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J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020509, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110592


Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has overwhelmed hospitals in several areas in high-income countries. An effective response to this pandemic requires health care workers (HCWs) to be present at work, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where they are already in critically low supply. To inform whether and to what degree policymakers in Bangladesh, and LMICs more broadly, should expect a drop in HCW attendance as COVID-19 continues to spread, this study aims to determine how HCW attendance has changed during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh. Methods: This study analyzed daily fingerprint-verified attendance data from all 527 public-sector secondary and tertiary care facilities in Bangladesh to describe HCW attendance from January 26, 2019 to March 22, 2020, by cadre, hospital type, and geographic division. We then regressed HCW attendance onto fixed effects for day-of-week, month, and hospital, as well as indicators for each of three pandemic periods: a China-focused period (January 11, 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 death in China) until January 29, 2020), international-spread period (January 30, 2020 (World Health Organization's declaration of a global emergency) until March 6, 2020), and local-spread period (March 7, 2020 (first confirmed COVID-19 case in Bangladesh) until the end of the study period). Findings: On average between January 26, 2019 and March 22, 2020, 34.1% of doctors, 64.6% of nurses, and 70.6% of other health care staff were present for their scheduled shift. HCWs' attendance rate increased with time in 2019 among all cadres. Nurses' attendance level dropped by 2.5% points (95% confidence interval (CI) = -3.2% to -1.8%) and 3.5% points (95% CI = -4.5% to -2.5%) during the international-spread and the local-spread periods of the COVID-19 pandemic, relative to the China-focused period. Similarly, the attendance level of other health care staff declined by 0.3% points (95% CI = -0.8% to 0.2%) and 2.3% points (95% CI = -3.0% to -1.6%) during the international-spread and local-spread periods, respectively. Among doctors, however, the international-spread and local-spread periods were associated with a statistically significant increase in attendance by 3.7% points (95% CI = 2.5% to 4.8%) and 4.9% points (95% CI = 3.5% to 6.4%), respectively. The reduction in attendance levels across all HCWs during the local-spread period was much greater at large hospitals, where the majority of COVID-19 testing and treatment took place, than that at small hospitals. Conclusions: After a year of significant improvements, HCWs' attendance levels among nurses and other health care staff (who form the majority of Bangladesh's health care workforce) have declined during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic. This finding may portend an even greater decrease in attendance if COVID-19 continues to spread in Bangladesh. Policymakers in Bangladesh and similar LMICs should undertake major efforts to achieve high attendance levels among HCWs, particularly nurses, such as by providing sufficient personal protective equipment as well as monetary and non-monetary incentives.

Infecções por Coronavirus , Mão de Obra em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Betacoronavirus , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/organização & administração , Atenção Terciária à Saúde/organização & administração
Lancet ; 396(10256): 977-989, 2020 10 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33010843


