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1.
Isr Med Assoc J ; 22(1): 8-12, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927798

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Heart failure centers with specialized nurse-supervised management programs have been proposed to improve prognosis. The Heart Failure Center in Beit Shemesh, Israel, is located within a large primary care facility. The specialist team supervised the managememt of patients both within the frame of the center and while they were hospitalized. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the health services utilization by heart failure patients treated at a heart failure center and their clinical outcome. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we compared the clinical outcome of patients treated at a heart failure center to patients who received the standard care in 2013-2014. The clinical outcome included primary care visits, emergency room visits, hospitalizations, and death. RESULTS: The study comprised 430 heart failure patients; 82 were treated at the heart failure center and 348 under standard care. At baseline, no significant differences were seen in clinical parameters between the groups. Healthcare utilization was higher among the study group. No significant changes in healthcare utilization were found. During follow-up, patients treated in a heart failure center were more likely to get recommended heart failure medications. Mortality was significantly lower in patients treated in the heart failure center compared with those receiving standard care 3.6% vs. 24%, respectively (P = 0.001), hazard ratio 0.19, 95% confidence interval 0.06-0.62, P = 0.005. CONCLUSIONS: Joint management of heart failure by primary clinics and a specialized community heart failure center reduced mortality. There was no decrease in healthcare utilizations among heart failure center patients, despite the reduction in mortality.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Idoso , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Insuficiência Cardíaca/mortalidade , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(1): e1920010, 2020 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995215

RESUMO

Importance: Racial and ethnic disparities in access to health care may result from discrimination. Objectives: To identify differences in the rates at which patients belonging to racial/ethnic minority groups are offered primary care appointments and the number of days they wait for their primary care appointment and to understand the mechanisms by which discrimination occurs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional study used 7 simulated black, Hispanic, and white patient callers to request appointments from 804 randomized primary care offices in 2 urban centers in Texas from November 2017 to February 2018. Data analysis was conducted between February and December 2018. Exposures: Research assistants called randomly assigned offices to schedule an appointment, supplying the same basic information. Race and ethnicity were signaled through callers' names and voices. Main Outcomes and Measures: Appointment offer rates, days to appointment, and questions asked during the call. Results: Of the 7 callers (age range, 18-29 years), 2 (28.6%) self-identified as non-Hispanic black, 3 (42.9%) self-identified as non-Hispanic white, and 2 (28.6%) self-identified as Hispanic. Of the 804 calls they made, 299 (37.2%) were from simulated white callers, 215 (26.7%) were from simulated black callers, and 290 (36.1%) were from simulated Hispanic callers. Overall, 582 callers (72.4%) were offered appointments. In unadjusted models, black and Hispanic callers were more likely to be offered an appointment than white callers (black callers, 32.2 [95% CI, 25.1-39.3] percentage points more likely; P < .001; Hispanic callers, 21.1 [95% CI, 13.7-28.5] percentage points more likely; P < .001). However, after adjusting for whether insurance status was revealed, this statistical significance was lost. In adjusted models, black callers were 44.0 (95% CI, 36.2-51.8) percentage points more likely to be asked about their insurance status than white callers (P < .001), and Hispanic callers were 25.3 (95% CI, 17.1-33.5) percentage points more likely to be asked about their insurance status (P < .001) than white callers. Black and Hispanic callers received appointments further in the future than white callers (black callers: marginal effect estimate, 3.650; 95% CI, 0.579 to 6.721; P = .08; Hispanic callers: marginal effect estimate, 2.644; 95% CI, -0.496 to 5.784; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, black and Hispanic patients were more likely to be offered an appointment, but they were asked more frequently about their insurance status than white callers. Black and Hispanic callers experienced longer wait times than white patients, indicating a barrier to timely access to primary care.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Agendamento de Consultas , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Cooperação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Estados Unidos
3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eGS4913, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531556

