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1.
Neurosciences (Riyadh) ; 26(2): 158-162, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33814368

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess and quantify the impact COVID-19 has had thus far on ischemic stroke admission rate and severity (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score) at a single tertiary center in Makkah, Saudi Arabia. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis performed on admitted cases with definitive final diagnoses of transient ischemic attack (TIA) and ischemic stroke at King Abdullah Medical City in Makkah between January 1, 2020 and July 2020. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were included in our study, 41 of whom presented at our facility before the pandemic and 29 during the pandemic. No statistical significance was observed between rate of admission, stroke severity, and rate of thrombolysis before the COVID-19 pandemic and after the outbreak. We observed a reduction of mean arrival time after the pandemic began, as well as a reduction of hospital stay days. CONCLUSION: A 29% reduction of admission secondary to acute ischemic stroke was noted during the pandemic. However, COVID-19 did not affect acute stroke care at our institute. The study is limited because of its small sample size, as we assessed just one medical center.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , /epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva/estatística & dados numéricos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo para o Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem
2.
Int Heart J ; 62(2): 312-319, 2021 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33678799

RESUMO

This study aims to evaluate the incidence of ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) based on CHA2DS2-VASc scores in non-AF Chinese patients with sinus rhythm.We used health check-up data of 101,510 participants from the Kailuan Cohort Study. Participants' risk levels were defined by their CHA2DS2-VASc scores (range 0-3): Men with scores of 0, 1, or ≥ 2 and women with scores of 1, 2, or ≥ 3 were considered at low, intermediate, or high risk, respectively. Cox proportional hazards model was used to assess the association between the CHA2DS2-VASc-determined risk and the incidence of ischemic stroke/TIA.The mean 7.5 year follow-up examination revealed 2968 ischemic strokes/TIA events. The incidence rates for ischemic stroke/TIA events in men and women were 3.8% and 1.5%, respectively. The incidence of ischemic stroke/TIA increased with elevated predicted risks based on CHA2DS2-VASc scores in men: 2.2% for low-risk, 4.1% for intermediate-risk, and 7.8% for high-risk groups (P < 0.001 for trend). The incidences of ischemic stroke/TIA also increased with elevated predicted risks in women: 0.8% for low-risk, 2.1% for intermediate-risk, and 5.0% for high-risk groups (P < 0.001 for trend). Compared with low-risk group, the crude hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) of ischemic stroke/TIA for men in moderate- and high-risk groups were 1.96 (1.79-2.14; P < 0.001) and 4.18 (3.81-4.57; P < 0.001). Similar findings were observed in women.Risks of ischemic stroke/TIA events was high, particularly among those with high CHA2DS2-VASc scores.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Medição de Risco/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , China/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
3.
Lancet Neurol ; 20(3): 193-202, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33609477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty around which patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis should be offered surgical intervention. Although stroke rates were unrelated to the degree of stenosis in the medical-treatment-only groups in previous randomised trials, this could simply reflect recruitment bias and there has been no systematic analysis of a stenosis-risk association in cohort studies. We aimed to establish whether there is any association between the degree of asymptomatic stenosis and ipsilateral stroke risk in patients on contemporary medical treatment. METHODS: We did a prospective population-based study (Oxford Vascular Study; OxVasc), and a systematic review and meta-analysis. All patients in OxVasc with a recent suspected transient ischaemic attack or stroke, between April 1, 2002, and April 1, 2017, who had asymptomatic carotid stenosis were included in these analyses. We commenced contemporary medical treatment and determined ipsilateral stroke risk in this cohort by face-to-face follow-up (to Oct 1, 2020). We also did a systematic review and meta-analysis of all published studies (from Jan 1, 1980, to Oct 1, 2020) reporting ipsilateral stroke risk in patients with asymptomatic carotid stenosis. We searched MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and included both observational cohort studies and medical treatment groups of randomised controlled trials if the number of patients exceeded 30, ipsilateral stroke rates (or the raw data to calculate these) were provided, and were published in English. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2002, and April 1, 2017, 2354 patients were consecutively enrolled in OxVasc and 2178 patients underwent carotid imaging, of whom 207 had 50-99% asymptomatic stenosis of at least one carotid bifurcation (mean age at imaging: 77·5 years [SD 10·3]; 88 [43%] women). The 5-year ipsilateral stroke risk increased with the degree of stenosis; patients with 70-99% stenosis had a significantly greater 5-year ipsilateral stroke risk than did those with 50-69% stenosis (six [14·6%; 95% CI 3·5-25·7] of 53 patients vs none of 154; p<0·0001); and patients with 80-99% stenosis had a significantly greater 5-year ipsilateral stroke risk than did those with 50-79% stenosis (five [18·3%; 7·7-29·9] of 34 patients vs one [1·0%; 0·0-2·9] of 173; p<0·0001). Of the 56 studies identified in the systematic review (comprising 13 717 patients), 23 provided data on ipsilateral stroke risk fully stratified by degree of asymptomatic stenosis (in 8419 patients). Stroke risk was linearly associated with degree of ipsilateral stenosis (p<0·0001); there was a higher risk in patients with 70-99% stenosis than in those with 50-69% stenosis (386 of 3778 patients vs 181 of 3806 patients; odds ratio [OR] 2·1 [95% CI 1·7-2·5], p<0·0001; 15 cohort studies, three trials) and a higher risk in patients with 80-99% stenosis than in those with 50-79% stenosis (77 of 727 patients vs 167 of 3272 patients; OR 2·5 [1·8-3·5], p<0·0001; 11 cohort studies). Heterogeneity in stroke risk between studies for patients with severe versus moderate stenosis (phet<0·0001) was accounted for by highly discrepant results (pdiff<0·0001) in the randomised controlled trials of endarterectomy compared with cohort studies (trials: pooled OR 0·8 [95% CI 0·6-1·2], phet=0·89; cohorts: 2·9 [2·3-3·7], phet=0·54). INTERPRETATION: Contrary to the assumptions of current guidelines and the findings of subgroup analyses of previous randomised controlled trials, the stroke risk reported in cohort studies was highly dependent on the degree of asymptomatic carotid stenosis, suggesting that the benefit of endarterectomy might be underestimated in patients with severe stenosis. Conversely, the 5-year stroke risk was low for patients with moderate stenosis on contemporary medical treatment, calling into question any benefit from revascularisation. FUNDING: NIHR Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, Wellcome Trust, Wolfson Foundation, and the British Heart Foundation.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose das Carótidas/complicações , Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Estudos de Coortes , Endarterectomia das Carótidas , Feminino , Humanos , Inibidores de Hidroximetilglutaril-CoA Redutases/uso terapêutico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Fumar/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle
4.
BMJ ; 372: n49, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541890