BACKGROUND: Manipulation under anaesthesia and arthroscopic capsular release are costly and invasive treatments for frozen shoulder, but their effectiveness remains uncertain. We compared these two surgical interventions with early structured physiotherapy plus steroid injection. METHODS: In this multicentre, pragmatic, three-arm, superiority randomised trial, patients referred to secondary care for treatment of primary frozen shoulder were recruited from 35 hospital sites in the UK. Participants were adults (≥18 years) with unilateral frozen shoulder, characterised by restriction of passive external rotation (≥50%) in the affected shoulder. Participants were randomly assigned (2:2:1) to receive manipulation under anaesthesia, arthroscopic capsular release, or early structured physiotherapy. In manipulation under anaesthesia, the surgeon manipulated the affected shoulder to stretch and tear the tight capsule while the participant was under general anaesthesia, supplemented by a steroid injection. Arthroscopic capsular release, also done under general anaesthesia, involved surgically dividing the contracted anterior capsule in the rotator interval, followed by manipulation, with optional steroid injection. Both forms of surgery were followed by postprocedural physiotherapy. Early structured physiotherapy involved mobilisation techniques and a graduated home exercise programme supplemented by a steroid injection. Both early structured physiotherapy and postprocedural physiotherapy involved 12 sessions during up to 12 weeks. The primary outcome was the Oxford Shoulder Score (OSS; 0-48) at 12 months after randomisation, analysed by initial randomisation group. We sought a target difference of 5 OSS points between physiotherapy and either form of surgery, or 4 points between manipulation and capsular release. The trial registration is ISRCTN48804508. FINDINGS: Between April 1, 2015, and Dec 31, 2017, we screened 914 patients, of whom 503 (55%) were randomly assigned. At 12 months, OSS data were available for 189 (94%) of 201 participants assigned to manipulation (mean estimate 38·3 points, 95% CI 36·9 to 39·7), 191 (94%) of 203 participants assigned to capsular release (40·3 points, 38·9 to 41·7), and 93 (94%) of 99 participants assigned to physiotherapy (37·2 points, 35·3 to 39·2). The mean group differences were 2·01 points (0·10 to 3·91) between the capsular release and manipulation groups, 3·06 points (0·71 to 5·41) between capsular release and physiotherapy, and 1·05 points (-1·28 to 3·39) between manipulation and physiotherapy. Eight serious adverse events were reported with capsular release and two with manipulation. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of £20 000 per quality-adjusted life-year, manipulation under anaesthesia had the highest probability of being cost-effective (0·8632, compared with 0·1366 for physiotherapy and 0·0002 for capsular release). INTERPRETATION: All mean differences on the assessment of shoulder pain and function (OSS) at the primary endpoint of 12 months were less than the target differences. Therefore, none of the three interventions were clinically superior. Arthoscopic capsular release carried higher risks, and manipulation under anaesthesia was the most cost-effective. FUNDING: The National Institute for Health Research Health Technology Assessment programme.

Bursite/terapia , Glucocorticoides/administração & dosagem , Liberação da Cápsula Articular , Manipulação Ortopédica , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Intra-Articulares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amplitude de Movimento Articular , Resultado do Tratamento , Reino Unido
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 409, 2020 10 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33066750


BACKGROUND: There is a need for more observational studies across different clinical settings to better understand the epidemiology of the novel COVID-19 infection. Evidence on clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection is scarce in secondary care settings in Western populations. METHODS: We describe the clinical characteristics of all consecutive COVID-19 positive patients (n = 215) admitted to the acute medical unit at Fairfield General Hospital (secondary care setting) between 23 March 2020 and 30 April 2020 based on the outcome at discharge (group 1: alive or group 2: deceased). We investigated the risk factors that were associated with mortality using binary logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meir (KM) curves were generated by following the outcome in all patients until 12 May 2020. RESULTS: The median age of our cohort was 74 years with a predominance of Caucasians (87.4%) and males (62%). Of the 215 patients, 86 (40%) died. A higher proportion of patients who died were frail (group 2: 63 vs group 1: 37%, p < 0.001), with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (group 2: 58 vs group 1: 33%, p < 0.001) and respiratory diseases (group 2: 38 vs group 1: 25%, p = 0.03). In the multivariate logistic regression models, older age (odds ratio (OR) 1.03; p = 0.03), frailty (OR 5.1; p < 0.001) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on admission (OR 0.98; p = 0.01) were significant predictors of inpatient mortality. KM curves showed a significantly shorter survival time in the frail older patients. CONCLUSION: Older age and frailty are chief risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients hospitalised to an acute medical unit at secondary care level. A holistic approach by incorporating these factors is warranted in the management of patients with COVID-19 infection.

Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Idoso Fragilizado , Fragilidade/complicações , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Betacoronavirus , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pandemias , Prevalência , Atenção Secundária à Saúde
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0240960, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33112892


BACKGROUND: Black, Asian and minority ethnic (BAME) populations are emerging as a vulnerable group in the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus disease (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. We investigated the relationship between ethnicity and health outcomes in SARS-CoV-2. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a retrospective, observational analysis of SARS-CoV-2 patients across two London teaching hospitals during March 1 -April 30, 2020. Routinely collected clinical data were extracted and analysed for 645 patients who met the study inclusion criteria. Within this hospitalised cohort, the BAME population were younger relative to the white population (61.70 years, 95% CI 59.70-63.73 versus 69.3 years, 95% CI 67.17-71.43, p<0.001). When adjusted for age, sex and comorbidity, ethnicity was not a predictor for ICU admission. The mean age at death was lower in the BAME population compared to the white population (71.44 years, 95% CI 69.90-72.90 versus, 77.40 years, 95% CI 76.1-78.70 respectively, p<0.001). When adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities, Asian patients had higher odds of death (OR 1.99: 95% CI 1.22-3.25, p<0.006). CONCLUSIONS: BAME patients were more likely to be admitted younger, and to die at a younger age with SARS-CoV-2. Within the BAME cohort, Asian patients were more likely to die but despite this, there was no difference in rates of admission to ICU. The reasons for these disparities are not fully understood and need to be addressed. Investigating ethnicity as a clinical risk factor remains a high public health priority. Studies that consider ethnicity as part of the wider socio-cultural determinant of health are urgently needed.

Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/estatística & dados numéricos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Feminino , Mortalidade Hospitalar , Hospitais de Ensino/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Tempo de Internação/estatística & dados numéricos , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/etnologia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236472, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760071


BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that influenza is associated with a substantial healthcare burden in the United Kingdom (UK), but more studies are needed to evaluate the resource use and direct medical costs of influenza in primary care and secondary care. METHODS: A retrospective observational database study in the UK to describe the primary care and directly-associated secondary care resource use, and direct medical costs of acute respiratory illness (ARI), according to age, and risk status (NCT Number: 01521416). Patients with influenza, ARI or influenza-related respiratory infections during 9 consecutive pre-pandemic influenza peak seasons were identified by READ codes in the linked Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) and Hospital Episodes Statistics (HES) dataset. The study period was from 21st January 2001 to 31st March 2009. RESULTS: A total of 156,193 patients had ≥1 general practitioner (GP) episode of ARI, and a total of 82,204 patients received ≥1 GP prescription, at a mean of 2.5 (standard deviation [SD]: 3.0) prescriptions per patient. The total cost of GP consultations and prescriptions equated to £462,827 per year per 100,000 patients. The yearly cost of prescribed medication for ARI was £319,732, at an estimated cost of £11,596,350 per year extrapolated to the UK, with 40% attributable to antibiotics. The mean cost of hospital admissions equated to a yearly cost of £981,808 per 100,000 patients. The total mean direct medical cost of ARI over 9 influenza seasons was £21,343,445 (SD: £10,441,364), at £136.65 (SD: £66.85) per case. CONCLUSIONS: Extrapolating to the UK population, for pre-pandemic influenza seasons from 2001 to 2009, the direct medical cost of ARI equated to £86 million each year. More studies are needed to assess the costs of influenza disease to help guide public health decision-making for seasonal influenza in the UK.

Custos e Análise de Custo , Recursos em Saúde/provisão & distribução , Atenção Primária à Saúde/economia , Infecções Respiratórias , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/economia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infecções Respiratórias/economia , Infecções Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido , Adulto Jovem
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 166: 108291, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32615280


We aim to describe the prevalence of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in individuals admitted to a single centre with COVID-19. We identified 218 individuals hospitalised with COVID-19, of these four fulfilled criteria for DKA (4/218, 1.8%). We conclude DKA is common and severe in individuals hospitalised with COVID-19.

Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/complicações , Cetoacidose Diabética/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/complicações , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Cetoacidose Diabética/virologia , Hospitalização , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Prevalência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 9(1): 1692-1694, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654611


Three hundred and ninety-seven primary- and secondary-care physicians were tested for the presence of IgG (and IgA) antibodies against SARS-coronavirus-2 with a commercially available ELISA. In 19 of 20 individuals with PCR-proven infection and only mild to moderate symptoms not requiring hospitalization positive IgG levels occurred within two to three weeks. Among the remaining 377 persons without clear-cut evidence of infection, unequivocally positive IgG antibodies were found in only one, showing a surprisingly low prevalence (0.3%, 95% CI: 0.01-1.5) in physicians with likely contacts with infected patients in a region highly affected by the pandemic (Tyrol, Austria).

