratometry (K), flat keratometry (K1), steep keratometry (K2), corneal astigmatism (Cyl) and white-to-white diameter (WTW). Descriptive statistics for the demographic and biometric data were analyzed. RESULTS: The study sample included 6111 eyes of 3332 patients (59.3% women), with a mean age of 74.78±9.7years. The means of the compiled data are as follows: AL 23.58±1.55mm, ACD 3.08±0.41mm, LT 4.55±0.52mm,K 44.15±1.54 diopters (D), K1 43.64±1.57 D, K2 44.69±1.61 D, Cyl 1.0±0.81. D and WTW 11.88±0.46mm. The male patients had significantly larger eyes (higher AL, ACD and WTW) and flatter corneas (lower flat and steep K). Older patients had significantly lower AL, ACD and WTW, while their LT values were higher. Corneas became significantly steeper with age. 60.5% of eyes had less than 1 D of corneal astigmatism, while 3.1% had ≥3.0 D. CONCLUSIONS: Less than 1 D of corneal astigmatism was present in the majority of cataract surgery candidates. 3.1% of eyes were candidates for a toric IOL. This study provides useful information on inventory requirements for planning hospital resources.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Catarata , Lentes Intraoculares , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Comprimento Axial do Olho/diagnóstico por imagem , Biometria , Catarata/complicações , Catarata/diagnóstico , Catarata/epidemiologia , Córnea/diagnóstico por imagem , Córnea/cirurgia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência
10.
Am J Ophthalmol ; 223: 140-148, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33007273

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to determine the sociodemographic and risk factors for keratoconus (KC) patients with a nationwide Asian database. DESIGN: Population-based matched case-control study. METHODS: We performed a secondary data analysis of the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). Cases were patients with newly diagnosed KC in 1998-2015. Controls were patients without KC and matched 4:1 with the KC cases by age, sex, and index date. Comorbidities diagnosed before KC included diabetes mellitus (DM), asthma, allergic rhinitis, mitral valve prolapse, collagen vascular disease, aortic aneurysm, Down syndrome, sleep apnea, depression, hyperlipidemia, astigmatism, and myopia. Conditional logistic regression with forward selection were used to obtain risk factors for KC. RESULTS: A total of 5,055 patients with KC were matched with 20,220 controls. The average age at KC first diagnosis was 29.76 years. Individuals who lived in suburban and rural area had lower odds ratio of KC (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.86, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.94; and 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.79; respectively) when comparing with those who lived in urban area. Multivariate analysis revealed that Down syndrome, astigmatism, myopia, allergic rhinitis, and asthma were positively associated with KC with adjusted odds ratios (adjusted OR 8.69, 95% CI 3.74-20.19; 6.23, 95% CI 5.35-7.24; 2.99, 95% CI 2.70-3.32; 1.22, 95% CI 1.14-1.32; and 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.30, respectively). On the other hand, hyperlipidemia, depression, and DM (uncomplicated and complicated) were negatively associated with KC (adjusted OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.59-0.77; 0.58, 95% CI 0.48-0.71; 0.77, 95% CI 0.64-0.93; and 0.61, 95% CI 0.44-0.86, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Our study found that patients with hyperlipidemia, depression, or DM were less likely to have KC, and patients with asthma, allergic rhinitis, astigmatism, myopia, or Down syndrome had higher odds ratio of KC.


Assuntos
Ceratocone/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Asma/epidemiologia , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Bases de Dados Factuais , Síndrome de Down/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ceratocone/diagnóstico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Retrospectivos , Rinite Alérgica/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , População Rural/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Taiwan/epidemiologia , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
11.
J Optom ; 14(1): 58-68, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345571