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the previously derived Canadian TIA Score to stratify subsequent stroke risk in a new cohort of emergency department patients with transient ischaemic attack. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: 13 Canadian emergency departments over five years. PARTICIPANTS: 7607 consecutively enrolled adult patients attending the emergency department with transient ischaemic attack or minor stroke. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was subsequent stroke or carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days. The secondary outcome was subsequent stroke within seven days (with or without carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting). Telephone follow-up used the validated Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status at seven and 90 days. All outcomes were adjudicated by panels of three stroke experts, blinded to the index emergency department visit. RESULTS: Of the 7607 patients, 108 (1.4%) had a subsequent stroke within seven days, 83 (1.1%) had carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days, and nine had both. The Canadian TIA Score stratified the risk of stroke, carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting, or both within seven days as low (risk ≤0.5%; interval likelihood ratio 0.20, 95% confidence interval 0.09 to 0.44), medium (risk 2.3%; interval likelihood ratio 0.94, 0.85 to 1.04), and high (risk 5.9% interval likelihood ratio 2.56, 2.02 to 3.25) more accurately (area under the curve 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.73) than did the ABCD2 (0.60, 0.55 to 0.64) or ABCD2i (0.64, 0.59 to 0.68). Results were similar for subsequent stroke regardless of carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting within seven days. CONCLUSION: The Canadian TIA Score stratifies patients' seven day risk for stroke, with or without carotid endarterectomy/carotid artery stenting, and is now ready for clinical use. Incorporating this validated risk estimate into management plans should improve early decision making at the index emergency visit regarding benefits of hospital admission, timing of investigations, and prioritisation of specialist referral.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Canadá , Comorbidade , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Estudos Prospectivos
5.
Neurol Sci ; 42(4): 1237-1245, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33452656