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate indications, results and strategy of retinal exams requested at Primary Care Units. METHODS: A retrospective study that analyzed the indications and results of retinal exams, in the modalities clinical dilated fundus exams and color fundus photographs. In the following situations, patients were considered eligible for color fundus photographs if visual acuity was normal and ocular symptoms were absent: diabetes mellitus and/or hypertension, in use of drugs with potential retinal toxicity, diagnosis or suspicion of glaucoma, stable and asymptomatic retinopathies, except myopia greater than -3.00 diopters. RESULTS: A total of 1,729 patients were evaluated (66% female, age 63.5±15.5 years), and 1,190 underwent clinical dilated fundus exam and 539 underwent color fundus photographs. Diabetes was present in 32.2%. The main indications were diabetes (23.7%) and glaucoma evaluation (23.5%). In 3.4% of patients there was no apparent indication. The main results were a large cup/disc ratio (30.7%) and diabetic retinopathy (13.2%). Exam was normal in 9.6%, detected peripheral changes in 7% and could not be performed in 1%. Considering patients eligible for fundus photographs (22.4%), more than half underwent clinical dilated fundus exams. CONCLUSION: Regarding exam modality, there were no important differences in the distribution of indications or diagnosis. Color fundus photograph is compatible with telemedicine and more cost-effective, and could be considered the strategy of choice in some scenarios. Since there are no clear guidelines for retinal exams indications or the modality of choice, this study may contribute to such standardization, in order to optimize public health resources.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Retina , Doenças Retinianas/diagnóstico , Idoso , Retinopatia Diabética/diagnóstico , Técnicas de Diagnóstico Oftalmológico/economia , Feminino , Fundo de Olho , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fotografação , Exame Físico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Telemedicina , Acuidade Visual
5.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 110, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31826176

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program on the performance of primary health care by quantifying health services access and use in Northeast Brazil, based on the population size of the municipalities, on the financial investment in health, and on the number of physicians in the family health teams. METHOD: Evaluative research of quantitative nature. Access was evaluated by the population coverage ratio of the Family Health Strategy and use of health services, which were measured by medical appointments conducted between April 2013 and September 2015. We defined processes for database selection, adjustment, and validation, including explanatory variables for a sample of 896 municipalities. The analysis was based on the time periods before and after the implementation of the program. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test and non-parametric alternatives constituted statistical tests in the comparative analysis of the data. RESULTS: A 19.2% increase was observed in the number of medical appointments between the first six months and the final six months of the data series. In this period, the median appointments in municipalities with up to 5,000 inhabitants increased from 701.0 to 768.0; while in those with more than 100,000 inhabitants it decreased from 285.5 to 280.0 (p < 0.05). Between April 2013 and September 2015, the median coverage ratio of the family health teams increased from 89.2% to 95.3%, approaching 100% in the municipalities with up to 20,000 inhabitants. CONCLUSIONS: The study highlights the expansion of access and use of primary health care services in the northeast region after the implementation of the Mais Médicos (More Doctors) Program. Between April 2013 and September 2015, the coverage of family health teams and the production of medical appointments increased, constituting important achievements for SUS.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Governamentais , Médicos/provisão & distribução , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Encaminhamento e Consulta/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Assistência à Saúde/economia , Saúde da Família , Alocação de Recursos para a Atenção à Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Recursos Humanos
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 773, 2019 Oct 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666053

