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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205114

RESUMO

Mental health problems are relatively common during university and adversely affect academic outcomes. Evidence suggests that mindfulness can support the mental health and wellbeing of university students. We explored the acceptability and effectiveness of an 8-week instructor-led mindfulness-based course ("Mindfulness: Finding Peace in a Frantic World"; Williams and Penman, 2011) on improving wellbeing and mental health (self-reported distress), orientation and motivation towards academic goals, and the mechanisms driving these changes. Eighty-six undergraduate and post-graduate students (>18 years) participated. Students engaged well with the course, with 36 (48.0%) completing the whole programme, 52 (69.3%) attending 7 out of 8 sessions, and 71 (94.7%) completing at least half. Significant improvements in wellbeing and mental health were found post-intervention and at 6-week follow-up. Improvements in wellbeing were mediated by mindfulness, self-compassion, and resilience. Improvements in mental health were mediated by improvements in mindfulness and resilience but not self-compassion. Significant improvements in students' orientation to their academic goal, measured by "commitment" to, "likelihood" of achieving, and feeling more equipped with the "skills and resources" needed, were found at post-intervention and at 6-week follow-up. Whilst exploratory, the results suggest that this mindfulness intervention is acceptable and effective for university students and can support academic study.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Motivação , Estudantes , Universidades
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198737

RESUMO

Early childhood and the pre-school stage of development constitute a dynamic period for acquisition of social-emotional competencies. Yoga and mindfulness practices (YMP) have become increasingly used in schools for social emotional learning, but less is known about their utility in early childhood settings. A systematic review using PRISMA guidelines was undertaken to explore the effect of YMP on social emotional function among preschool-aged children (3-5 years). The review resulted in identification of 1115 records, of which 80 full text articles were screened, with final inclusion of 16 studies. Included studies evaluated the effect of YMP on social-emotional functioning, and identified the potential for YMP to improve regulatory skills such as behavioral self-regulation and executive function. Among studies reviewed, 13 reported improvements in these domains, but quality appraisal indicated significant variability in risk of bias across studies, and heterogeneity of outcome measurements hindered comparison. Programs appeared to produce better results when implemented for at least 6 weeks and among children who had lower baseline social-emotional functioning. YMP constitute a promising strategy for social emotional development in early childhood settings, but additional rigorously designed studies are needed to expand understanding of how and why these programs are effective.


Assuntos
Meditação , Atenção Plena , Ioga , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Habilidades Sociais
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34280999

RESUMO

The current study aimed to explore the behavioral and neural correlates of mindfulness-based music listening regulation of induced negative emotions related to COVID-19 using the face-word Stroop task. Eighty-five young adults visited the laboratory and were randomly assigned to three groups: a calm music group (CMG: n = 28), a happy music group (HMG: n = 30), and a sad music group (SMG: n = 27). Negative emotions were induced in all participants using a COVID-19 video, followed by the music intervention condition. Participants underwent the face-word Stroop tasks during which event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The N2, N3, P3, and late positive component (LPC) were investigated. The results showed that calm music and happy music effectively regulate young adults' induced negative emotions, while young adults experienced more negative emotions when listening to sad music; the negative mood states at the post-induction phase inhibited the reaction of conflict control in face-word Stroop tasks, which manifested as lower accuracy (ACC) and slower reaction times (RTs). ERP results showed negative mood states elicited greater N2, N3, and LPC amplitudes and smaller P3 amplitudes. Further studies are needed to develop intervention strategies to enhance emotion regulation related to COVID-19 for other groups.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção Plena , Música , Emoções , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nephrol Nurs J ; 48(3): 241-249, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34286934

RESUMO

Nephrology nurses are not immune to the effects of a stressful work environment. As a result, their emotional and psychological health can be at risk. In addition, there has been unprecedented stress and uncertainty working as nephrology nurses during the pandemic. These stressors can have negative effects on nurses' health, resulting in burnout and/or compassion fatigue, which can lead to nurses leaving nephrology or the nursing profession. Mindfulness has been suggested as a strategy to mitigate work-related stressors and build a more resilient workforce. Our experience suggests that combining self-compassion practices with mindfulness is also effective. Mindfulness may be beneficial for nephrology nurses, but its use does not negate the need for organizations to address the structural system issues that also contribute to burnout.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Atenção Plena , Nefrologia , Enfermeiras e Enfermeiros , Resiliência Psicológica , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Empatia , Humanos
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199227

