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1.
Soins Gerontol ; 25(145): 40-45, 2020.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988487

RESUMO

A significant proportion of elderly people suffering from neurodegenerative pathologies are cared for by an informal caregiver. From the earliest stages of the disease, the psychological and behavioural disorders of patients constitute stress and anxiety factors for their caregivers. Mindfulness meditation has proven its usefulness in the management of anxiety. A study proposes caregiver management based on a mindfulness meditation program.


Assuntos
Cuidadores/psicologia , Meditação/psicologia , Atenção Plena , Idoso , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899739

RESUMO

The Covid-19 pandemic and subsequent public health measures were shown to impact negatively on people's mental health. In particular, women were reported to be at higher risk than men of developing symptoms of stress/anxiety/depression, and resilience was considered a key factor for positive mental health outcomes. In the present study, a sample of Italian female teachers (n = 66, age: 51.5 ± 7.9 years) was assessed with self-report instruments one month before and one month after the start of the Covid-19 lockdown: mindfulness skills, empathy, personality profiles, interoceptive awareness, psychological well-being, emotional distress and burnout levels were measured. Meanwhile, they received an 8-week Mindfulness-Oriented Meditation (MOM) course, through two group meetings and six individual video-lessons. Based on baseline personality profiles, analyses of variance were performed in a low-resilience (LR, n = 32) and a high-resilience (HR, n = 26) group. The LR and HR groups differed at baseline in most of the self-report measures. Pre-post MOM significant improvements were found in both groups in anxiety, depression, affective empathy, emotional exhaustion, psychological well-being, interoceptive awareness, character traits and mindfulness levels. Improvements in depression and psychological well-being were higher in the LR vs. HR group. We conclude that mindfulness-based training can effectively mitigate the psychological negative consequences of the Covid-19 outbreak, helping in particular to restore well-being in the most vulnerable individuals.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Meditação , Saúde Mental , Atenção Plena , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Professores Escolares/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Depressão , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estresse Psicológico
3.
Health Psychol ; 39(9): 758-766, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833477

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Preventive interventions for postpartum depression (PPD) are critical for women at elevated risk of PPD. Mindfulness based cognitive therapy - perinatal depression (MBCT-PD) is a preventive intervention that has been shown to reduce risk for PPD in women with a prior history of depression. The objective of this clinical trial is to examine two potential mechanisms of action of MBCT-PD, emotion regulation and cognitive control, using behavioral and neuroimaging methods. METHOD: This baseline protocol describes a randomized control trial (RCT) with two arms, MBCT-PD and treatment as usual (TAU). We plan on enrolling 74 females with a prior history of a major depressive episode, with 37 participants randomized to each arm. Participants in the MBCT-PD arm will receive MBCT-PD during pregnancy, and the TAU group will receive standard prenatal care. All participants will complete the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale - Revised (CESD-R), Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ), and classic Stroop task at multiple points from pregnancy through six months postpartum. Participants will also complete an fMRI scan at six weeks postpartum. RESULTS: All primary outcomes are collected at six weeks postpartum. Primary behavioral outcomes include: depressive symptoms on the CESD-R, cognitive reappraisal on the ERQ, and Stroop task performance. In parallel, the primary neurobiological outcomes include whole-brain activation during fMRI tasks when participants 1) regulate emotional responding and 2) engage cognitive control. CONCLUSIONS: This results of this innovative RCT will help identify potential behavioral and neurobiological mechanisms of action of preventive interventions for PPD for in-depth examination in larger scale RCTs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Depressão Pós-Parto/psicologia , Atenção Plena/métodos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
4.
Health Psychol ; 39(9): 776-784, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833479