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The number of people living with diabetes mellitus (DM) in Indonesia has continued to increase over the last 6 years. Four previous studies in U.S have found that higher DD scores were associated with worse psychological outcomes, lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and increased risk of T2DM complications. In this study, we aimed to firstly compare DD scores in Indonesian T2DM outpatients treated in primary care versus those in tertiary care. Subsequently, we investigated whether socio-demographic characteristics and clinical conditions explain potential differences in DD score across healthcare settings. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on Java island in three primary care (n = 108) and four tertiary care (n = 524) facilities. The participants completed the Bahasa Indonesia version of the Diabetes Distress Scale questionnaire (DDS17 Bahasa Indonesia). Ordinal regression analysis was conducted with the quartile of the summation of the DD score as the dependent variable to investigate how the association between the level of healthcare facilities and DD altered when adding different variables in the model. RESULTS: The final adjusted model showed that the level of healthcare facilities was strongly associated with DD (p < .001), with participants in primary care having a 3.68 times (95% CI 2.46-5.55) higher likelihood of being more distressed than the participants in tertiary care. This association was detected after including the socio-demographic characteristics and clinical conditions as model confounders. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in Indonesia to compare DD scores within different healthcare facilities. We recommend a regular DD assessment, possibly closely aligned with health-literacy partner programs, especially for T2DM patients in primary care settings.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/psicologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estresse Psicológico/epidemiologia , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Indonésia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
7.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 813, 2019 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31699103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Out-of-hours (OOH) healthcare services in Western countries are often differentiated into out-of-hours primary healthcare services (OOH-PC) and emergency medical services (EMS). Call waiting time, triage model and intended aims differ between these services. Consequently, the care pathway and outcome could vary based on the choice of entrance to the healthcare system. We aimed to investigate patient pathways and 1- and 1-30-day mortality, intensive care unit (ICU) stay and length of hospital stay for patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke and sepsis in relation to the OOH service that was contacted prior to the hospital contact. METHODS: Population-based observational cohort study during 2016 including adult patients from two Danish regions with an OOH service contact on the date of hospital contact. Patients <18 years were excluded. Data was retrieved from OOH service databases and national registries, linked by a unique personal identification number. Crude and adjusted logistic regression analyses were performed to assess mortality in relation to contacted OOH service with OOH-PC as the reference and cox regression analysis to assess risk of ICU stay. RESULTS: We included 6826 patients. AMI and stroke patients more often contacted EMS (52.1 and 54.1%), whereas sepsis patients predominately called OOH-PC (66.9%). Less than 10% (all diagnoses) of patients contacted both OOH-PC & EMS. Stroke patients with EMS or OOH-PC & EMS contacts had higher likelihood of 1- and 1-30-day mortality, in particular 1-day (EMS: OR = 5.33, 95% CI: 2.82-10.08; OOH-PC & EMS: OR = 3.09, 95% CI: 1.06-9.01). Sepsis patients with EMS or OOH-PC & EMS contacts also had higher likelihood of 1-day mortality (EMS: OR = 2.22, 95% CI: 1.40-3.51; OOH-PC & EMS: OR = 2.86, 95% CI: 1.56-5.23) and 1-30-day mortality. Risk of ICU stay was only significantly higher for stroke patients contacting EMS (EMS: HR = 2.38, 95% CI: 1.51-3.75). Stroke and sepsis patients with EMS contact had longer hospital stays. CONCLUSIONS: More patients contacted OOH-PC than EMS. Sepsis and stroke patients contacting EMS solely or OOH-PC & EMS had higher likelihood of 1- and 1-30-day mortality during the subsequent hospital contact. Our results suggest that patients contacting EMS are more severely ill, however OOH-PC is still often used for time-critical conditions.


Assuntos
Plantão Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Infarto do Miocárdio/terapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sepse/terapia , Acidente Vascular Cerebral/terapia , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Dinamarca , Feminino , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
Health Serv Res ; 54(6): 1203-1213, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31742687

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of TEAM UP-an initiative that fully integrates behavioral health services into pediatric primary care in three Boston-area Community Health Centers (CHCs)-on health care utilization and costs. DATA SOURCES: 2014-2017 claims data on continuously enrolled children from a Massachusetts Medicaid managed care plan. STUDY DESIGN: We used a difference-in-difference approach with inverse probability of treatment weights to compare outcomes in children receiving primary care at TEAM UP CHCs versus comparison site CHCs, in the pre (2014-2016q2)- versus post (2016q3-2017)-intervention periods. Utilization outcomes included emergency department visits, inpatient admissions, primary care visits, and outpatient/professional visits (all cause and those with mental health (MH) diagnoses). Cost outcomes included total cost of care (inpatient, outpatient, professional, pharmacy). We further assessed differential effects by baseline MH diagnosis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: After 1.5 years, TEAM UP was associated with a relative increase in the rate of primary care visits (IRR = 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.27, or 115 additional visits/1000 patients/quarter), driven by children with a MH diagnosis at baseline. There was no significant change in avoidable health care utilization or cost. CONCLUSIONS: Expanding the TEAM UP behavioral health integration model to other sites has the potential to improve primary care engagement in low-income children with MH needs.