RESUMO

The use of artificial intelligence in health care has grown quickly. In this sense, we present our work related to the application of Natural Language Processing techniques, as a tool to analyze the sentiment perception of users who answered two questions from the CSQ-8 questionnaires with raw Spanish free-text. Their responses are related to mindfulness, which is a novel technique used to control stress and anxiety caused by different factors in daily life. As such, we proposed an online course where this method was applied in order to improve the quality of life of health care professionals in COVID 19 pandemic times. We also carried out an evaluation of the satisfaction level of the participants involved, with a view to establishing strategies to improve future experiences. To automatically perform this task, we used Natural Language Processing (NLP) models such as swivel embedding, neural networks, and transfer learning, so as to classify the inputs into the following three categories: negative, neutral, and positive. Due to the limited amount of data available-86 registers for the first and 68 for the second-transfer learning techniques were required. The length of the text had no limit from the user's standpoint, and our approach attained a maximum accuracy of 93.02% and 90.53%, respectively, based on ground truth labeled by three experts. Finally, we proposed a complementary analysis, using computer graphic text representation based on word frequency, to help researchers identify relevant information about the opinions with an objective approach to sentiment. The main conclusion drawn from this work is that the application of NLP techniques in small amounts of data using transfer learning is able to obtain enough accuracy in sentiment analysis and text classification stages.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção Plena , Inteligência Artificial , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Curr Psychiatry Rep ; 23(9): 62, 2021 07 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34297230

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We summarized peer-reviewed literature investigating the effect of virtual mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) on sleep quality. We aimed to examine the following three questions: (1) do virtual MBIs improve sleep quality when compared with control groups; (2) does the effect persist long-term; and (3) is the virtual delivery method equally feasible compared to the in-person delivery method? RECENT FINDINGS: Findings suggest that virtual MBIs are equivalent to evidence-based treatments, and to a limited extent, more effective than non-specific active controls at reducing some aspects of sleep disturbance. Overall, virtual MBIs are more effective at improving sleep quality than usual care controls and waitlist controls. Studies provide preliminary evidence that virtual MBIs have a long-term effect on sleep quality. Moreover, while virtual MBI attrition rates are comparable to in-person MBI attrition rates, intervention adherence may be compromised in the virtual delivery method. This review highlights virtual MBIs as a potentially effective alternative to managing sleep disturbance during pandemic-related quarantine and stay-at-home periods. This is especially relevant due to barriers of accessing in-person interventions during the pandemic. Future studies are needed to explore factors that influence adherence and access to virtual MBIs, with a particular focus on diverse populations.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Sono , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/terapia
7.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e050329, 2021 06 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34172553

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) with exposure and response prevention is the recommended standard for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). However, a high proportion of patients refuse this treatment, do not respond or relapse shortly after treatment. Growing evidence suggests that mindfulness-based and acceptance-based programmes (MABPs) are an effective option for the treatment of OCD. This systematic review and meta-analysis will examine the effectiveness of MABPs in treating OCD. We also aimed to explore potential moderators of the programmes' effectiveness. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will systematically search MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, PSYINDEX, Web of Science, CINAHL and Cochrane Register of Controlled Trials (no language restrictions) for studies that evaluate the effect of MABPs on patients with OCD. We will conduct backward and forward citation searches of included studies and relevant reviews and contact corresponding authors. The primary outcome will be pre-post intervention change in symptom severity. A secondary outcome will be change in depressive symptoms. Two reviewers will independently screen the records, extract the data and rate the methodological quality of the studies. We will include both controlled and uncontrolled trials. Randomised controlled trials will be meta-analysed, separately assessing between-group effects. A second meta-analysis will assess the within-group effect of all eligible studies. We will explore moderators and sources of heterogeneity such as the specific programme, study design, changes in depressive symptoms, hours of guided treatment, control condition and prior therapy (eg, CBT) using metaregression and subgroup analyses. We will perform sensitivity analyses using follow-up data. A narrative synthesis will also be pursued. We will use the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system to assess the quality of the evidence. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and presented at international conferences.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Atenção Plena , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Transtorno Obsessivo-Compulsivo/terapia , Projetos de Pesquisa , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
8.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 255, 2021 06 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34167523