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of astigmatism and its determinants in schoolchildren aged 6-12 years. METHODS: The students selected by stratified cluster random sampling in Shahroud, north of Iran. Optometric examination included uncorrected visual acuity, refraction with autorefractometer, manifest refraction with retinoscopy followed by subjective and cycloplegic refraction (after two drops of cyclopentolate 1% with 5min interval were instilled in each eye). A cylinder power ≥0.75diopter (D) in at least one eye was considered as astigmatism. The prevalence of astigmatism was reported based on a cylinder power higher than 0.50, 1.00, and 2.00D in cycloplegic refraction, followed by power vector analysis. RESULTS: After applying the inclusion criteria, the data of 5528 children were analyzed. The prevalence of astigmatism was 16.7% (95% CI: 15.6-17.7) in total, 16.6% (95% CI: 15.2-18.0) in boys and 16.8% (95% CI: 15.2-18.3) in girls (p=0.920) and decreased from 21.5% in 6-year-old children to 13.7% in 10-year-olds, and then again increased to 18.3% in children aged 12 years. Moreover, 17.2% (95% CI: 16.0-18.3) of urban and 12.1% (95% CI: 10.0-14.1) of rural children had astigmatism (p<0.001). The prevalence of with-the-rule, against-the-rule, and oblique astigmatism was 14.2%, 2.1%, and 0.33%, respectively. The mean cylinder power was -1.31, -0.46, and -0.44D in children with spherical myopia, emmetropia, and hyperopia, respectively (p<0.001). Urban students had a higher J0 and boys had a higher J45. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of astigmatism in this study was lower than previous studies. Astigmatism prevalence was markedly higher in urban children.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Masculino , Prevalência , Refração Ocular , Acuidade Visual
12.
Eye (Lond) ; 35(2): 499-507, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322016

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine the risk factors for total astigmatism (TA), anterior corneal astigmatism (ACA), and internal compensation in Chinese preschool children. METHODS: In the population-based Nanjing Eye Study, children were measured for noncycloplegic refractive error and for biometric parameters. Data from questionnaires and measures from right eyes were analyzed for determining risk factors for TA, ACA, and internal compensation from multivariate logistic regression models. RESULTS: Of 1327 children (66.8 ± 3.4 months, 53.2% male), older age of the child (OR = 0.95 for per month increase; P = 0.03), older paternal age at child birth (OR = 1.04 for per year increase; P = 0.03), paternal astigmatism (OR = 1.89; P = 0.003), maternal astigmatism (OR = 1.73, P = 0.008), and second-hand smoke exposure during pregnancy (OR = 1.64; P = 0.03) were associated with higher risk of TA, while partial breastfeeding (OR = 0.49, P = 0.006) or formula feeding (OR = 0.46, P = 0.003) were associated with lower risk of TA. Larger ratio of axial length to corneal radius (OR = 16.16 for per unit increase; P = 0.001), maternal working during pregnancy (OR = 1.27; P = 0.04), and cesarean delivery (OR = 1.68, P = 0.04) were associated with higher risk of ACA, while formula feeding was associated with lower risk of ACA (OR = 0.57, P = 0.01). Paternal astigmatism (OR = 0.50, P = 0.01) and assisted reproduction (OR = 0.56, P = 0.03) were associated with lower risk of horizontal or vertical internal compensation. More outdoor activity time (OR = 1.15 for per hour increase, P = 0.01) was associated with higher risk of oblique internal compensation while more nighttime sleep on weekends (OR = 0.83 for per hour increase, P = 0.01) was associated with lower risk of oblique internal compensation. CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirmed some previously reported risk factors and identified some novel risk factors for astigmatism including formula feeding for lower risk of both ACA and TA, and older paternal age at child birth for higher risk of TA.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Erros de Refração , Idoso , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Biometria , Pré-Escolar , Córnea , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Refração Ocular , Fatores de Risco
13.
J Atten Disord ; 25(2): 235-244, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30371126

RESUMO

Objective: To examine the association of refractive error (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) and strabismus with ADHD. Method: Based on data from the large, representative, epidemiological sample of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents (KiGGS) study (N = 13,488), the associations of myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism, and strabismus with ADHD were examined, with and without consideration of other common ADHD risk factors. Results: In single logistic regression models, all examined forms of refractive error and strabismus showed an association with ADHD. After controlling for confounding variables, results remained stable and showed an increased risk for ADHD in children with hyperopia, astigmatism, and strabismus compared with the control group. Only the association between myopia and ADHD in children was not significant. Conclusion: Hyperopia, astigmatism, and strabismus seem to be independently associated with ADHD. Health care professionals in different medical fields should consider this association to adequately diagnose and treat affected children.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade , Hiperopia , Miopia , Erros de Refração , Estrabismo , Adolescente , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/epidemiologia , Criança , Humanos , Hiperopia/complicações , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estrabismo/epidemiologia
14.
J Fr Ophtalmol ; 43(8): 753-760, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620412