Assuntos
Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/economia , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Pediátricos/economia , Medicaid/economia , Medicaid/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Mental/economia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Adolescente , Boston , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Prestação Integrada de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Hospitais Pediátricos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Pobreza/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
9.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 98, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778397

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the health care network for at-risk infants in the western region of the city of São Paulo, with the primary health care as coordinator, and to compare the presence and extension of attributes of primary health care in the services provided, according to the service management model (Family Health Strategy and traditional basic health units). METHODS: A survey was conducted with all at-risk infants born in the western region of São Paulo between 2013 and 2014. The children were then actively searched for a later application of the PCATool - child version. The total of 233 children were located in the territory; 113 guardians agreed to participate, and 81 composed the final sample. RESULTS: Regarding the results of PCATool for overall and essential scores, the units with Family Health Strategy were better evaluated by users, when compared with traditional basic health units, showing a statistically significant difference. However, these scores were low for both management models. Regarding attributes, the Family Health Strategy presented better performance compared with traditional basic health units for most of them, except for coordination of information systems. Of ten assessed attributes, seven reached values ≥6.6 for Family Health Strategy and two for the traditional basic health unit. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the type of management model, low overall and essential scores were found, indicating that guardians of at-risk infants rated some attributes as unsatisfactory, with emphasis on accessibility, integrality and family guidance. Such a performance may have negative consequences for the quality and integrality of these infants' health care.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança/provisão & distribução , Serviços de Saúde da Criança/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Brasil , Estudos Transversais , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/organização & administração , Garantia da Qualidade dos Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
10.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 696, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615572

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity is a major global public health challenge, and understanding the implications for healthcare systems is essential for policy planning. Past studies have typically found positive associations between obesity and healthcare utilization, but these studies have not taken into consideration that obesity is also associated with early mortality. We examined associations between body mass index (BMI, reported as kg/m2) and healthcare utilization with and without taking BMI-specific survival into consideration. METHODS: We used nationally representative data on 33 882 adults collected between 2002 and 2015. We computed BMI- and age-specific primary and secondary care utilization and multiplied the estimated values with gender-, age-, and BMI-specific probabilities of surviving to each age. Then, we summed the average BMI-specific utilization between 18 and 85 years. RESULTS: During a survival-adjusted lifetime, males with normal weight (BMI: 18.5-24.9) had, on average, 167 primary care, and 77 secondary care contacts. In comparison, males with overweight (BMI: 25.0-29.9), category I obesity (BMI: 30.0-34.9), and category II/III obesity (BMI ≥35.0) had 11%, 41%, and 102% more primary care, and 14%, 29%, and 78% more secondary care contacts, respectively. Females with normal weight had, on average, 210 primary care contacts and 91 secondary care contacts. Females with overweight, category I obesity, and category II/III obesity had 20%, 34%, and 81% more primary care contacts, and 26%, 16%, and 16% more secondary care contacts, respectively. CONCLUSION: The positive association between BMI and healthcare utilization was reduced, but not offset, when BMI-specific survival was taken into consideration. Our findings underpin previous research and suggest that interventions to offset the increasing prevalence of overweight, and especially obesity, are warranted.


Assuntos
Índice de Massa Corporal , Sobrepeso/terapia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Noruega/epidemiologia , Obesidade/mortalidade , Obesidade/terapia , Sobrepeso/mortalidade , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
11.
Lakartidningen ; 1162019 Oct 18.
Artigo em Sueco | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31638708

RESUMO

Since 2016, a number of companies offering primary care services via chats or video calls have entered the Swedish primary care market. This is the first study to investigate whether these services replace other primary care services or if they induce more care and potentially even increase the workload of traditional caregivers. Using administrative care register data from a Swedish region, we find that the use of telemedicine services is associated with higher use of other primary care services (visits and telephone/mail contacts). Further, telemedicine users visit the emergency room at least as often as other residents. We obtain similar results when using various strategies to account for differences between telemedicine users and non-users. However, we cannot completely rule out that an association between transitory health problems and telemedicine use explains the results.