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Female sex workers and addicted women are among the vulnerable groups who impose high costs on the health system of every society. They are prone to psychological problems such as anxiety, stress, and reduced resilience due to their lifestyles. Since mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) has been applied frequently by many psychotherapists to treat stress and anxiety, the present study investigated the effectiveness of MBSR on resilience of the vulnerable women. METHODS: The statistical population of this quasi-experimental study consisted of all eligible women who referred to the drop-in centers in Kerman in the southeast of Iran. Followed by random sampling, 63 vulnerable women were randomly assigned into the intervention (n = 30) and control (n = 33) groups. The MBSR intervention was conducted for the intervention group in eight 90-min sessions. Demographic information questionnaire and Connor-Davidson resilience scale were administered to collect data prior to and one month after the MBSR intervention. RESULTS: The pre-test resilience score was not significantly different between the intervention (53.40 ± 10.49) and the control (54.5 ± 9.27) groups (t = 0.43, p = 0.66). However, the posttest resilience score in the intervention group (60.66 ± 6.71) was significantly higher than the control group (53.88 ± 7.54) (t = 3.58, P = 0.001). Moreover, a comparison between the pretest and posttest scores revealed a significant decrease in resilience scores of the control group (t = 2.81, p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Since MBSR intervention increased resilience of the vulnerable women in the intervention group, researchers, managers, counselors, community health nurses, and psychiatric nurses are suggested to implement related interventions to promote the health of women, especially vulnerable ones.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Profissionais do Sexo , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico) , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065519

RESUMO

Emotional intelligence is an essential trait and skill for healthcare professionals. Mindfulness meditation has proved to be effective in increasing the wellbeing of those who practice it, leading to better mental health, self-care and job satisfaction. This paper aims to identify the recent evidence on the relationship between mindfulness and emotional intelligence among healthcare professionals and students. A systematic review was conducted including the databases PubMed, Cinhal, PsycINFO and Web of Science. The main variables were emotional intelligence skills and mindfulness practice. Data were extracted according to the following outcomes: authors, year of publication, country, study design, participants, mindfulness training intervention, tools used in data collection and main results. The following inclusion criteria were applied: peer-reviewed articles; published in English or Spanish; published between 2010 and 2020; quantitative methodology; a study population of healthcare professionals or students; the relationship with the aim of the study. The Joanna Briggs Institute criteria were followed for assessing the methodological quality of the selected studies. Three researchers were involved in the review. After the selection process, 10 studies were selected out of the 197 references initially identified. These studies revealed a positive relationship between mindfulness and emotional intelligence, particularly the capacity to regulate emotions. Furthermore, mindfulness is negatively related to emotional exhaustion. Training interventions based on mindfulness have proved to be useful in promoting emotional balance, emotional awareness, emotional acceptance, emotion recognition, expressive suppression and a reduction in emotional exhaustion. This study could serve as a basis for further research on the benefits of emotional intelligence and practicing mindfulness for the bio-psycho-social welfare of healthcare professionals.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Atenção à Saúde , Inteligência Emocional , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Fatores de Proteção
10.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114073, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34120086