Anticorpos Antivirais/sangue , Betacoronavirus/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoglobulina A/sangue , Imunoglobulina G/sangue , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Médicos de Atenção Primária , Atenção Secundária à Saúde
J Orthod ; 47(3): 232-239, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650650


OBJECTIVES: To evaluate referral patterns to secondary care and categorise referrals by complexity level. To assess compliance with commissioning guidelines for cases accepted for treatment in secondary care, comparing complexity to Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN) data. DESIGN: Service evaluation of all referrals during study period recorded prospectively. The standard was set that >85% of cases offered treatment in secondary care should be complexity level 3b. SETTING: Seven NHS orthodontic departments within a regional clinical effectiveness group in secondary care in England. PARTICIPANTS: All patients seen as new referrals during the three-month study period. METHODS: Data recorded at clinic appointment on data collection proforma including referral information, complexity, IOTN and outcome of the first appointment. Data were collated on a spreadsheet and simple statistics were applied. RESULTS: A total of 493 patients were included in data analysis. Median waiting time for a new patient appointment was 11.0 weeks. For the whole study group, 53.8% were IOTN 5, 30.8% IOTN 4, 9.7% IOTN 3; complexity levels were 54.2% complexity 3b, 37.1% 3a and 6.7% 2. Of the patients, 30.0% were offered treatment in secondary care at their first attendance; of these, 74.3 % were IOTN 5, 93.2% were complexity level 3b. CONCLUSION: The gold standard has been met in the region as a whole and at each individual unit. There is a large discrepancy between the IOTN score and complexity level in those patients offered orthodontic treatment in secondary care. Routine recording of complexity level is recommended for all patients seen in the secondary care setting.

Má Oclusão , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Humanos , Índice de Necessidade de Tratamento Ortodôntico , Encaminhamento e Consulta
An Bras Dermatol ; 95(4): 428-438, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32482550


BACKGROUND: Dermatology encompasses the management of many disorders of the skin and cutaneous appendages, making the analysis of epidemiological profiles relevant for health planning. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to describe the nosological profile of dermatological diseases in Florianopolis, analyzing the interrelation among the primary health care and dermatology services, from January 2016 to December 2017. METHOD: Descriptive study from records of medical visits from the primary health care and dermatology services, as well as records of reports issued by the teledermatology service. RESULTS: In primary health care, from 55,265 medical visits - 28,546 in 2016 and 26,719 in 2017, there was a higher prevalence of "Atopic dermatitis" (6.38%), "other disorders of skin and subcutaneous tissue" (5.10%), and "Scabies" (4.55%). In dermatology secondary care, from 19,964 visits - 10,068 in 2016 and 9626 in 2017, the most prevalent diagnoses were "Other malignant neoplasms of the skin" (14.75%) and "Skin changes due to chronic exposure to nonionizing radiation" (10.20%). STUDY LIMITATIONS: Some dermatological consultations in primary health care may have been under-registered due to the attribution of non-specific or overly broad diagnoses. CONCLUSION: This study presents different nosological profiles of skin diseases in primary health care and dermatology secondary care, reinforcing the importance of primary health care's role in the management of less complex conditions, referring more complex cases that require more specialized experience to dermatology services..

Dermatopatias/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dermatologia , Humanos , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Encaminhamento e Consulta , Atenção Secundária à Saúde
Anaesthesia ; 75(10): 1314-1320, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32488972


Patients with uncontrolled hypertension are at increased risk of complications during general anaesthesia but the number of patients whose surgery is delayed or cancelled due to hypertension remains unknown. Prospective, regional multicentre service evaluations were performed on consecutive patients undergoing elective surgery before and after the publication of new guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists and the British Hypertensive Society. The aim was to quantify the number of operations cancelled due to hypertension alone and to assess impact of the guidelines on cancellation rates. In October 2013 (before the publication of the guidelines), 1.37% (95%CI 0.69-2.11%) of patients listed for elective surgery were cancelled solely due to raised blood pressure. This reduced significantly to 0.54% (95%CI 0.20-0.92%, p < 0.001) in 2018. There was a significant reduction in inappropriate cancellations for stage 1 or 2 hypertension from 2013 to 2018 (72 vs. 14, respectively, p < 0.001) in keeping with the recommendations in the guidelines. Furthermore, the number of patients being referred back to primary care for the management of hypertension reduced from 2013 to 2018 (85 vs. 30, respectively, p < 0.001). Our data suggest achievement of three major outcomes: reduced surgical cancellations due to hypertension alone; improved detection of significant hypertension before elective surgery; and reduced referral back to primary care from hospital for hypertension management. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time the successful implementation of guidelines from the Association of Anaesthetists has been assessed on such a broad scale. Our data indicate that these guidelines have been effectively implemented in both primary and secondary care, which is likely to have made a positive psychosocial, physical and economic impact on patients and the NHS.