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The objective of this study is to evaluate the preoperative and short- and long-term postoperative results in terms of visual acuity, refractive error, and corneal wavefront aberrations in patients with myopia and myopic astigmatism undergoing small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: Seventy-nine eyes of 52 myopes with or without astigmatism (41 right and 38 left) were enrolled in this retrospective study. The measurements included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), spherical equivalent (SE) and wavefront aberrations. All the measurements before and after SMILE surgery were systematically recorded. RESULTS: Mean preoperative UDVA was 1.19±0.24 logMAR and improved to 0.06±0.17 logMAR at the 3-year postoperative follow-up. At the conclusion of the 3-year follow-up, UDVA was better than or equal to 20/20 and 20/25 in 73% and 84% of eyes, respectively. At 1 month postoperatively, CDVA was 0.05±0.23 logMAR and significantly lower than the preoperative CDVA, 0.02±0.04 log MAR (P>0.05). However, at 1 year and 3 years after surgery, CDVA showed a significant increase compared to preoperative CDVA. At the conclusion of the 3-year follow-up, SE was -0.47 D, and 69.6% and 83.5% of the eyes were within±0.50 D and±1.00 D, respectively, of the intended correction. HOA's, coma, and spherical aberration increased significantly. No significant change in trefoil was detected. CONCLUSION: This study showed that SMILE produces a stable, safe outcome for surgical treatment of myopia and myopic astigmatism.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/cirurgia , Cirurgia da Córnea a Laser/efeitos adversos , Microcirurgia/efeitos adversos , Miopia/cirurgia , Adulto , Astigmatismo/complicações , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Astigmatismo/patologia , Córnea/patologia , Córnea/cirurgia , Cirurgia da Córnea a Laser/métodos , Topografia da Córnea , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea/epidemiologia , Aberrações de Frente de Onda da Córnea/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lasers de Excimer/efeitos adversos , Masculino , Microcirurgia/métodos , Microcirurgia/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Miopia/complicações , Miopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/patologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Período Pós-Operatório , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Erros de Refração/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ferida Cirúrgica/patologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Folia Med (Plovdiv) ; 62(2): 345-351, 2020 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32666755

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The refractive state of the eye changes as the eye's axial length increases and the cornea and lens flatten. In general, eyes are hyperopic at birth, become slightly more hyperopic until the age of 7, which at this point we see a myopic shift toward plano until the eyes reach their adult dimensions, usually by about the age 16. AIM: To determine the prevalence of refractive error in preschool children aged 3 - 6 in the city of Kazanlak, Bulgaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a kindergarten based school within the city of Kazanlak, Bul-garia. Out of 15 kindergarten schools, 10 chose to participate in the study. The children underwent non-mydriatic refraction screening using a Plus-Optix S12с mobile camera. Myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism were defined as being a spherical equivalent (SE) ≤ -0.50 D, SE ≥ +2.00 D and cylindrical diopters ≤ -1.00 D. RESULTS: A total of 596 children were screened. Out of these 596 children; 526 were with ametropia (470 hypermetropia, 46 myopia) and 50 had astigmatism. Strabismus was found in 12 children, with a further 8 children suffering from amblyopia and finally 8 children were also found to be diagnosed with anisometropia. In 8 cases there were no results due to opacities or due to the small size of the pupil. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of refractive error in preschool children is similar to that found in other research in the field. While most cases fall into the category of emmetropia or mild hypermetropia, most of the children had never been to an ophthalmologist. A manda-tory checkup should be issued for all children below the age of seven.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Hiperopia/epidemiologia , Miopia/epidemiologia , Ambliopia/epidemiologia , Anisometropia/epidemiologia , Bulgária/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Estrabismo/epidemiologia
16.
J Ocul Pharmacol Ther ; 36(8): 595-601, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456518

RESUMO

The use of contact lenses as ocular drug delivery systems has been considered intuitive for decades. However, at this time, there are no approved products using such systems. In this article, we review the challenges with current therapies, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of different drug classes and the patient population. In addition, we note the relative lack of clinical studies, and list potential products in active development at this time. In particular, we address the alignment of time course of the therapeutic need, the pharmacokinetics of the molecule, and the delivery characteristics of the systems (e.g., pulsatile vs. zero-order). We also discuss the needs of various populations including the elderly (who may have motor and cognitive issues as well as presbyopia) and the young. While a contact lens delivery system may also provide refractive correction, to date, most of the studies have used noncorrective (plano) lenses. We also considered nanotechnology-based carrier systems. We generalize the development of contact lens delivery systems to all ocular delivery systems in which there are relatively few product approvals and long development times.