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND PRIMARY AIM: Chronic pain is a common problem that can impact on psychological and social wellbeing and activity levels. Despite pharmacological treatments, there is often a lack of improvement in physical and emotional functioning and health-related quality of life. Mindfulness meditation has become an increasingly popular self-management technique. The aim of the study was to explore the experiences of patients with chronic pain who took part in a mindfulness programme. METHODS: A mixed-methods feasibility study was carried out. Participants were aged 18 years or over with non-malignant chronic pain recruited from general medical practices in Fort William, Scotland. In 2013 participants undertook an eight-week mindfulness programme based on Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) and were interviewed immediately post-programme and at eight-months' post-programme. Analysis of qualitative data involved Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). FINDINGS: Thirty-four patients consented to take part in the study; twenty-four took part in the programme (14 attended four or more sessions, 10 attended one to three). Twenty-three were interviewed. Participant experiences of the programme were themed under: factors affecting experience (influence of earlier life events; the process of taking part in, and of relating to, the programme); and effects of the programme (impact on emotions, mental health, adverse events and a process of change). The process of change, resulting after better understanding the relationship between mindfulness and pain, involved learning to 'listen to the body', gaining a sense of community, learning to accept pain, and approaching life with more self-care, awareness, appreciation and empowerment. CONCLUSION: Participants reported a variety of experiences. For some, these included undergoing a process of change which may have supported them in living with their painful condition. This contributes to our understanding of how mindfulness could benefit people with chronic pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Atenção Plena , Dor Crônica/terapia , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida , Escócia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia
11.
Soc Sci Med ; 281: 114095, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34130075

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Previous research has indicated that mindfulness can be beneficial both intrapersonally and interpersonally. Although mindfulness has been shown to improve an individual's health, much less is known about whether these health benefits extend to the individual's spouse. OBJECTIVE: The present study aims to establish a crossover model to expound ''how'' and ''why'' mindfulness might be associated with both the individual's and the spouse's general health. METHODS: In total, 319 married couples in Mainland China participated in a two-wave survey study with a 3-month interval. The hypotheses were tested by Structural Equation Modeling. RESULTS: As expected, mindfulness was positively correlated with personal general health through decreases in perceived social undermining. However, mindfulness had an asymmetrical crossover effect on spouses' general health. Whereas wives' mindfulness had significant benefits for husbands' general health, husbands' mindfulness was not a significant protective factor of wives' general health. The benefits of wives' mindfulness on husbands' general health were mediated by the direct crossover of lower perceived social undermining from wives to husbands. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to investigate the relationship between mindfulness and general health at the couple level. Our findings help clarify the benefits of mindfulness on couples' health management from a systemic perspective and provide further support for the crossover theory.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , China , Humanos , Casamento , Cônjuges , Inquéritos e Questionários
12.
Behav Ther ; 52(4): 785-796, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134820

RESUMO

Postevent processing (PEP), the engagement in detailed and repetitive self-focused review of one's performance in social situations, is theorized to maintain pathological social anxiety. However, little is known about interventions that may impact this maintenance factor. The current study examined the impact of brief mindfulness training (BMT) on PEP among socially anxious individuals. There were 77 participants (75.32% female, 63.64% non-Hispanic/Latinx White) with clinically elevated social anxiety who attended one appointment in the laboratory during which they were randomized to receive a brief mindfulness-based training (n = 37) or no training (i.e., thinking as usual control group; n = 40). After the training period, participants underwent a 3-minute social anxiety induction task, after which they were instructed to apply their thinking strategy. Participants were then asked to complete 2 weeks of daily online surveys that included a PEP induction task, instructions to use their thinking strategy following PEP induction, and a measure of state PEP. Individuals in the BMT condition reported a significant reduction in state anxiety posttraining compared to individuals in the control condition. Conditions did not differ on state PEP after the social anxiety induction task. However, compared to those in the control condition, participants in the BMT condition reported significantly greater decreases in state PEP over the 14-day follow-up period. Thus, this brief mindfulness-based strategy may be useful for individuals with clinically elevated social anxiety who engage in PEP, a cognitive vulnerability factor implicated in the maintenance of social anxiety.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Ansiedade/terapia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Inquéritos e Questionários , Pensamento
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066891