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Anxiety is associated with sleep disturbance and insomnia. Mindfulness-based interventions, such as mindfulness-based stress reduction, have shown consistent anxiety reduction. Mindfulness training has been theorized to affect reinforcement learning, affecting habitual behaviors such as smoking and overeating, but a direct mechanistic link between the use of mindfulness training for anxiety reduction and improvement in sleep has not been studied. Moreover, the mechanisms by which mindfulness might affect worry and subsequent sleep disturbances have not been elucidated. This study protocol evaluates the impact an app-based mindfulness training program for anxiety might have on decreasing worry and improvement in sleep. METHOD: A randomized controlled study will be conducted in approximately 80 adults with worry that interferes with their sleep. Participants will be randomly allocated (1:1) to two groups: treatment-as-usual (TAU) or TAU + App-Based Mindfulness Training (Unwinding Anxiety app). The primary outcomes will be the non-reactivity subscale of the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System sleep quality measures (Baer et al., 2008; Yu et al., 2011). Secondary outcomes will include the Penn State Worry Questionnaire, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and Multidimensional Assessment of Interoceptive Awareness Scale (Mehling et al., 2012; Meyer, Miller, Metzger, & Borkovec, 1990; Spitzer, Kroenke, Williams, & Löwe, 2006). DISCUSSION: This study will be the first to test the mechanism of app-based mindfulness training on worry and sleep disturbance. Testing the mechanistic effects of mindfulness training using the science of behavior change framework will help move the field forward both in further elucidation of potential mechanisms of mindfulness (e.g., targeting reinforcement learning) and determining whether such a platform might be a viable method for delivering high-fidelity treatment at scale and for a low cost. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Transtornos do Sono-Vigília/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Atenção Plena/métodos , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Med Care ; 58 Suppl 2 9S: S94-S100, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32826778

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chronic pain and associated symptoms are debilitating for veterans. Medical costs of treatments are high and current treatment options, most notably with opioid medications, have been associated with significant risk. Mindfulness-based interventions appear promising for chronic pain, but require additional testing in veteran care settings. OBJECTIVE: This project was designed to test the feasibility of engaging and retaining veterans with chronic lower back pain in a new mindfulness protocol tailored for veterans, mindfulness-based care for chronic pain (MBCP). Clinical outcomes were also assessed. DESIGN: An open pilot trial of an 8-week MBCP course that included meditation, gentle yoga, and psychoeducation. SUBJECTS: Twenty-two veterans (mean age=49.77; 18% women) were recruited from a VA Medical Center in the Northeastern US. After screening for inclusion/exclusion criteria, 20 were eligible at baseline. MEASURES: Veterans were assessed at baseline and postintervention for functional impairment, pain intensity and bothersomeness, depression, and mindfulness. RESULTS: The average number of sessions completed was 5; only 4 (20%) attended all sessions. Eleven of the 20 participants (55%) attended 5 or more sessions and had complete preintervention and postintervention visits. Five of the 11 had a clinically meaningful decrease in pain intensity and in depressive symptoms, while 6 of 11 had a meaningful decrease in pain bothersomeness and functional impairment. CONCLUSIONS: It was challenging to enroll and retain participants in this study, even with our intervention designed for veterans. We discuss possible adaptations and refinements in MBCP for veterans with chronic pain to enhance feasibility and improve upon these interventions.


Assuntos
Dor Lombar/terapia , Terapias Mente-Corpo/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Protocolos Clínicos , Depressão/epidemiologia , Depressão/terapia , Avaliação da Deficiência , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Dor Lombar/epidemiologia , Masculino , Meditação/métodos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Plena/métodos , Medição da Dor , Educação de Pacientes como Assunto/métodos , Desempenho Físico Funcional , Projetos Piloto , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Veteranos , Saúde dos Veteranos , Ioga
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32824152