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 outbreak highly impacted the acute ischemic stroke care management. The primary end point of the study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak and the following lockdown measures on our hub-and-spoke network; the secondary end point was to evaluate if the impact of the COVID-19 outbreak was different in hub-and-spoke centers. METHODS: This was a retrospective multicenter observational study conducted at the Stroke Units of Policlinico Gemelli, Ospedale San Filippo Neri, Ospedale di Belcolle, and Ospedale San Camillo de Lellis. We collected clinical reports of all consecutive patients admitted with diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) during the phase 1 of the lockdown period (11 March 2020-4 May 2020). As controls, we used all consecutive patients admitted for acute ischemic stroke or TIA in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: A total of 156 and 142 clinical reports were collected in 2019 and 2020, respectively. During the COVID-19 outbreak, we observed a reduction of number of thrombolysis, a reduction of the length of hospitalization, and an increase of pneumonia. Regarding performance indicators, we observed an increase in onset-to-door time and in door-to-groin time. We did not observe any statistically significant interaction between year (2019 vs 2020) and facility of admission (hub vs spoke) on all variables analyzed. DISCUSSION: Our observational study, involving hub-and-spoke stroke network of a wide regional area, indicates that the COVID-19 outbreak impacted on the acute stroke management. This impact was equally observed in hub as well as in spoke centers.


Assuntos
Pandemias , Quarentena , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , /terapia , Itália/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Terapia Trombolítica/estatística & dados numéricos
6.
Am J Cardiol ; 145: 111-118, 2021 04 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454348

RESUMO

The relative safety and efficacy of aspirin versus dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT; aspirin+clopidogrel) in patients who underwent transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) and did not have a long-term indication for oral anticoagulation remains controversial. Digital databases were searched to identify relevant articles. The major safety end point was bleeding, while the efficacy end points included after-TAVI ischemic and thrombotic events. Data were analyzed using a random effect model to calculate the pooled unadjusted odds ratio (OR) for dichotomous outcomes. Eleven studies comprising 4805 patients (aspirin 2258, DAPT 2547) were included in the quantitative analysis. Patients receiving aspirin-alone had significantly lower odds of all cause bleeding (OR 0.41, 95% CI 0.29 to .057, p <0.00001), major vascular bleeding (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.77, p = 0.001), Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 (VARC-2) major bleeding (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.83 p = 0.008), VARC-2 minor bleeding (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.31 to 0.97, p = 0.04), transfusion requirement (OR 0.39, 95%CI 0.15 to 0.0.98, p = 0.05) and major vascular complications (OR0.41, 95% CI 0.26 to 0.66, p = 0.0002) compared with after-TAVI patients receiving both aspirin and clopidogrel. These was no significant difference in the odds of VARC-2 life threatening bleeding (OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.25 to 1.07, p = 0.08), prosthetic valve thrombosis (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.22 to 6.30, p = 0.85), cardiac tamponade (OR 0.77, 95% CI 0.20 to 2.98, p = 0.70), conversion to open procedure (OR 1.99, 95 % CI 0.42 to 9.44, p = 0.39), MI (OR 0.79 95% CI 0.38 to 1.64, p = 0.52), transient ischemic attack (TIA) (OR 0.89, 95% CI 0.12 to 6.44, p = 0.91), major stroke (OR 0.68 95 % CI 0.43 to 1.08, p = 0.10), disabling stroke (0R 1.01, 95% CI 0.41 to 2.48, p = 0.99), cardiovascular mortality (OR 0.81 95% CI 0.38 to 1.74, p = 0.59) and all-cause mortality (OR 0.86, 95% CI 0.63 to 1.16, p = 0.31) between the 2 groups. In conclusion, after-TAVI patients who received aspirin alone had lower bleeding events with no significant differences in mortality and stroke rate compared with those who received DAPT.


Assuntos
Estenose da Valva Aórtica/cirurgia , Aspirina/uso terapêutico , Clopidogrel/uso terapêutico , Terapia Antiplaquetária Dupla , Hemorragia/epidemiologia , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Trombose/prevenção & controle , Substituição da Valva Aórtica Transcateter , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , Razão de Chances , Cuidados Pós-Operatórios , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Trombose/epidemiologia
8.
JAMA ; 325(4): 373-381, 2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33496774