Assuntos
Centros Comunitários de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Telemedicina/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupos Étnicos , Feminino , Humanos , Renda , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suécia , Adulto Jovem
12.
BMC Infect Dis ; 19(1): 879, 2019 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640583

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In Yemen, the underlying causes of infectious vaginitis have been neglected. Therefore, this study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) and trichomonal vaginitis (TV) among non-pregnant reproductive-aged women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 347 non-pregnant reproductive-aged women seeking primary healthcare in Sana'a city, Yemen. Data about sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle-related behaviors, routine hygienic practices, menstrual care and history and type of contraceptive intake were collected using a structured questionnaire. Vaginal discharge samples were collected and examined for discharge characteristics and pH by a gynecologist. Then, samples were examined for BV, VVC and TV. Data were analyzed using suitable statistical tests. RESULTS: Vaginal infections were prevalent among 37.6% of reproductive-aged women, where BV was the most prevalent (27.2%). VVC was significantly higher among symptomatic women and significantly associated with itching (P = 0.005). Using bivariate analysis, the age of < 25 years (odds ratio [OR] = 1.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.16-3.10; P = 0.010) and using intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs) (OR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.09-2.89; P = 0.020) were significantly associated with BV, while history of miscarriage was significantly associated with a lower risk of BV (OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.31-0.85, P = 0.009). However, polygyny was significantly associated with VVC (OR = 3.4, 95% CI: 1.33-8.66; P = 0.007). Multivariable analysis confirmed that age of < 25 years and using IUCD were the independent predictors of BV, while history of miscarriage was an independent protective factor against BV. On the other hand, marriage to a polygamous husband was the independent predictor of VVC. CONCLUSIONS: More than a third of non-pregnant reproductive-aged women seeking PHC in Sana'a have single or mixed infections with BV, VVC or TV. BV is the most frequent cause of vaginitis and is significantly associated with the age of < 25 years and using IUCDs, while VVC is significantly higher among women with polygamous husbands. Health education of polygamous husbands and their wives, regular monitoring of BV among IUCD users and screening women for vaginitis before treatment are recommended.


Assuntos
Candidíase Vulvovaginal/epidemiologia , Vaginite por Trichomonas/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Candidíase Vulvovaginal/etiologia , Coinfecção , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Dispositivos Intrauterinos/estatística & dados numéricos , Casamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Prevalência , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Vaginite por Trichomonas/etiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/etiologia , Iêmen/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 95, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644773

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze factors associated with outpatient follow-up of children with congenital syphilis. METHODS: A non-concurrent cohort study performed in primary care units and three reference maternity hospitals in Fortaleza (Ceará State). Data were collected from September 2013 to September 2016 in the notification forms and in the medical records of hospitalization and outpatient follow-up, and they were presented considering an adequate and inadequate follow-up. Children who attended the primary care unit or referral outpatient clinic during the period recommended by the Ministry of Health were considered adequately followed up and performed the recommended examinations. Pearson's chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used in the comparative analysis. The estimated risk of adequate non-follow-up was verified by simple and multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: The total of 460 children with congenital syphilis were notified, of which 332 (72.2%) returned for at least one appointment and were part of the study. Exactly 287 (86.4%) children attended the primary health unit; however, there was no reference to congenital syphilis in 236 (71.1%) medical records and no information on the venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test was found in 264 (79.5%) children. There was nonadherence to subsequent appointments by 272 (81.9%) individuals. The following variables had a statistically significant association with the non-adequate follow-up of the children: marital status of the mothers, number of prenatal appointments, number of pregnancies, blood count, and radiography of long bones. CONCLUSIONS: Most children with congenital syphilis attended primary care for follow-up, but the services do not meet the recommendations of the Brazilian Ministry of Health for adequate follow-up.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente/estatística & dados numéricos , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Mães/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Sífilis Congênita/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Idade Gestacional , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/terapia , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sífilis Congênita/epidemiologia , Cooperação e Adesão ao Tratamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 19(1): 765, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31660966