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We tested whether the tendency to worry could affect psychological responses to quarantine by capitalizing on the opportunity of having collected data before the COVID-19 outbreak on measures of worry, anxiety, and trait mindfulness in a group of university students. METHODS: Twenty-five participants completed self-report measures assessing worry (Penn State Worry Questionnaire, PSWQ), anxiety (Anxiety Sensitivity Index, ASI-3), and trait mindfulness (Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS) at T0 (pre-lockdown, 4 November 2019-17 February 2020) and T1 (at the end of lockdown, 26 April-30 April 2020). We compared assessments at the two time points in the whole sample and in high and low worriers (defined at T0 by scores on PSWQ respectively above and below 1.5 SD from mean of the Italian normative sample). OUTCOMES: High worriers showed at T1 a significant increase of anxiety sensitivity and fear of mental health in comparison to low worriers. Moreover, in the whole sample, at T1 trait mindfulness was inversely related to worry and fear of mental health. INTERPRETATION: A valuable approach to support individuals experiencing anxiety related to the COVID-19 outbreak could be represented by mindfulness-based interventions improving the ability to focus attention and awareness on the present moment.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Medo , Saúde Mental , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Atenção Plena , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Psicometria , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(8): e039646, 2020 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32792455

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic poses immense challenges for national and international healthcare systems. Especially in times of social isolation and governmental restrictions, mental health should not be neglected. Innovative approaches are required to support psychologically burdened people. The e-mental health intervention 'CoPE It' has been developed to offer manualised and evidence-based psychotherapeutic support adapted to COVID-19-related issues in order to overcome psychological distress. In our study, we aim to assess the efficacy of the e-mental health intervention 'CoPE It' in terms of reducing distress (primary outcome), depression and anxiety symptoms as well as improving self-efficacy, quality of life and mindfulness (secondary outcomes). Furthermore, we want to evaluate the programme's usability, feasibility and participants' satisfaction with 'CoPE It' (tertiary outcome). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The e-mental health intervention 'CoPE It' consists of four 30 min modules, conducted every other day, involving psychotherapeutic techniques of mindfulness-based stress reduction and cognitive-behavioural therapy. The widely applied and previously established content has been adapted to the context of the COVID-19 pandemic by experts in psychosomatic medicine and stress prevention. In our longitudinal study, adult participants-with adequate German language and computer skills, and who have provided informed consent-will be recruited via emergency support hotlines in Germany. Flyers will be distributed, and online channels will be used. Participants will complete a baseline assessment (T0), a postintervention assessment (T1) and assessments 1 and 3 months later (T2 and T3, respectively). We will perform repeated measures analysis of covariance, mixed linear models, standard analyses of variance and regression, and correlation coefficients. In case of binary outcome variables, either mixed logistic regression or χ² tests will be used. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The Ethics Committees of the University of Duisburg-Essen (20-9243-BO) and University of Tübingen (469/2020BO) approved the study. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and conference presentations. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: DRKS00021301.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Aconselhamento à Distância/métodos , Atenção Plena/métodos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/terapia , Betacoronavirus , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Pandemias , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Autoeficácia , Estresse Psicológico/prevenção & controle
9.
BMC Psychol ; 8(1): 71, 2020 Jul 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32641161

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mindfulness programmes as a potential avenue of enhancing pupil wellbeing are beginning to show great promise. However, research concerning the effectiveness of mindfulness training for primary aged school children (7-11 years of age) has been neglected. METHODS: Building on methodological limitations of prior research, this study employed an active controlled design to assess the longer term wellbeing and emotion regulation outcomes after a 6 week mindfulness programme (Living Mindfully Programme, UK), for a group of school children aged between 9 and 10. The programme was delivered by class teachers as part of their normal curriculum entitlement. One hundred and eight children took part from across three schools in North East of England. Participants formed a treatment group (n = 64), active control (n = 19) and wait list control (n = 25). Self-report measures of wellbeing, mindfulness and emotion regulation were collected at pre and post training as well as at 3 months follow up. RESULTS: Reliable findings, judged by medium to large effect sizes across both post intervention, follow-up and between both controls, demonstrated enhancement in a number of domains. Immediately after training and follow up, when compared with the wait list control, children who received mindfulness training showed significant improvements in mindfulness (d = .76 and .77), Positive Outlook (d = .55 and .64) and Life Satisfaction (d = .65 and 0.72). Even when compared to an active control, the effects remained although diminished reflecting the positive impact of the active control condition. Furthermore, a significant positive relationship was found between changes in mindfulness and changes in cognitive reappraisal. CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, this study provides preliminary evidence that the Living Mindfully Primary Programme is feasibly delivered by school staff, enjoyed by the children and may significantly improve particular components of wellbeing. Importantly, higher levels of mindfulness as a result of training may be related to effective emotional regulatory and cognitive reappraisal strategies.