RESUMO

The construction industry still leads the world as one of the sectors with the most work-related injuries and worker fatalities. Considering that one of the barriers to improving construction safety is its stressful working environment, which increases risk of inattentiveness among construction workers, safety managers seek practices to measure and enhance worker focus and reduce stress, such as mindfulness. Considering the important role of mindfulness in curbing frequency and severity of incidents, researchers are interested in understanding the relationship between mindfulness and other common, more static human characteristics. As a result, this study examines the relationship between mindfulness and such variables as personality and national culture in the context of construction safety. Collecting data from 155 participants, this study used elastic net regression to examine the influence of independent (i.e., personality and national culture) variables on the dependent (i.e., mindfulness) variable. To validate the results of the regression, 10-fold cross-validation was conducted. The results reveal that certain personality traits (e.g., conscientiousness, neuroticism, and agreeableness) and national cultural dimensions (e.g., uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and collectivism) can be used as predictors of mindfulness for individuals. Since mindfulness has shown to increase safety and work performance, safety managers can utilize these variables to identify at-risk workers so that additional safety training can be provided to enhance work performance and improve safety outcomes. The results of this study will inform future work into translating personal and mindfulness characteristics into factors that predict specific elements of unsafe human behaviors.


Assuntos
Indústria da Construção , Atenção Plena , Humanos , Personalidade , Transtornos da Personalidade , Local de Trabalho
14.
Acta Oncol ; 60(8): 992-999, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34112063

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Being an informal caregiver (IC) of a cancer patient is often associated with psychological distress. We have recently, in a randomized controlled trial (RCT), demonstrated efficacy of Emotion Regulation Therapy for ICs (ERT-C), evidenced as lower levels of psychological distress. Such efficacy demonstration is important, but a crucial step in improving treatments for the IC population is the identification of moderators (i.e., for whom the treatment works) and mediators (i.e., the drivers of the detected effect). MATERIAL AND METHODS: In a sample of 65 psychologically distressed ICs (combining participants who received immediate and delayed treatment in the RCT); we investigated age, gender, and homework completion as moderators of treatment outcome. Proposed mediators were derived from the ERT model and included mindfulness, emotion regulation dysfunction, decentering, and cognitive reappraisal. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The strongest moderation effect was found for homework completion, predicting improvements on psychological distress. Correlational mediation analyses generally supported the ERT model. However, temporal precedence was only established for the association between decentering and worry, where a bidirectional relation was revealed. Homework thus emerged as an important aspect of ERT-C and, albeit a bidirectional relationship, changes in decentering may precede changes in worry. Future trials should ensure the robustness of these results, hone the specificity of process measures, and further investigate the causal timeline of change.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Atenção Plena , Neoplasias , Cuidadores , Emoções , Humanos , Neoplasias/terapia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Rev. SPAGESP ; 22(1): 114-127, ene.-jun. 2021. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS, Index Psicologia - Periódicos | ID: biblio-1155518

RESUMO

Esse estudo parte do pressuposto de que o mindfulness poderia estar relacionado com a intimidade conjugal. Investigou-se o papel discriminante da intimidade em dois grupos de indivíduos com maiores e menores níveis de mindfulness. Partiparam 281 sujeitos, maiores de 18 anos, em relacionamento estável e em coabitação. Os mesmos responderam à Escala Filadélfia de Mindfulness e à Escala de Avaliação Pessoal de Intimidade em Relacionamentos (PAIR). Os resultados indicaram que os fatores da intimidade avaliados (comunicação, validação pessoal e abertura ao exterior) discriminaram o grupo com maiores níveis de mindfulness. O estudo sugere que indivíduos com maiores níveis de mindfulness possuem maior facilidade de desenvolver intimidade em seus relacionamentos, contribuindo para o entendimento do papel considerável dessa habilidade na conjugalidade.


This study assumes that mindfulness could be related to conjugal intimacy. The discriminating role of intimacy was investigated in two groups of individuals with higher and lower levels of mindfulness. 281 subjects, over 18 years old, participated in a stable relationship and cohabitation. They responded to the Philadelphia Mindfulness Scale and the Personal Relationship Intimacy Scale in Relationships (PAIR). The results indicated that the factors of intimacy evaluated (communication, personal validation and openness to the outside) discriminated against the group with the highest levels of mindfulness. The study suggests that individuals with higher levels of mindfulness have an easier time developing intimacy in their relationships, contributing to the understanding of the considerable role of this ability in conjugality.