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Direct Acting Antiviral (DAAs) drugs have a much lower burden of treatment and monitoring requirements than regimens containing interferon and ribavirin, and a much higher efficacy in treating hepatitis C (HCV). These characteristics mean that initiating treatment and obtaining a virological cure (Sustained Viral response, SVR) on completion of treatment, in non-specialist environments should be feasible. We investigated the English-language literature evaluating community and primary care-based pathways using DAAs to treat HCV infection. METHODS: Databases (Cinahl; Embase; Medline; PsycINFO; PubMed) were searched for studies of treatment with DAAs in non-specialist settings to achieve SVR. Relevant studies were identified including those containing a comparison between a community and specialist services where available. A narrative synthesis and linked meta-analysis were performed on suitable studies with a strength of evidence assessment (GRADE). RESULTS: Seventeen studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria: five from Australia; two from Canada; two from UK and eight from USA. Seven studies demonstrated use of DAAs in primary care environments; four studies evaluated integrated systems linking specialists with primary care providers; three studies evaluated services in locations providing care to people who inject drugs; two studies evaluated delivery in pharmacies; and one evaluated delivery through telemedicine. Sixteen studies recorded treatment uptake. Patient numbers varied from around 60 participants with pathway studies to several thousand in two large database studies. Most studies recruited less than 500 patients. Five studies reported reduced SVR rates from an intention-to-treat analysis perspective because of loss to follow-up before the final confirmatory SVR test. GRADE assessments were made for uptake of HCV treatment (medium); completion of HCV treatment (low) and achievement of SVR at 12 weeks (medium). CONCLUSION: Services sited in community settings are feasible and can deliver increased uptake of treatment. Such clinics are able to demonstrate similar SVR rates to published studies and real-world clinics in secondary care. Stronger study designs are needed to confirm the precision of effect size seen in current studies. Prospero: CRD42017069873.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Serviços de Saúde Comunitária/estatística & dados numéricos , Hepatite C/diagnóstico , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
15.
Nurs Outlook ; 67(6): 707-712, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31607371

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The research findings about nurse practitioner (NP) patient experiences (satisfaction) are limited to small sample sizes from local community clinics. No national studies with large sample sizes were found. PURPOSE: To analyze responses from the Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems survey and compare the patient experiences from four different provider categories. METHODS: Secondary data analysis was completed on survey responses from 53,885 patients. FINDINGS: In the sample, medical doctor providers were disproportionately represented in greater number than NPs, doctor of osteopathy, or physician assistant. Further analysis comparing patient experiences between providers revealed NP to be rated significantly higher than their colleagues. DISCUSSION: Recognizing the factors associated with patient satisfaction with their providers can lead to improvements in patient-provider interactions that can result in increased quality of care. CONCLUSION: Policy makers should find opportunities to employ NP in primary care settings and achieve greater patient satisfaction that can influence outcomes associated with patient-centered care initiatives.


Assuntos
Profissionais de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Enfermeiro-Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Relações Médico-Paciente , Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos
16.
Rev Saude Publica ; 53: 87, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576946

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the trend of opinion and satisfaction indicators of the Spanish national health system from 2005 to 2017. METHODS: Ecological study of time series analyzing the trend of eight indicators of opinion and satisfaction on the Spanish national health system and its autonomous communities from 2005 to 2017. The data was obtained from the Ministry of Health, Social Services and Equality and from the Health Barometer. The Prais-Winsten regression method was used. RESULTS: A static tendency was observed in the perception of users on how the health system works (APC = 1.898, 95%CI -0.954 - 4.751) and decreasing opinion on the improvement of primary care (APC = -0.283; 95%CI -0.335 - -0.121), specialized (APC = -0.241, 95%CI -0.74 - -0.109) and hospitalization (APC = -0.171, 95%CI -0.307 - -0.036). Satisfaction with knowledge and follow-up by the family doctor and pediatrician showed an increasing trend (APC = 7.939, 95%CI 3.965 - 11.914). Satisfaction with medical and nursing professionals was static. No large differences were observed in the trends of the indicators studied in the autonomous communities. CONCLUSIONS: A negative trend was observed in the opinion of the Spanish national health system users. Financing, human resources, quality management systems and differences in the autonomous communities may be some of the causes.