Assuntos
Regulação Emocional , Atenção Plena , Otimismo , Satisfação Pessoal , Criança , Emoções/fisiologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Instituições Acadêmicas
10.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 7: CD012527, 2020 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627860

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Resilience can be defined as the maintenance or quick recovery of mental health during or after periods of stressor exposure, which may result from a potentially traumatising event, challenging life circumstances, a critical life transition phase, or physical illness. Healthcare professionals, such as nurses, physicians, psychologists and social workers, are exposed to various work-related stressors (e.g. patient care, time pressure, administration) and are at increased risk of developing mental disorders. This population may benefit from resilience-promoting training programmes. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of interventions to foster resilience in healthcare professionals, that is, healthcare staff delivering direct medical care (e.g. nurses, physicians, hospital personnel) and allied healthcare staff (e.g. social workers, psychologists). SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, 11 other databases and three trial registries from 1990 to June 2019. We checked reference lists and contacted researchers in the field. We updated this search in four key databases in June 2020, but we have not yet incorporated these results. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in adults aged 18 years and older who are employed as healthcare professionals, comparing any form of psychological intervention to foster resilience, hardiness or post-traumatic growth versus no intervention, wait-list, usual care, active or attention control. Primary outcomes were resilience, anxiety, depression, stress or stress perception and well-being or quality of life. Secondary outcomes were resilience factors. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, assessed risks of bias, and rated the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach (at post-test only). MAIN RESULTS: We included 44 RCTs (high-income countries: 36). Thirty-nine studies solely focused on healthcare professionals (6892 participants), including both healthcare staff delivering direct medical care and allied healthcare staff. Four studies investigated mixed samples (1000 participants) with healthcare professionals and participants working outside of the healthcare sector, and one study evaluated training for emergency personnel in general population volunteers (82 participants). The included studies were mainly conducted in a hospital setting and included physicians, nurses and different hospital personnel (37/44 studies). Participants mainly included women (68%) from young to middle adulthood (mean age range: 27 to 52.4 years). Most studies investigated group interventions (30 studies) of high training intensity (18 studies; > 12 hours/sessions), that were delivered face-to-face (29 studies). Of the included studies, 19 compared a resilience training based on combined theoretical foundation (e.g. mindfulness and cognitive-behavioural therapy) versus unspecific comparators (e.g. wait-list). The studies were funded by different sources (e.g. hospitals, universities), or a combination of different sources. Fifteen studies did not specify the source of their funding, and one study received no funding support. Risk of bias was high or unclear for most studies in performance, detection, and attrition bias domains. At post-intervention, very-low certainty evidence indicated that, compared to controls, healthcare professionals receiving resilience training may report higher levels of resilience (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.45, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.25 to 0.65; 12 studies, 690 participants), lower levels of depression (SMD -0.29, 95% CI -0.50 to -0.09; 14 studies, 788 participants), and lower levels of stress or stress perception (SMD -0.61, 95% CI -1.07 to -0.15; 17 studies, 997 participants). There was little or no evidence of any effect of resilience training on anxiety (SMD -0.06, 95% CI -0.35 to 0.23; 5 studies, 231 participants; very-low certainty evidence) or well-being or quality of life (SMD 0.14, 95% CI -0.01 to 0.30; 13 studies, 1494 participants; very-low certainty evidence). Effect sizes were small except for resilience and stress reduction (moderate). Data on adverse effects were available for three studies, with none reporting any adverse effects occurring during the study (very-low certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: For healthcare professionals, there is very-low certainty evidence that, compared to control, resilience training may result in higher levels of resilience, lower levels of depression, stress or stress perception, and higher levels of certain resilience factors at post-intervention. The paucity of medium- or long-term data, heterogeneous interventions and restricted geographical distribution limit the generalisability of our results. Conclusions should therefore be drawn cautiously. The findings suggest positive effects of resilience training for healthcare professionals, but the evidence is very uncertain. There is a clear need for high-quality replications and improved study designs.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Doenças Profissionais/terapia , Resiliência Psicológica , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Adulto , Pessoal Técnico de Saúde/psicologia , Terapia Cognitivo-Comportamental , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Plena/educação , Doenças Profissionais/psicologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
11.
Brasília; Fiocruz Brasília;Instituto de Saúde de São Paulo; jul. 12, 2020. 40 p.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, MOSAICO - Saúde integrativa, PIE | ID: biblio-1118198