Assuntos
Lentes de Contato/normas , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/instrumentação , Soluções Oftálmicas/farmacocinética , Presbiopia/terapia , Administração Oftálmica , Idoso , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Lentes de Contato/estatística & dados numéricos , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Portadores de Fármacos/farmacocinética , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos/métodos , Desenvolvimento de Medicamentos/tendências , Desenho de Equipamento/métodos , Humanos , Nanotecnologia/métodos , Soluções Oftálmicas/administração & dosagem , Farmacocinética , Ajuste de Prótese/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Refração/epidemiologia , Propriedades de Superfície/efeitos dos fármacos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32224959

RESUMO

Screen media usage has become increasingly prevalent in daily life with children being exposed to screens at an early age. This is a growing public health concern with evidence linking screen exposure to detrimental health outcomes, whereas relationship between screen exposure and the presence of astigmatism among preschoolers remains unknown, thus we aimed to resolve this issue. During the 2017 survey of the Longhua Child Cohort Study, data of 29,595 preschoolers were collected via a caregiver-reported questionnaire regarding socio-demographics, screen exposure and refraction. Cox regression models were adopted to generate adjusted prevalence ratios (APR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) to estimate the association between early screen exposure and astigmatism. 28,029 preschoolers were included in the final analysis. After adjustment for potential confounders, screen exposure during early life was significantly associated with the increased risk of astigmatism (APR and 95% CI: 2.25, 1.76-2.88), and the greatest risk was observed in the period from birth to 1-year (APR and 95% CI: 3.10, 2.41-3.98). The risk of astigmatism increased with both the total years of exposure and the average daily duration of screen exposure. Our findings suggested that preschoolers who were exposed to screens during early life might have an increased risk of astigmatism.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Programas de Rastreamento , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Família , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gravidez , Prevalência
18.
BMC Ophthalmol ; 20(1): 155, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306963

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: China has been undergoing dramatic economic development, accompanied by increased education load on the young children. This study is to investigate the prevalence, type, severity, and associated risk factors of astigmatism in school students in eastern China. METHOD: In this cross-sectional school-based study, students underwent refraction using NIDEK non-cycloplegic autorefractor. Astigmatism was defined as cylinder 1.5 diopter (D) or greater, and high astigmatism was defined as cylinder 3.0 D or greaterMultivariate regression models were used to determine factors associated with astigmatism. RESULTS: Among 4801 children (55% male) with mean age (±standard deviation) 12.3 (±3.8) years, 680 (14.2, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 13.2-15.2%) had astigmatism (85% were with-the-rule) and 103 (2.2, 95% CI: 1.8-2.6%) had high astigmatism. The prevalence rate of astigmatism was 7-8% in grades 4 or below, 15-16% in grades 6-8, 20% in grade 9, and 20-25% in grade 10 or above. In multivariate analyses, higher grade and male gender were associated with higher prevalence of astigmatism (all p < 0.0001) and high astigmatism (p = 0.04 for grade, p = 0.001 for gender). When multivariate models were further adjusted by spherical equivalent, only gender remained statistically associated with astigmatism (odds ratio (OR) = 1.65, p < 0.0001) and high astigmatism (OR = 2.21, p = 0.0004), myopic and hyperopic refractive error were significantly associated with higher risk of astigmatism and high astigmatism (all p < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Astigmatism is common in Chinese school-age children and increases with grade. Majority of astigmatism is with-the-rule. Male gender and myopic or hyperopic refractive error are significantly associated with higher prevalence and severity of astigmatism.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Refração Ocular/fisiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Astigmatismo/diagnóstico , Criança , Pré-Escolar , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adulto Jovem
19.
BMJ Open ; 10(3): e034219, 2020 03 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161158