Este estudio asume que la atención plena podría estar relacionada con la intimidad conyugal. El papel discriminador de la intimidad se investigó en dos grupos de individuos con niveles más altos y más bajos de atención plena. 281 sujetos, mayores de 18 años, participaron en una relación estable y en convivencia. Respondieron a la Escala de atención plena de Filadelfia y la Escala de intimidad en las relaciones personales (PAIR). Los resultados indicaron que los factores de intimidad evaluados (comunicación, validación personal y apertura al exterior) discriminaban al grupo con mayores niveles de mindfulness. El estudio sugiere que las personas con niveles más altos de atención plena tienen más facilidad para desarrollar la intimidad en sus relaciones, lo que contribuye a comprender el papel considerable de esta capacidad en la conyugalidad.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Papel (figurativo) , Autorrevelação , Comunicação , Terapia de Casal , Relações Familiares , Atenção Plena
16.
J Pak Med Assoc ; 71(4): 1103-1106, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34125751

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effectiveness of carbamazepine on emotional intelligence and mindfulness in patients with epilepsy. METHODS: The repeated-measure case-control study was conducted at the Nishter Hospital, Multan, Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Bahawalpur, and Civil Hospital, Bahawalpur, Pakistan, from April 2017 to March 2018, and comprised of patients with partial epilepsy and healthy controls. Baseline data was collected using BarOn Emotional Quotient Inventory and Cognitive and Affective Mindfulness Scale-Revised. Subsequent data was collected twice in titration and maintenance phases during carbamazepine therapy for patients, while the controls were on no medication. Data was analysed using SPSS 20. RESULTS: Of the 80 subjects, 40(50%) were cases with a mean age of 37.92±9.09 years, and 40(50%) were controls with a mean age of 37.80±9.00 years. The patients had significantly lower emotional intelligence and mindfulness compared to the controls (p<0.001). Patients showed improved emotional intelligence and mindfulness after the therapy compared to their baseline scores (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Carbamazepine was found to be effective in improving emotional intelligence and mindfulness in patients with epilepsy.


Assuntos
Epilepsias Parciais , Atenção Plena , Adulto , Carbamazepina/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Inteligência Emocional , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Paquistão
17.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 91, 2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34078453

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Work-related stress shows steadily increasing prevalence rates and has tangible consequences for individual workers, their organizations, and society as a whole. One mechanism that may help offset the negative outcomes of work-related stress on employees' well-being is recovery. Recovery refers to the experience of unwinding from one's job when not at work. However, employees who experience high levels of work-related stress and are thus particularly in need of recovery tend to struggle to switch-off. Due to the detrimental effects of this prolonged and sustained mental representation of job stressors, interventions promoting recovery may contribute to improvements in employees' mental health. METHODS: In this randomized, waitlist controlled trial, we will investigate the effectiveness of two 6-week online training programs (cognitive behavioral and mindfulness-based). The sample will include employees working at least part-time during regular work hours. Besides the pre-post-follow-up assessments, the trial will include measurement bursts with the goal of examining the underlying mechanisms. We expect that both interventions will reduce work-related perseverative thinking (PT) compared with the waitlist control groups (primary outcome). Also, we expect that both interventions will result in similar improvements, but the underlying mechanisms will differ (process outcomes). In the cognitive-behavioral intervention group, we expect that the main mechanism responsible for lower PT levels will be an increase in recovery experiences across time. In the mindfulness-based group, we expect that the main mechanism responsible for lower PT levels will be an increase in facets of mindfulness across time. DISCUSSION: In the present study, we will investigate mechanisms underlying assumed changes in work-related PT in great detail. Besides evaluating the overall effectiveness of the two interventions in terms of pre-post-follow-up changes, we will look at the underlying processes at different levels-that is, within days, within weeks, across weeks, and between individuals. Accordingly, our study will offer a fine-grained approach to investigating potential determinants, mediators, and moderators of the processes that may, in the end, be responsible for work-related strain. From a public health perspective, if effective, the online training programs may offer valuable, low-threshold, and low-intensity interventions for a broad range of occupations. Trial registration German Clinical Trials Registration: DRKS00024933. Registered prospectively 7 April 2021. https://www.drks.de/drks_web/navigate.do?navigationId=trial.HTML&TRIAL_ID=DRKS00024933.