RESUMO

A meditação é uma prática que consiste no foco da atenção para o momento presente, de modo não analítico ou discriminativo, podendo ser dividida em dois tipos: meditação concentrativa e mindfulness. A meditação e mindfulness trazem benefícios para o fortalecimento físico, emocional, mental, social e cognitivo. Dessa forma, são indicados para estímulo do bem-estar, relaxamento, redução do estresse, da hiperatividade e dos sintomas depressivos. A prática também pode ser efetiva no tratamento do tabagismo. Qual a eficácia e a segurança de meditação/mindfulness no controle do tabagismo em adultos e/ou idosos? As buscas foram realizadas em sete base de dados sem restrição de ano de publicação. Foram incluídas revisões sistemáticas em inglês, português e espanhol que avaliaram os efeitos da tecnologia no tratamento do tabagismo em população adulta e idosa. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica foi realizad por uma profissional e revisada por outra, utilizando-se a ferramenta AMSTAR 2. Nesta revisão rápida, produzida em dez dias, foram utilizados atalhos metodológicos, de maneira que apena so processo de seleção foi realizado em duplicidade e de forma independente. De 64 revisões sistemáticas recuperadas nas bases de dados, nove atenderam aos critérios de elegibilidade e foram incluídas. A avaliação da qualidade metodológica indicou que duas revisões são de qualidade baixa e seis de qualidade criticamente baixa. Não foram encontradas evidências sobre meditação concentrativa. As revisões apresentaram resultados sobre o uso de diversas categorias de mindfulness no controle do tabagismo. A prática de mindfulness mostrou efeito sobre a cessação, o desejo e a abstinência de fumar, bem como no estado de humor de ex-tabagistas. Os estudos mostraram não haver diferença entre mindfulness e outras terapias na redução do consumo de cigarros. É importante ressaltar que a maior parte destes resultados se refere a ensaios clínicos únicos e com número reduzido de participantes. Apenas uma revisão relatou sobre a segurança da prática de mindfulness, mostrando a não ocorrência de eventos adversos. Diversas modalidades do mindfulness mostraram efeitos positivos para o controle do tabagismo com relação à cessação, ao desejo de fumar, à abstinência ao fumo, e ao estado de humor de ex-tabagistas. A segurança da prática de mindfulness e meditação foi pouco investigada. Estes achados, no entanto, devem ser interpretados com cautela, visto que a confiança nos resultados das revisões foi considerada baixa e criticamente baixa na avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Além disso, a grande diversidade de intervenções incluídas nas comparações tornou difícil a realização de metanálises, de forma que os resultados na maioria das vezes foram apresentados de forma descritiva e com frequência sem dados numéricos. Há necessidade de mais estudos, com qualidade metodológica adequada, para afirmar sobre a eficácia da prática de mindfulness no controle do tabagismo.


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Tabagismo/prevenção & controle , Resultado do Tratamento , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Meditação/métodos , Atenção Plena/métodos
12.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 305-320, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615892

RESUMO

The Effect of a Short-Term Mindfulness Program on Memory Performance in School-Aged Children A one-week mindfulness-based intervention designed to improve 8- to 10-year-old children's memory performance was investigated. Seventy-three children were quasi-randomly assigned either to one of two mindfulness-based intervention groups (breathing meditation or yoga), or to an active control group. The sessions were held on six consecutive days. Prior to intervention and after completing the intervention, children's short-term and long-term memory performance were assessed. In confirmation of prior studies, breathing meditation and yoga showed positive effects on memory performance when compared with the control group. Moreover, differences in the effectiveness of breathing meditation and yoga were found: While both interventions had comparable effects on long-term memory, only breathing meditation showed improvements in short-term memory performance. The present study provides valuable evidence on the effectiveness of meditation on cognitive functions in childhood and shows that school-aged children can already benefit from short-term meditation programs.