RESUMO

Importance: Accurate estimation of the association between transient ischemic attack (TIA) and risk of subsequent stroke can help to improve preventive efforts and limit the burden of stroke in the population. Objective: To determine population-based incidence of TIA and the timing and long-term trends of stroke risk after TIA. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study (Framingham Heart Study) of prospectively collected data of 14 059 participants with no history of TIA or stroke at baseline, followed up from 1948-December 31, 2017. A sample of TIA-free participants was matched to participants with first incident TIA on age and sex (ratio, 5:1). Exposures: Calendar time (TIA incidence calculation, time-trends analyses), TIA (matched longitudinal cohort). Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were TIA incidence rates; proportion of stroke occurring after TIA in the short term (7, 30, and 90 days) vs the long term (>1-10 years); stroke after TIA vs stroke among matched control participants without TIA; and time trends of stroke risk at 90 days after TIA assessed in 3 epochs: 1954-1985, 1986-1999, and 2000-2017. Results: Among 14 059 participants during 66 years of follow-up (366 209 person-years), 435 experienced TIA (229 women; mean age, 73.47 [SD, 11.48] years and 206 men; mean age, 70.10 [SD, 10.64] years) and were matched to 2175 control participants without TIA. The estimated incidence rate of TIA was 1.19/1000 person-years. Over a median of 8.86 years of follow-up after TIA, 130 participants (29.5%) had a stroke; 28 strokes (21.5%) occurred within 7 days, 40 (30.8%) occurred within 30 days, 51 (39.2%) occurred within 90 days, and 63 (48.5%) occurred more than 1 year after the index TIA; median time to stroke was 1.64 (interquartile range, 0.07-6.6) years. The age- and sex-adjusted cumulative 10-year hazard of incident stroke for patients with TIA (130 strokes among 435 cases) was 0.46 (95% CI, 0.39-0.55) and for matched control participants without TIA (165 strokes among 2175) was 0.09 (95% CI, 0.08-0.11); fully adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 4.37 (95% CI, 3.30-5.71; P < .001). Compared with the 90-day stroke risk after TIA in 1948-1985 (16.7%; 26 strokes among 155 patients with TIA), the risk between 1986-1999 was 11.1% (18 strokes among 162 patients) and between 2000-2017 was 5.9% (7 strokes among 118 patients). Compared with the first epoch, the HR for 90-day risk of stroke in the second epoch was 0.60 (95% CI, 0.33-1.12) and in the third epoch was 0.32 (95% CI, 0.14-0.75) (P = .005 for trend). Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study from 1948-2017, the estimated crude TIA incidence was 1.19/1000 person-years, the risk of stroke was significantly greater after TIA compared with matched control participants who did not have TIA, and the risk of stroke after TIA was significantly lower in the most recent epoch from 2000-2017 compared with an earlier period from 1948-1985.


Assuntos
Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/complicações , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
9.
Stroke ; 52(2): 716-721, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33356382

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Since the beginning of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many countries have introduced strict hygiene measures of social distancing to prevent further spreading of the disease. This may have led to a decreased presentation to hospital of patients with acute medical conditions and time-dependent management, such as stroke. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide cohort study using administrative database of all hospitalized patients with main diagnosis of acute ischemic stroke (AIS), transient ischemic attack, or intracerebral hemorrhage. Data from a total of 1463 hospitals in Germany were included. We compared case numbers and treatment characteristics of pandemic (March 16 to May 15, 2020) and prepandemic (January 16 to March 15, 2020) cases and also with corresponding time period in 2019. RESULTS: We identified a strong decline for hospitalization of AIS (-17.4%), transient ischemic attack (-22.9%), and intracerebral hemorrhage (-15.8%) patients during the pandemic compared with prepandemic period. IVT rate in patients with AIS was comparable (prepandemic versus pandemic: 16.4% versus 16.6%, P=0.448), whereas mechanical thrombectomy rate was significantly higher during the pandemic (8.1% versus 7.7%, P=0.044). In-hospital mortality was significantly increased in patients with AIS during the pandemic period (8.1% versus 7.6%, P=0.006). CONCLUSIONS: Besides a massive decrease in absolute case numbers, our data suggest that patients with AIS who did seek acute care during the pandemic, continued to receive acute recanalization treatment in Germany.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/virologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/virologia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , /patogenicidade
10.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041514, 2020 10 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099501