Agendamento de Consultas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Eletivos/estatística & dados numéricos , Guias como Assunto , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anestesia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Londres/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Período Pré-Operatório , Atenção Primária à Saúde , Estudos Prospectivos , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
Araguaçu ­ TO; [S.n]; 20200504. 37 p.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1123396


Orienta na campanha para ações de combate ao Coronavírus (Covid-19) no município de Araguaçu no Tocantins. Apresenta quais as definições de casos de infecção humana pelo COVID-19. Orientações de como notificar ao Centro de Informações Estratégicas de Vigilância em Saúde (CIEVS). Quais os períodos de incubação da doença. Fatores sobre a transmissão e tratamento. Investigação epidemiológica. Quais atribuições da Vigilância em Saúde. Orientações para a coleta de amostras no Laboratório Central de Saúde Pública do Tocantins (LACEN-TO) bem como a técnica de coleta de Swabde nasofaringe e orofaringe (swabs combinados), o acondicionamento, transporte e envio das amostras. Traz as recomendações para a coleta de amostras em situação de óbito. Mostra as medidas de prevenção e controle Precauções padrão, as medidas de isolamento. Transporte do paciente. Como se dá a Limpeza e desinfecção de superfícies. Quais as atribuições das unidades hospitalares quanto aos cuidados com o paciente.

Guides in the campaign for actions to combat Coronavirus (Covid-19) in the municipality of Araguaçu in Tocantins. It presents the definitions of cases of human infection by COVID-19. Guidelines on how to notify the Health Surveillance Strategic Information Center (CIEVS). What are the disease incubation periods. Factors about transmission and treatment. Epidemiological investigation. Which attributions of Health Surveillance. Guidelines for the collection of samples at the Central Laboratory of Public Health of Tocantins (LACEN-TO) as well as the technique of collecting Swabde nasopharynx and oropharynx (combined swabs), packaging, transport and sending of samples . It provides recommendations for the collection of samples in situations of death. Shows prevention and control measures Standard precautions, isolation measures. Transporting the patient. How to clean and disinfect surfaces. What are the attributions of hospital units regarding patient care.

Guías en la campaña de acciones de combate al Coronavirus (Covid-19) en el municipio de Araguaçu en Tocantins. Presenta las definiciones de casos de infección humana por COVID-19. Directrices sobre cómo notificar al Centro de Información Estratégica de Vigilancia Sanitaria (CIEVS). Cuáles son los períodos de incubación de la enfermedad. Factores de transmisión y tratamiento. Investigación epidemiológica. Qué atribuciones de la Vigilancia Sanitaria. Lineamientos para la recolección de muestras en el Laboratorio Central de Salud Pública de Tocantins (LACEN-TO) así como la técnica de recolección de Swabde nasofaringe y orofaringe (hisopos combinados), el empaque, transporte y envío de las muestras . Proporciona recomendaciones para la recolección de muestras en situaciones de muerte. Muestra medidas de prevención y control Precauciones estándar, medidas de aislamiento. Transporte del paciente. Cómo limpiar y desinfectar superficies. Cuáles son las atribuciones de las unidades hospitalarias en cuanto a la atención al paciente.

Guides de la campagne d'actions de lutte contre le Coronavirus (Covid-19) dans la municipalité d'Araguaçu à Tocantins. Il présente les définitions des cas d'infection humaine par COVID-19. Lignes directrices sur la manière de notifier le Centre d'information stratégique de surveillance sanitaire (CIEVS). Quelles sont les périodes d'incubation de la maladie. Facteurs de transmission et de traitement. Enquête épidémiologique. Quelles attributions de la Surveillance de la Santé. Directives pour le prélèvement d'échantillons au Laboratoire Central de Santé Publique de Tocantins (LACEN-TO) ainsi que la technique de prélèvement de Swabde nasopharynx et oropharynx (écouvillons combinés), l'emballage, le transport et l'envoi des échantillons . Il fournit des recommandations pour le prélèvement d'échantillons en cas de décès. Affiche les mesures de prévention et de contrôle Précautions standard, mesures d'isolement. Transport du patient. Comment nettoyer et désinfecter les surfaces. Quelles sont les attributions des unités hospitalières en matière de soins aux patients.