Assuntos
Memória/fisiologia , Atenção Plena , Criança , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Meditação , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Instituições Acadêmicas , Ioga
13.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 353-374, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615894

RESUMO

Mindfulness in Development-oriented Approaches to Substance Use Prevention and Therapy: Rationale, Design and Objectives of the Research Consortium IMAC-Mind Substance use disorders (SUD) are a major contributor to morbidity and mortality. They are typically initiated during adolescence and can have fatal implications for healthy development. Despite substantial scientific advances, there remains a need to prioritize research directed at reducing risks for SUD, particularly in vulnerable periods and populations from a developmental perspective. Research indicates that reward sensitivity, impulsivity, deficient self-regulation, and stress reactivity develop markedly in childhood and adolescence and play an important role in the initiation and maintenance of SUD. A growing number of research results suggest that these factors can be favorably influenced by mindfulness-based interventions and that mindfulness-based exercises can be successfully integrated into established prevention and treatment programs. In this paper we summarize the conceptual relationships between the development and maintenance of addiction disorders and mindfulness, discuss existing empirical findings with regard to childhood and adolescence, and present the aims, study designs and intervention models of the subprojects from the ongoing research network "IMAC-Mind: Improving Mental Health and Reducing Addiction in Childhood and Adolescence through Mindfulness: Mechanisms, Prevention and Treatment".


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Atenção Plena , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/prevenção & controle , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/terapia , Adolescente , Comportamento Aditivo/prevenção & controle , Comportamento Aditivo/terapia , Criança , Humanos , Imidazóis
14.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 321-338, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615895

RESUMO

Promoting Self-Regulation of Adolescents in School Through Mindfulness. Evaluation of the Mindfulness Training "8-sam" Mindfulness describes the psychological process of purposely bringing one's attention to the present experiences with an accepting, non-judgmental attitude. As such, it has attracted increasing interest in educational institutions. The present study aims to evaluate a mindfulness training for adolescents in a German high school. For this purpose, the program "8-sam" has been developed. Feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this four-week training were examined in a sample of 48 ninth-grade students. Self-ratings of mindfulness, chronic stress, emotion regulation and health, as well as behavioral measures of attention and mind-wandering of the intervention group (n = 22) were compared to the wait control group (n = 24) before, immediately and 6 weeks after the training. As indicated by self-designed evaluation questionnaires, the training proved to be well accepted and implementable at school. The intervention group showed less mind-wandering after the training than the control group. The findings offer implications for future research and the application of mindfulness trainings in schools. Implementing mindfulness in the daily school routine promises to support self-regulatory processes and thus, strengthen the resilience of children and adolescents.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Psicologia do Adolescente , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar , Autocontrole , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Alemanha , Humanos , Cooperação do Paciente , Instituições Acadêmicas , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários
15.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 289-304, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615896

RESUMO

School-based Mindfulness Programs for Children and Adolescents Mindfulness is a mental state achieved by focusing one's awareness on the present moment, while calmly acknowledging and accepting one's bodily sensations, sensory feedback, thoughts, and feelings. Mindfulness interventions can improve proprioception, direction of attention, and emotion regulation. An accepting attitude towards thoughts and feelings reduces the experience of stress so that it is easier to cope with stressful situations. The regular practice of mindfulness exercises affects neurobiological mechanisms, which can lead to an improvement of executive functions as well as psychological health. Metaanalyses provide evidence of small effects of mindfulness interventions in schools, both in cognitive areas (executive functions, concentration, memory) and in emotional areas (anxiety, depressivity, wellbeing). The focus of this review article is on German and English-language mindfulness programmes for children and adolescents in schools, which have already been the subject of initial evaluation studies. This study presents the programmes Paws b, Mind Up, and Mehr Ruhe for children, and .b, Mind Up, AISCHU, and 8sam for adolescents, together with their evaluation results. The conclusion discusses open questions concerning conceptual and methodological issues.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Atenção Plena , Psicologia do Adolescente , Psicologia da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Mental Escolar , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Ansiedade/terapia , Criança , Cognição , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Depressão/terapia , Emoções , Função Executiva , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas
16.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 69(4): 339-352, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615902