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic is having major implications for stroke care with a documented significant fall in hospital acute stroke admissions. We investigated whether COVID-19 has resulted in a decreased number of referrals to the transient ischaemic attack (TIA) clinics across the North West London region. SETTING AND DESIGN: All the TIA clinical leads of the North West London region received an invitation by email to participate in an online survey in May 2020. The survey questionnaire aimed to assess the number of patients with suspected TIA consecutively referred to each of the TIA clinics of the North West London region between 1 March and 30 April 2020, the COVID-19 period, and between 1 March and 30 April 2019. RESULTS: We had a response rate of 100%. During the COVID-19 period, the TIA clinics of the North West London region received 440 referrals compared with 616 referrals received between 1 March and 30 April 2019 with a fall in the number of the referrals by 28.6%. In April 2020 compared with April 2019, the number of the referrals declined by 40.1%. CONCLUSIONS: This multicentre analysis documented a significant reduction in the number of patients referred with suspected TIA to the specialised rapid access outpatient clinics in the North West London region during the COVID-19 pandemic. Future studies are needed to confirm our findings and to better characterise the incidence of cerebrovascular disease during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Betacoronavirus , Estudos Transversais , Hospitalização , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Londres/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/métodos , Serviços Preventivos de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(10): 105117, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912562

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Non-stenotic (<50%) carotid plaques have recently been recognized as a potential source of stroke. This meta-analysis aims to summarize the prevalence of non-stenotic carotid plaques in stroke patients in general and in patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source in particular. METHODS: We performed a comprehensive systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis on acute ischemic stroke patients in whom carotid imaging was performed using the MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane database, including studies published up to December 2019. Keywords were "stroke", "transient ischemic attack", "carotid", "plaque", "atherosclerosis" and "disease". Included studies had ≥10 patients with acute ischemic stroke and reported the prevalence of non-stenotic (<50%%stenosis) carotid plaques detected on any imaging modality. RESULTS: We included forty-five studies (n = 18304 patients, 48.4% males, mean age 63.6 years) in our meta-analysis. Imaging modalities used were ultrasound (n = 26 studies), CT-angiography (n = 7), magnetic resonance-imaging (n = 8) and catheter angiography (n = 4). The overall prevalence of non-stenotic carotid plaques was 51% (95% CI: 43 - 59). 10 studies included mainly patients with embolic stroke of undetermined source (>50% of all patients). The pooled prevalence of non-stenotic carotid plaques in these studies was 55% (95% CI: 42 - 68). 23 studies explicitly reported ipsilateral non-stenotic carotid plaques, the pooled prevalence of which was 51% (95% CI: 45 - 59). CONCLUSIONS: In this meta-analysis, non-stenotic carotid plaques were present in more than 50% of all acute ischemic stroke patients, with a slightly higher prevalence in ESUS patients. Given the potential role of non-stenotic carotid plaques in stroke etiology, particularly in ESUS, further research should aim to identify criteria that predict the stroke risk associated with non-stenotic carotid plaques.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Placa Aterosclerótica , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagem
14.
JAMA ; 324(9): 871-878, 2020 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870297

RESUMO

Importance: Outcomes of postoperative atrial fibrillation (AF) after noncardiac surgery are not well defined. Objective: To determine the association of new-onset postoperative AF vs no AF after noncardiac surgery with risk of nonfatal and fatal outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study in Olmsted County, Minnesota, involving 550 patients who had their first-ever documented AF within 30 days after undergoing a noncardiac surgery (postoperative AF) between 2000 and 2013. Of these patients, 452 were matched 1:1 on age, sex, year of surgery, and type of surgery to patients with noncardiac surgery who were not diagnosed with AF within 30 days following the surgery (no AF). The last date of follow-up was December 31, 2018. Exposures: Postoperative AF vs no AF after noncardiac surgery. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA). Secondary outcomes included subsequent documented AF, all-cause mortality, and cardiovascular mortality. Results: The median age of the 452 matched patients was 75 years (IQR, 67-82 years) and 51.8% of patients were men. Patients with postoperative AF had significantly higher CHA2DS2-VASc scores than those in the no AF group (median, 4 [IQR, 2-5] vs 3 [IQR, 2-5]; P < .001). Over a median follow-up of 5.4 years (IQR, 1.4-9.2 years), there were 71 ischemic strokes or TIAs, 266 subsequent documented AF episodes, and 571 deaths, of which 172 were cardiovascular related. Patients with postoperative AF exhibited a statistically significantly higher risk of ischemic stroke or TIA (incidence rate, 18.9 vs 10.0 per 1000 person-years; absolute risk difference [RD] at 5 years, 4.7%; 95% CI, 1.0%-8.4%; HR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.35-5.37) compared with those with no AF. Patients with postoperative AF had statistically significantly higher risks of subsequent documented AF (incidence rate 136.4 vs 21.6 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 39.3%; 95% CI, 33.6%-45.0%; HR, 7.94; 95% CI, 4.85-12.98), and all-cause death (incidence rate, 133.2 vs 86.8 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 9.4%; 95% CI, 4.9%-13.7%; HR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.32-2.09). No significant difference in the risk of cardiovascular death was observed for patients with and without postoperative AF (incidence rate, 42.5 vs 25.0 per 1000 person-years; absolute RD at 5 years, 6.2%; 95% CI, 2.2%-10.4%; HR, 1.51; 95% CI, 0.97-2.34). Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, new-onset postoperative AF compared with no AF was associated with a significant increased risk of stroke or TIA. However, the implications of these findings for the management of postoperative AF, such as the need for anticoagulation therapy, require investigation in randomized trials.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/complicações , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticoagulantes/uso terapêutico , Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Masculino , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia
15.
Neurology ; 95(16): e2178-e2191, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817184