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To review the pattern of primary pterygium-induced corneal astigmatism in patients with cataract in a southern Chinese population. DESIGN: Clinic-based cross-sectional retrospective study. SETTING: A secondary hospital at southern China. PARTICIPANTS: A group of 1689 eyes with primary pterygium (PT group) and the other group of 4062 eyes without pterygium (NPT group) were included. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Corneal power was measured by an autokeratorefractometer. Corneal astigmatism was calculated as the difference in corneal power between the steepest and flattest meridians. Distribution of corneal astigmatism was compared between eyes with pterygium and eyes without pterygium. RESULTS: Distribution of corneal astigmatism was different between PT group (skewness=2.548, kurtosis=8.237) and NPT group (skewness=2.778, kurtosis=15.52). Mean corneal astigmatism was significantly higher in the PT group (1.62±1.49D) compared with the NPT group (1.17±0.89D, p<0.0001). The prevalence of corneal astigmatism >1D (PT 52.3%, NPT 40.9%, p<0.0001), >2D (PT 22.4%, NPT 10.6%, p<0.0001) or >3D (PT 10.5%, NPT 3.2%, p<0.0001) was significantly higher in the PT group compared with the NPT group. Eyes in the PT group had significantly higher corneal astigmatism than the NPT group in almost every age group (all p<0.05), with the exception of patients ≥90 years. Moreover, eyes in the PT group had significantly higher with-the-rule (PT 1.72±1.59D, NPT 1.19±0.88D, p<0.0001) and against-the-rule (PT 1.63±1.46D, NPT 1.18±0.88D, p<0.0001) but similar oblique astigmatism (PT 1.11±1.00D, NPT 0.99±0.89D, p=0.065) corneal astigmatism compared with the NPT group. Power vector analysis indicated that the axis of corneal astigmatism was not significantly different between the two groups (J0, PT -0.01±0.74D, NPT 0.01±0.52D, p=0.48; J45, PT -0.03±0.82D, NPT 0.00±0.52D, p=0.54). CONCLUSIONS: Pattern of corneal astigmatism in eyes with cataract and coexisting primary pterygium was different from eyes without pterygium. Pterygium is associated with higher magnitude but not different axis of corneal astigmatism.


Assuntos
Astigmatismo , Catarata , Pterígio , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Astigmatismo/etiologia , Catarata/complicações , Catarata/epidemiologia , China/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Hospitais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pterígio/complicações , Pterígio/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos
20.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 79(2): 95-98, Mar.-Apr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137937

RESUMO

Resumo Objetivo: Avaliar o astigmatismo induzido pela cirurgia de catarata através da técnica de facoemulsificação (FACO) guiada pelo planejador cirúrgico VERION®, em um serviço oftalmológico do Paraná. Métodos: O estudo tem caráter observacional com avaliação individualizada de prontuários de forma retrospectiva, analisando 37 olhos de 20 pacientes operados de catarata pela técnica de FACO com a utilização do VERION® e implantação de lente não-tórica no Hospital de Olhos de Cascavel - PR no período de maio de 2016 a novembro de 2018. Resultados: Dentro de nossa amostra composta por 37 olhos abordados com assistência do VERION®, 43% dos participantes do estudo (n=16) apresentaram redução do astigmatismo inicial, inclusive com eliminação de graus mais graves de astigmatismo (≥2.5 D). Conclusão: O impacto do VERION® foi significativo uma vez que permitiu a correção do astigmatismo prévio de uma parte da amostragem. Em olhos que ocorreram astigmatismo induzido cirurgicamente essa complicação foi menos relevante clinicamente em comparação com incisões corneanas da técnica convencional.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the astigmatism induced by cataract surgery through the phacoemulsification (PHACO) technique guided by the VERION® surgical planner, in an ophthalmological service of Paraná. Methods: This is an observational study with retrospective individualized evaluation of medical records, analyzing 37 eyes of 20 patients who underwent cataract surgery using the PHACO technique using VERION® and non-toric intraocular lens implantation at the Hospital de Olhos de Cascavel - PR in May 2016. Results: Within our sample of 37 eyes approached with VERION® assistance, 43% of study participants (n=16) had reduced initial astigmatism, including elimination of more severe degrees of astigmatism (≥2.5 D). Conclusion: The impact of VERION® was significant as it allowed the correction of previous astigmatism of a part of the sample. In eyes that had surgically induced astigmatism, this complication was less clinically relevant compared to conventional technique corneal incisions.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Astigmatismo/complicações , Astigmatismo/epidemiologia , Extração de Catarata/efeitos adversos , Facoemulsificação/métodos , Cirurgia Assistida por Computador , Estudos Retrospectivos , Topografia da Córnea/métodos , Estudo Observacional
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