Atenção Secundária à Saúde/organização & administração , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Planos de Contingência , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Testes Sorológicos , Desinfecção/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 798, 2020 May 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32460753


BACKGROUND: Population segmentation is useful for understanding the health needs of populations. Expert-driven segmentation is a traditional approach which involves subjective decisions on how to segment data, with no agreed best practice. The limitations of this approach are theoretically overcome by more data-driven approaches such as utilisation-based cluster analysis. Previous explorations of using utilisation-based cluster analysis for segmentation have demonstrated feasibility but were limited in potential usefulness for local service planning. This study explores the potential for practical application of using utilisation-based cluster analyses to segment a local General Practice-registered population in the South Wales Valleys. METHODS: Primary and secondary care datasets were linked to create a database of 79,607 patients including socio-demographic variables, morbidities, care utilisation, cost and risk factor information. We undertook utilisation-based cluster analysis, using k-means methodology to group the population into segments with distinct healthcare utilisation patterns based on seven utilisation variables: elective inpatient admissions, non-elective inpatient admissions, outpatient first & follow-up attendances, Emergency Department visits, GP practice visits and prescriptions. We analysed segments post-hoc to understand their morbidity, risk and demographic profiles. RESULTS: Ten population segments were identified which had distinct profiles of healthcare use, morbidity, demographic characteristics and risk attributes. Although half of the study population were in segments characterised as 'low need' populations, there was heterogeneity in this group with respect to variables relevant to service planning - e.g. settings in which care was mostly consumed. Significant and complex healthcare need was a feature across age groups and was driven more by deprivation and behavioural risk factors than by age and functional limitation. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis shows that utilisation-based cluster analysis of linked primary and secondary healthcare use data for a local GP-registered population can segment the population into distinct groups with unique health and care needs, providing useful intelligence to inform local population health service planning and care delivery. This segmentation approach can offer a detailed understanding of the health and care priorities of population groups, potentially supporting the integration of health and care, reducing fragmentation of healthcare and reducing healthcare costs in the population.

Medicina de Família e Comunidade/organização & administração , Medicina Geral/organização & administração , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Custos de Cuidados de Saúde , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Visita a Consultório Médico/estatística & dados numéricos , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 91, 2020 Apr 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32245456


BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The 12-item Short Form Health Survey (SF-12) is a widely used measure of health related quality of life, but has been criticized for lacking an empirically supported model and producing biased estimates of mental and physical health status for some groups. We explored a model of measurement with the SF-12 and explored evidence for measurement invariance of the SF-12. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: The SF-12 was completed by 429 caregivers who accompanied patients with cognitive concerns to a memory clinic designed to service rural/remote-dwelling individuals. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis was used to compare the theoretical measurement model to two empirically identified factor models reported previously in general population studies. RESULTS: A model that allowed mental and physical health to correlate, and some items to cross-load provided the best fit to the data. Using that model, measurement invariance was then assessed across sex and metropolitan influence zone (MIZ; a standardized measure of degree of rurality). DISCUSSION: Partial scalar invariance was demonstrated in both analyses. Differences by sex in latent item intercepts were found for items assessing feelings of energy and depression. Differences by MIZ in latent item intercepts were found for an item concerning how current health limits activities. IMPLICATIONS: The fitting model was one where the mental and physical health subscales were correlated, which is not provided in the scoring program offered by the publishers. Participants' sex and MIZ should be accounted for when comparing their factor scores on the SF-12. Additionally, consideration of geographic residence and associated cultural influences is recommended in future development and use of psychological measures with such populations.

Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/normas , Qualidade de Vida , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/normas , Adulto , Viés , Cuidadores/psicologia , Disfunção Cognitiva/psicologia , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Características de Residência/classificação
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 4: CD010763, 2020 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32271946


BACKGROUND: Missed hospital outpatient appointments is a commonly reported problem in healthcare services around the world; for example, they cost the National Health Service (NHS) in the UK millions of pounds every year and can cause operation and scheduling difficulties worldwide. In 2002, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a report highlighting the need for a model of care that more readily meets the needs of people with chronic conditions. Patient-initiated appointment systems may be able to meet this need at the same time as improving the efficiency of hospital appointments. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of patient-initiated appointment systems compared with consultant-led appointment systems for people with chronic or recurrent conditions managed in secondary care. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, Embase, and six other databases. We contacted authors of identified studies and conducted backwards and forwards citation searching. We searched for current/ongoing research in two trial registers. Searches were run on 13 March 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised trials, published and unpublished in any language that compared the use of patient-initiated appointment systems to consultant-led appointment systems for adults with chronic or recurrent conditions managed in secondary care if they reported one or more of the following outcomes: physical measures of health status or disease activity (including harms), quality of life, service utilisation or cost, adverse effects, patient or clinician satisfaction, or failures of the 'system'. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently screened all references at title/abstract stage and full-text stage using prespecified inclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements though discussion. Two review authors independently completed data extraction for all included studies. We discussed and resolved discrepancies with a third review author. Where needed, we contacted authors of included papers to provide more information. Two review authors independently assessed the risk of bias using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care 'Risk of bias' tool, resolving any discrepancies with a third review author. Two review authors independently assessed the certainty of the evidence using GRADE. MAIN RESULTS: The 17 included randomised trials (3854 participants; mean age 41 to 76 years; follow-up 12 to 72 months) covered six broad health conditions: cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease. The certainty of the evidence using GRADE ratings was mainly low to very low. The results suggest that patient-initiated clinics may make little or no difference to anxiety (odds ratio (OR) 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68 to 1.12; 5 studies, 1019 participants; low-certainty evidence) or depression (OR 0.79 95% CI 0.51 to 1.23; 6 studies, 1835 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to the consultant-led appointment system. The results also suggest that patient-initiated clinics may make little or no difference to quality of life (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.12, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.25; 7 studies, 1486 participants; low-certainty evidence) compared to the consultant-led appointment system. Results for service utilisation (contacts) suggest there may be little or no difference in service utilisation in terms of contacts between the patient-initiated and consultant-led appointment groups; however, the effect is not certain as the rate ratio ranged from 0.68 to 3.83 across the studies (median rate ratio 1.11, interquartile (IQR) 0.93 to 1.37; 15 studies, 3348 participants; low-certainty evidence). It is uncertain if service utilisation (costs) are reduced in the patient-initiated compared to the consultant-led appointment groups (8 studies, 2235 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The results suggest that adverse events such as relapses in some conditions (inflammatory bowel disease and cancer) may have little or no reduction in the patient-initiated appointment group in comparison with the consultant-led appointment group (MD -0.20, 95% CI -0.54 to 0.14; 3 studies, 888 participants; low-certainty evidence). The results are unclear about any differences the intervention may make to patient satisfaction (SMD 0.05, 95% CI -0.41 to 0.52; 2 studies, 375 participants) because the certainty of the evidence is low, as each study used different questions to collect their data at different time points and across different health conditions. Some areas of risk of bias across all the included studies was consistently high (i.e. for blinding of participants and personnel and blinding of outcome assessment, other areas were largely of low risk of bias or were affected by poor reporting making the assessment unclear). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Patient-initiated appointment systems may have little or no effect on patient anxiety, depression and quality of life compared to consultant-led appointment systems. Other aspects of disease status and experience also appear to show little or no difference between patient-initiated and consultant-led appointment systems. Patient-initiated appointment systems may have little or no effect on service utilisation in terms of service contact and there is uncertainty about costs compared to consultant-led appointment systems. Patient-initiated appointment systems may have little or no effect on adverse events such as relapse or patient satisfaction compared to consultant-led appointment systems.