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To improve epidemiologic knowledge of neurologic deterioration (ND) in patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS). METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we captured ND prospectively in 29,446 patients with AIS admitted to 15 hospitals in Korea within 7 days of stroke onset. ND was defined as an increase in NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥2 (total), or ≥1 (motor or consciousness), or any new neurologic symptoms. Change in incidence rate after stroke onset, causes, factors associated with ND, modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at 3 months and 1 year, and a composite of stroke, myocardial infarction, and all-cause death at 1 year were assessed. RESULTS: ND occurred in 4,299 (14.6%) patients. The highest rate, 6.95 per 1,000 person-hours incidence, was within the first 6 hours, which decreased to 2.09 within 24-48 hours, and 0.66 within 72-96 hours after stroke onset. Old age, female sex, diabetes, early arrival, large artery atherosclerosis as a stroke subtype, high NIHSS scores, glucose level, systolic blood pressure, leukocytosis at admission, recanalization therapy, TIA without a relevant lesion, and steno-occlusion of relevant arteries were associated with ND. The causes were stroke progression (71.8%) followed by recurrence (8.5%). Adjusted relative risks (95% CI) for poor outcome (mRS 3-6) at 3 months and 1 year were 1.75 (1.70-1.80) and 1.70 (1.65-1.75), respectively. The adjusted hazard ratio (95% CI) for the composite event was 1.59 (1.45-1.74). CONCLUSIONS: ND should be taken into consideration as a factor that may influence the outcome in acute ischemic stroke.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Doenças do Sistema Nervoso/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
16.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(9): 105034, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32807446

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on independent risk factors for stroke recurrence in Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation are limited. METHODS: We performed a subgroup analysis of a postmarketing surveillance study of apixaban (STroke prevention ANticoagulant Drug Apixaban Real-world Data study) in Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation receiving oral apixaban (5 mg/2.5 mg twice daily) in routine clinical practice. Patients were categorized into primary and secondary prevention groups based on the absence or presence of a history of ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack, respectively. RESULTS: Patients in the secondary prevention group (1101 of 6306 patients [17.5%] analyzed; mean observation period, 15.7 months) had a higher risk of ischemic stroke or hemorrhage than those in the primary prevention group. The incidence rates of major (3.92%/year vs 2.06%/year), intracranial (1.87%/year vs 0.55%/year), and cerebral (1.14%/year vs 0.37%/year) hemorrhage and effectiveness outcomes (ischemic stroke/systemic embolism/transient ischemic attack, 3.25%/year vs 0.57%/year) were significantly higher (all P < 0.001) in the secondary prevention group than in the primary prevention group. Multivariate analysis identified no independent risk factors in the secondary prevention group, while prior major bleeding, alcohol abuse, advanced age, male sex, lower body weight, higher serum creatinine, and antiplatelet drug use were identified as risk factors for major hemorrhage, and advanced age and antiplatelet drug use for effectiveness outcomes in the primary prevention group. CONCLUSIONS: Among Japanese patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation who received apixaban, presence of a history of ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack was associated with higher incidence rates of hemorrhage and thromboembolic events.