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Transtornos Mentais , Atenção Plena , Saúde do Trabalhador , Humanos , Saúde Mental , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063864

RESUMO

The global pandemic caused by COVID-19 and the subsequent lockdown have been widely recognized as traumatic events that pose threats to psychological well-being. Recent studies reported that during such traumatic events, women tend to be at greater risk than men for developing symptoms of stress, anxiety, and depression. Several studies reported that a mindfulness-based stress reduction protocol (MBSR) provides useful skills for dealing with traumatic events. In our study, a sample of Italian females received an 8-week MBSR course plus 6 weeks of video support for meditation practice during the first total lockdown in Italy. We assessed the participants with questionnaires before and after this period to investigate their mindfulness skills, psychological well-being, post-traumatic growth, and psychological flexibility. After the intervention, the meditators group reported improvement in measures associated with self-acceptance, purpose in life, and relation to others compared to the control group. Furthermore, our results showed that participants with greater mindfulness scores showed high levels of psychological flexibility, which in turn was positively associated with higher levels of psychological well-being. We concluded that the MBSR could support psychological well-being, at least in female subjects, even during an unpredictable adverse event, such as the COVID-19 lockdown, by reinforcing key psychological aspects.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atenção Plena , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2 , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
19.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 327, 2021 Jun 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34098921

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early career general practitioners are known to be at high risk of burnout. There is a need for widely applicable, cost-effective evidence-based interventions to develop trainees' protective skills and strategies. RESULTS: Of 120 eligible trainees, 23 (19.2%) expressed interest in participating, 17 subsequently started the course, and 15 completed at least 5 out of its 6 sessions. All psychological measures were stable for the six-week period prior to commencing the course. Following the course, there were statistically significant (p < 0.05) improvements in wellbeing, resilience, mindfulness, emotional exhaustion, disengagement, and stress scores. Participants described numerous benefits, and most stated that they would recommend it to colleagues. CONCLUSION: Including mindful practice within general practice vocational training is feasible, and in this study it benefited the psychological wellbeing of participants. Further research is needed to explore ways of increasing uptake and course completion, the sustainability of its effects, and the wider applicability of this approach.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional , Clínicos Gerais , Atenção Plena , Esgotamento Profissional/prevenção & controle , Currículo , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos
20.
Bull Cancer ; 108(7-8): 740-750, 2021.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33934893

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Fatigue is a frequent and disturbing symptom in oncology but remains undertreated. Given the absence of effective drug treatment, non-pharmacological interventions have a prominent place in the treatment of fatigue. However, they are relatively unknown by professionals who lack of clear points of reference to refer patients with confidence. This article aims to improve the knowledge about this therapeutic field through an updated synthesis of the levels of recommendations and available evidence. METHODS: A three-step approach was conducted, including (1) a synthesis of international guidelines on non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of fatigue among adults in oncology, (2) a systematic review of recent data in the literature, (3) a comparison between the synthesis of guidelines and the systematic review with the aim of updating the levels of evidence. RESULTS: Five guidelines were synthesized; 111 systematic reviews were analyzed. Their comparison mainly showed: (1) a convergence in favor of the use of physical activity, educational interventions and cognitive-behavioral therapies, with levels of evidence ranging from moderate to high; (2) a consolidation of short-term efficacy evidence to support the use of mindfulness-based approaches and yoga; 3) the persistence of a lack of sufficiently reliable data to establish the efficacy of other types of intervention. DISCUSSION: Supported by international guidelines and recent data, the use of non-pharmacological interventions in the treatment of fatigue is critical and has to become better known.


Assuntos
Fadiga/terapia , Internacionalidade , Neoplasias/complicações , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Exercício Físico , Fadiga/etiologia , Humanos , Atenção Plena , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto , Ioga
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