Assuntos
Programas Nacionais de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Nacionais de Saúde/tendências , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Pesquisa sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/tendências , Valores de Referência , Análise de Regressão , Espanha , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Med Care ; 57(11): 905-912, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31568165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether Medicare data can be used to identify type and degree of collaboration between primary care providers (PCPs) [medical doctors (MDs), nurse practitioners, and physician assistants] in a team care model. METHODS: We surveyed 63 primary care practices in Texas and linked the survey results to 2015 100% Medicare data. We identified PCP dyads of 2 providers in Medicare data and compared the results to those from our survey. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value (PPV) of dyads in Medicare data at different threshold numbers of shared patients were reported. We also identified PCPs who work in the same practice by Social Network Analysis (SNA) of Medicare data and compared the results to the surveys. RESULTS: With a cutoff of sharing at least 30 patients, the sensitivity of identifying dyads was 27.8%, specificity was 91.7%, and PPV 72.2%. The PPV was higher for MD-nurse practitioner/physician assistant pairs (84.4%) than for MD-MD pairs (61.5%). At the same cutoff, 90% of PCPs identified in a practice from the survey were also identified by SNA in the corresponding practice. In 5 of 8 surveyed practices with at least 3 PCPs, about ≤20% PCPs identified in the practices by SNA of Medicare data were not identified in the survey. CONCLUSIONS: Medicare data can be used to identify shared care with low sensitivity and high PPV. Community discovery from Medicare data provided good agreement in identifying members of practices. Adapting network analyses in different contexts needs more validation studies.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Medicare/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Assistência à Saúde/métodos , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Profissionais de Enfermagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Assistentes Médicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Médicos de Atenção Primária/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/métodos , Texas , Estados Unidos
18.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1266-1271, out.-dez. 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês, Português | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermagem | ID: biblio-1022627

RESUMO

Objective: The study's purpose has been to assess the health profile, based on the individual registry named e-SUS (Sistema Único de Saúde [Unified Health System]), in regards to the users of basic health care services in Ijuí city, Rio Grande do Sul State. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study with a sample of 400 registered users in 15 Family Health Strategies, within the age group from 20 to 59 years old and according to the e-SUS individual registry. Results: There was a predominance of wage earners with a work permit and low education level. Users with low schooling were five times more likely to develop diabetes mellitus (p=0.01), whereas high education users were hospitalized more frequently (p=0.03). It was observed an association between participating in a community group and the female gender (p=0.013), having high education level and private health insurance plan (p=0.001). Conclusion: The profile of the users shows a direct relationship between low level of schooling and chronic noncommunicable diseases and inversion of hospitalizations


Objetivo: Verificar o perfil de saúde, baseado no cadastro individual e-SUS, de usuários dos serviços de atenção básica da cidade de Ijuí/RS. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com amostra de 400 usuários cadastrados em 15 Estratégias de Saúde da Família, na faixa etária de 20 a 59 anos, baseado no cadastro individual e-SUS. Resultados: Verificou-se predomínio de assalariado com carteira de trabalho, baixa escolaridade. Os usuários com escolaridade baixa tiveram cinco vezes mais chance de desenvolver diabetes mellitus (DM) (p=0,01), com escolaridade alta internaram com maior frequência (p=0,03). Observou associação entre participar de grupo comunitário e o sexo feminino (p=0,013) e apresentar alta escolaridade e possuir plano de saúde privado (p=0,001). Conclusão: O perfil dos usuários mostra relação direta da baixa escolaridade com doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e inversa às internações