Assuntos
Fibrilação Atrial/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores do Fator Xa/administração & dosagem , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/prevenção & controle , Prevenção Primária , Pirazóis/administração & dosagem , Piridonas/administração & dosagem , Prevenção Secundária , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/prevenção & controle , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fibrilação Atrial/diagnóstico , Fibrilação Atrial/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Fator Xa/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Hemorragia/induzido quimicamente , Humanos , Incidência , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Japão/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vigilância de Produtos Comercializados , Estudos Prospectivos , Pirazóis/efeitos adversos , Piridonas/efeitos adversos , Recidiva , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
17.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 8: CD013267, 2020 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32789891

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) is an arterial narrowing in the brain that can cause stroke. Endovascular therapy and medical management may be used to prevent recurrent ischaemic stroke caused by ICAS. However, there is no consensus on the best treatment for people with ICAS. OBJECTIVES: To compare the safety and efficacy of endovascular therapy (ET) plus conventional medical treatment (CMT) with CMT alone for the management of symptomatic ICAS. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (30 August 2019), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL: to 30 August 2019), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 30 August 2019), Embase Ovid (1974 to 30 August 2019), Scopus (1960 to 30 August 2019), Science Citation Index Web of Science (1900 to 30 July 2019), Academic Source Complete EBSCO (ASC: 1982 to 30 July 2019), and China Biological Medicine Database (CBM: 1978 to 30 July 2019). We also searched the following trial registers: ClinicalTrials.gov, WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform, and Stroke Trials Registry. We also contacted trialists and researchers where additional information was required. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ET plus CMT with CMT alone for the treatment of symptomatic ICAS. ET modalities included angioplasty alone, balloon-mounted stent, and angioplasty followed by placement of a self-expanding stent. CMT included antiplatelet therapy in addition to control of risk factors such as hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, and diabetes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened trials to select potentially eligible RCTs and extracted data. Any disagreements were resolved by discussing and reaching consensus decisions with the full team. We assessed risk of bias and applied the GRADE approach to assess the quality of the evidence. The primary outcome was death of any cause or non-fatal stroke of any type within three months of randomisation. Secondary outcomes included any-cause death or non-fatal stroke of any type more than three months of randomisation, ipsilateral stroke, type of recurrent event, death, restenosis, dependency, and health-related quality of life. MAIN RESULTS: We included three RCTs with 632 participants who had symptomatic ICAS with an age range of 18 to 85 years. The included trials had high risks of performance bias and other potential sources of bias due to the impossibility of blinding of the endovascular intervention and early termination of the trials. Moreover, one trial had a high risk of attrition bias because of the high rate of loss of one-year follow-up and the high proportion of participants transferred from endovascular therapy to medical management. The quality of evidence ranged from low to moderate, downgraded for imprecision. Compared to CMT, ET probably results in a higher rate of 30-day death or stroke (risk ratio (RR) 3.07, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.80 to 5.24; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, moderate-quality evidence), 30-day ipsilateral stroke (RR 3.54, 95% CI 1.98 to 6.33; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, moderate-quality evidence), 30-day ischaemic stroke (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.37 to 4.62; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, moderate-quality evidence), and 30-day haemorrhagic stroke (RR 15.53, 95% CI 2.10 to 115.16; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, low-quality evidence). ET was also likely associated with a worse outcome in one-year death or stroke (RR 1.69, 95% CI 1.21 to 2.36; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, moderate-quality evidence), one-year ipsilateral stroke (RR 2.28, 95% CI 1.52 to 3.42; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, moderate-quality evidence), one-year ischaemic stroke (RR 2.07, 95% CI 1.37 to 3.13; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, moderate-quality evidence), and one-year haemorrhagic stroke (RR 10.13, 95% CI 1.31 to 78.51; 2 RCTs, 521 participants, low-quality evidence). There were no significant differences between ET and CMT in 30-day transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) (RR 0.52, 95% CI 0.11 to 2.35, P = 0.39; 2 RCTs, 181 participants, moderate-quality evidence), 30-day death (RR 5.53, 95% CI 0.98 to 31.17, P = 0.05; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, low-quality evidence), one-year TIA (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.32 to 2.12; 2 RCTs, 181 participants, moderate-quality evidence), one-year death (RR 1.20, 95% CI 0.50 to 2.86, P = 0.68; 3 RCTs, 632 participants, moderate-quality evidence), and one-year dependency (RR 1.90, 95% CI 0.91 to 3.97, P = 0.09; 3 RCTs, 613 participants, moderate-quality evidence). No data on restenosis and health-related quality of life for meta-analysis were available from the included trials. Two RCTs are ongoing. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review provides moderate-quality evidence showing that ET, compared with CMT, in people with recent symptomatic severe intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis probably does not prevent recurrent stroke and appears to carry an increased hazard. The impact of delayed ET intervention (more than three weeks after a qualifying event) is unclear and may warrant further study.