RESUMO

Mindfulness in Trainee Psychotherapies with Children and Adolescents The implementation of mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) in cognitive-behavioral therapy has greatly increased over the past few years. However, there is little research about the implementation of MBIs in individual child and adolescent psychotherapy. The present paper gives an overview of current MBIs and their efficacy in children and adolescents. A depiction of the implementation of MBIs in individual therapy and a description of the "Mindfulness and Relaxation Study - Children and Adolescents" (MARS-CA) is given. The study aims to examine the effects of short session-introducing interventions with mindfulness elements on juvenile patients' psychopathological symptomatology and therapeutic alliance. For this reason, the authors compare session-introducing interventions with mindfulness elements with session-introducing relaxation interventions and no session-introducing intervention. Qualitative results of the pre-study show that both interventions with mindfulness elements and relaxation interventions work well with juvenile patients.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Adolescente , Criança , Humanos , Psicopatologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(28): e20493, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32664060

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychological stress was an important mental health problem among the general population and warrant research to inform strategies for effective prevention. iMBIs provide a possibility to offer easily accessible, efficacious, convenient, and low-cost interventions on a wide scale. However, the efficacy of iMBIs in the general population remains unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the effects of iMBIs for stress reduction in the general population. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Medline, Cochrane Library, CNKI, and Wanfang Data databases was performed up to April 10, 2019. The overall effect sizes of the iMBIs on stress, depression, anxiety, and mindfulness were recorded by the metric of Hedges' g with 95% confidence interval (CI), Z-value, and P value. RESULTS: Sixteen eligible studies were included in the meta-analysis. The overall results indicated that iMBIs had small to moderate effects on stress (Hedges' g = -0.393) and mindfulness (Hedges' g = -0.316) compared with the control group. Results from subgroup analyses revealed that the type of sample and delivery mode had a greater impact on heterogeneity across the studies. Meta-regression found that the overall effect might be moderated by guidance for iMBIs. CONCLUSION: The present meta-analysis suggested that iMBIs had small to moderate effects in reducing stress and improving mindfulness of the general population in comparison with the control group. Future research is needed to explore how iMBIs are remolded to improve adherence and suit specific individuals.


Assuntos
Atenção Plena , Estresse Psicológico/terapia , Ansiedade/terapia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Internet
20.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235517, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32628692

RESUMO

One of biggest public health impacts of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident is psychosocial. Anxiety about radiation is still present, and radiation risk perception, particularly with regard to genetic effects, is known to affect mental health. However, roles of other risk factors such as health anxiety and of mindfulness remain to be proved. Here, we examined how radiation risk perception (genetic effects) mediates in health anxiety and psychological distress, and how mindfulness influences those variables. Seven years after the accident, we commissioned a self-reported online survey with 832 participants, 416 each from Fukushima and Tokyo, and modeled the relationship between those variables using Structural Equation Modeling. Health anxiety had a much stronger influence on psychological distress than radiation risk perception. Mindfulness was significantly correlated with both health anxiety and psychological distress, but not with radiation risk perception. The total effects on psychological distress were -0.38 by mindfulness and +0.38 by health anxiety. These results suggest the potential application of mindfulness-based interventions to alleviate health anxiety and psychological distress rather than therapy focused on radiation anxiety. The results underline the effectiveness of community support efforts in Fukushima and highlight the importance of enhancing mindfulness during the chronic phase following a disaster.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/psicologia , Acidente Nuclear de Fukushima , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Atenção Plena , Percepção , Angústia Psicológica , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição de Risco , Adulto Jovem
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