Agendamento de Consultas , Doença Crônica/terapia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/métodos , Adulto , Idoso , Assistência Ambulatorial , Ansiedade/psicologia , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Consultores , Depressão/psicologia , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes não Comparecentes , Satisfação do Paciente , Qualidade de Vida , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recidiva
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 239, 2020 Mar 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293420


BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal disorders are common in the general population and a leading cause for care seeking. Despite the large number of patients with musculoskeletal disorders seeking care, little is known of the clinical course, pathways and predictors of healthcare utilization among these patients. The purposes of the study were to 1) describe the clinical course and related healthcare utilization in primary care physiotherapy and secondary healthcare among patients with neck, shoulder and low-back pain treated in physiotherapy practice, and 2) identify independent clinical, socio-demographic, psychological and general health predictors of healthcare utilization. METHODS: The study was a prospective cohort study of patients seeking physiotherapy treatment for neck, shoulder, or low-back pain in physiotherapy practices across Denmark. A total of 759 physiotherapy patients completed questionnaires containing information on clinical course and potential predictors of healthcare utilization. Healthcare utilization was obtained from the Danish National Health Service Register and National Patient Register. Associations between potential predictors and low/high primary care physiotherapy utilization and hospital contacts in relation to specific neck, shoulder or low-back disorders were analysed using binomial regression analyses and adjusted for age, sex, duration of pain and comorbidity. RESULTS: During 6 months follow-up, patients experienced clinically relevant improvements in pain, fear avoidance and psychological wellbeing. Patients with higher baseline pain and disability and who were on sickness leave were more likely to have high primary care physiotherapy utilization. Hospital contacts were predicted by higher levels of pain, disability and low psychological wellbeing. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical factors and sickness leave seems to be the main predictors of primary care physiotherapy utilization, whereas for secondary care contacts, psychological factors may also be of importance. The study contributes to the on-going research into clinical pathways and may identify future target areas to reduce healthcare utilization in patients with musculoskeletal disorders.

Demografia , Doenças Musculoesqueléticas/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Adulto , Comorbidade , Dinamarca , Pessoas com Deficiência , Feminino , Humanos , Dor Lombar , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Modalidades de Fisioterapia , Atenção Primária à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Regressão , Atenção Secundária à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 522, 2020 Apr 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32306932


BACKGROUND: The Chinese government has begun to dampen the growth of health expenditure by implementing Global Budgets (GB). Concerns were raised about whether reductions in expenditure would lead to a deterioration of quality of care. This paper aims to evaluate the impact of GB on health expenditure, service volume and quality of care among Chinese pneumonia patients. METHODS: A secondary hospital that replaced Fee-For-Service (FFS) with GB in China in 2016 was sampled. We used daily expenditure to assess health expenditure; monthly admission, length of stay (LOS), number of drugs per record and record containing antibiotics to evaluate service volume; record with multiple antibiotics and readmission to assess quality of care. Descriptive analyses were adopted to evaluate changes after the reform, logistic regression and multivariable linear regressions were used to analyze changes associated with the reform. RESULTS: In 2015 and 2016, 3400 admissions from 3173 inpatients and 2342 admissions from 2246 inpatients were admitted, respectively. According to regression analyses, daily expenditure, LOS, readmission, and records with multiple antibiotic usages significantly declined after the reform. However, no significant relation was observed between GB and the number of drugs per record or record containing antibiotics. CONCLUSIONS: When compared with FFS, GB can curtail health expenditure and improve quality of care. As far as service volume was concerned, LOS and monthly admission declined, while number of drugs per record and record containing antibiotics were not affected.

Economia Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia/economia , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/economia , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/economia , Adulto , Orçamentos , China , Planos de Pagamento por Serviço Prestado , Feminino , Hospitalização/economia , Hospitais , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos
Aparecida do Rio Negro-TO; [S.n]; 20200400. 16 p.
Não convencional em Português | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-TO | ID: biblio-1123367


Traz recomendações e orientações para ações de combate ao Coronavírus (Covid-19) no município de Aparecida do Rio Negro no Tocantins.

It provides recommendations and guidelines for actions to combat the Coronavirus (Covid-19) in the municipality of Aparecida do Rio Negro in Tocantins.

Brinda recomendaciones y lineamientos para acciones de combate al Coronavirus (Covid-19) en el municipio de Aparecida do Rio Negro en Tocantins.

Il fournit des recommandations et des lignes directrices pour les actions de lutte contre le Coronavirus (Covid-19) dans la municipalité d'Aparecida do Rio Negro à Tocantins.

Humanos , Atenção Secundária à Saúde/organização & administração , Precauções Universais/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Planos de Contingência , Isolamento de Pacientes/métodos , Triagem/métodos , Higiene das Mãos/normas , Equipamento de Proteção Individual/provisão & distribução