Assuntos
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Procedimentos Endovasculares/métodos , Arteriosclerose Intracraniana/complicações , Inibidores da Agregação de Plaquetas/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Angioplastia/efeitos adversos , Angioplastia/métodos , Viés , Isquemia Encefálica/etiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/mortalidade , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/etiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Fatores de Risco , Stents Metálicos Autoexpansíveis , Stents , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/etiologia
19.
Eur J Vasc Endovasc Surg ; 60(4): 502-508, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732140

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Composite measures may better objectify hospital performance than individual outcome measures (IOM). Textbook outcome (TO) is an outcome measure achieved for an individual patient when all undesirable outcomes are absent. The aim of this study was to assess TO as an additional outcome measure to evaluate quality of care in symptomatic patients treated by carotid endarterectomy (CEA). METHODS: All symptomatic patients treated by CEA in 2018, registered in the Dutch Audit for Carotid Interventions, were included. TO was defined as a composite of the absence of 30 day mortality, neurological events (any stroke or transient ischaemic attack [TIA]), cranial nerve deficit, haemorrhage, 30 day readmission, prolonged length of stay (LOS; > 5 days) and any other surgical complication. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify covariables associated with achieving TO, which were used for casemix adjustment for hospital comparison. For each hospital, an observed vs. expected number of events ratio (O/E ratio) was calculated and plotted in a funnel plot with 95% control limits. RESULTS: In total, 70.7% of patients had a desired outcome within 30 days after CEA and therefore achieved TO. Prolonged LOS was the most common parameter (85%) and mortality the least common (1.1%) for not achieving TO. Covariates associated with achieving TO were younger age, the absence of pulmonary comorbidity, higher haemoglobin levels, and TIA as index event. In the case mix adjusted funnel plot, the O/E ratios between hospitals ranged between 0.63 and 1.27, with two hospitals revealing a statistically significantly lower rate of TO (with O/E ratios of 0.63 and 0.66). CONCLUSION: In the Netherlands, most patients treated by CEA achieve TO. Variation between hospitals in achieving TO might imply differences in performance. TO may be used as an additive to the pre-existing IOM, especially in surgical care with low baseline risk such as CEA.


Assuntos
Estenose das Carótidas/cirurgia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/normas , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde/normas , Indicadores de Qualidade em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estenose das Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Estenose das Carótidas/mortalidade , Doenças dos Nervos Cranianos/epidemiologia , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/efeitos adversos , Endarterectomia das Carótidas/mortalidade , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/normas , Humanos , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Países Baixos/epidemiologia , Readmissão do Paciente , Hemorragia Pós-Operatória/epidemiologia , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/mortalidade , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
20.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105229, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32828638

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Concerns have arisen regarding patient access and delivery of acute stroke care during the COVID-19 pandemic. We investigated key population level events on activity of the three hyperacute stroke units (HASUs) within Greater Manchester and East Cheshire (GM & EC), whilst adjusting for environmental factors. METHODS: Weekly stroke admission & discharge counts in the three HASUs were collected locally from Emergency Department (ED) data and Sentinel Stroke National Audit Programme core dataset prior to, and during the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic (Jan 2020 to May 2020). Whilst adjusting for local traffic-related air pollution and ambient measurement, an interrupted time-series analysis using a segmented generalised linear model investigated key population level events on the rate of stroke team ED assessments, admissions for stroke, referrals for transient ischaemic attack (TIA), and stroke discharges. RESULTS: The median total number of ED stroke assessments, admissions, TIA referrals, and discharges across the three HASU sites prior to the first UK COVID-19 death were 150, 114, 69, and 76 per week. The stable weekly trend in ED assessments and stroke admissions decreased by approximately 16% (and 21% for TIAs) between first UK hospital COVID-19 death (5th March) and the implementation of the Act-FAST campaign (6th April) where a modest 4% and 5% increase per week was observed. TIA referrals increased post Government intervention (23rd March), without fully returning to the numbers observed in January and February. Trends in discharges from stroke units appeared unaffected within the study period reported here. CONCLUSION: Despite adjustment for environmental factors stroke activity was temporarily modified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Underlying motivations within the population are still not clear. This raises concerns that patients may have avoided urgent health care risking poorer short and long-term health outcomes.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/tendências , Meio Ambiente , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Humanos , Análise de Séries Temporais Interrompida , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/diagnóstico , Ataque Isquêmico Transitório/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Admissão do Paciente/tendências , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Encaminhamento e Consulta/tendências , Fatores de Risco , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/diagnóstico , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/epidemiologia , Fatores de Tempo
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