Objetivo: Verificar el perfil de salud, basado en el registro individual e-SUS, de usuarios de los servicios de atención básica de la ciudad de Ijuí/RS. Metodos: Estudio transversal, con muestra de 400 usuarios registrados en 15 Estrategias de Salud de la Familia, en el grupo de edad de 20 a 59 años, basado en el registro individual e-SUS. Resultados: Se verificó predominio de asalariado con carnet de trabajo, baja escolaridad. Los usuarios con escolaridad baja tuvieron cinco veces más posibilidades de desarrollar diabetes mellitus (DM) (p = 0,01), con escolaridad alta internaron con mayor frecuencia (p = 0,03). Se observó asociación entre participar en el grupo comunitario y el sexo femenino (p = 0,013) y presentar alta escolaridad y tener un plan de salud privado (p = 0,001). Conclusión: El perfil de los usuarios muestra relación directa de la baja escolaridad con enfermedades crónicas no transmisibles e inversa las internaciones


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema Único de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Perfil de Saúde , Estratégia Saúde da Família , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Epidemiológicos
19.
Med Care ; 57(10): 788-794, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31513138

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Previous studies suggest the newly Medicaid insured are more likely to use the emergency department (ED) however they did not differentiate between patients established or not established with primary care. OBJECTIVES: To understand where Oregon Medicaid beneficiaries sought care after the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) Medicaid expansion (ED, primary care, or specialist) and the interaction between primary care establishment and outpatient care utilization. RESEARCH DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: Adults continuously insured from 2014 through 2015 who were either newly, returning, or continuously insured post-PPACA. MEASURES: Site of first and last outpatient visit, established with primary care status, and outpatient care utilization. RESULTS: The odds of being established with primary care at their first visit were lower among newly [odds ratio (OR), 0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.19] and returning insured (OR, 0.22; 95% CI, 0.22-0.23) than the continuously insured. Continuously insured, new patients with primary care had higher odds of visiting the ED (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 2.01-2.30) at their first visit than newly or returning insured. Patients established with a single primary care provider in all insurance groups had lower rates of ED visit, whereas those established with multiple primary care providers had the highest ED visit rates. CONCLUSIONS: Most newly and returning insured Medicaid enrollees sought primary care rather than ED services and most became established with primary care. Our findings suggest that both insurance and primary care continuity play a role in where patients seek health care services.


Assuntos
Assistência Ambulatorial/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Utilização de Instalações e Serviços/estatística & dados numéricos , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Feminino , Humanos , Cobertura do Seguro/economia , Cobertura do Seguro/legislação & jurisprudência , Masculino , Medicaid/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estados Unidos
20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31547325

RESUMO

The over-use of antibiotics has been identified as a major global challenge, where there is insufficient knowledge about the use of antibiotics in primary healthcare settings, especially at a population level. This study aims to investigate the trends and patterns of antibiotic sales in primary care in Hubei, China over a six-year period from 2012 to 2017. Antibiotic sales were expressed with Defined Daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DIDs) and compared with European countries using the 12 quality indicators proposed by the scientific advisory board of the European Surveillance of Antimicrobial Consumption (ESAC) project. Antibiotic sales increased from 12.8 DID in 2012 to 15.3 DID in 2013, and then declined afterwards. The most commonly used antibiotics, J01C (beta-lactam antimicrobials, penicillins), accounted for 40.5% of total antibiotic sales. Parenteral administration of antibiotics accounted for over 50% of total antibiotic sales. Total antibiotic sales were almost on a par with the 31 European countries monitored by the ESAC project, but cephalosporin sales were higher than at least three quarters of the compared countries, resulting in a significant higher proportion of third-generation cephalosporin consumption (13.8-19.43%). The relative consumption of Fluoroquinolone (9.26-9.89%) was also higher than at least half of the compared countries. There is a lack of robust evidence to show that antibiotic consumption in primary care is lower in Hubei compared with other countries. The preference of clinicians in China to use broad-spectrum and parenteral antibiotics deserves further study and policy attention.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/uso terapêutico , Uso de Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Antibacterianos/classificação , Antibacterianos/economia , China , Comércio , Uso de Medicamentos/economia , Humanos
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