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1.
BMC Psychol ; 9(1): 132, 2021 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479639

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The 'self-bias'-i.e., the human proneness to preferentially process self-relevant stimuli-is thought to be important for both self-related and social processing. Previous research operationalized the self-bias using different paradigms, assessing the size of the self-bias within a single cognitive domain. Recent studies suggested a reduced self-bias in autism, yet findings are inconsistent. The lack of consensus across existing studies may result from variation in paradigms and cognitive domains tested. Therefore, the primary goal of the current study was to investigate whether self-biases found across cognitive domains (i.e., perception, memory, attention) are related or independent. The secondary goal was to explore the relationship between these self-biases and the extent of autistic traits in a neurotypical sample. METHODS: In an online procedure, 99 Dutch-speaking adults performed three self-processing tasks in counterbalanced order-i.e., the shape-label matching task (perception), the trait adjectives task (memory) and the visual search task (attention)-and completed two self-report measures of ASD symptomatology, i.e., AQ-10 and SRS-A. To control for level of familiarity, self-, close other- and famous other-relevant stimuli were included in each task. Repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted for each task, and both frequentist as well as Bayesian analyses were applied to investigate the correlational patterns between self-bias measures. RESULTS: We observed significant correlations of the self-bias magnitude between memory and attention, as well as attention and perception. However, Bayesian analysis provided only weak support for the latter association. Further, the size of the self-bias was not significantly related across memory and perception. No significant correlation between autistic traits and the self-bias magnitude was found for any of the three tasks, with Bayesian analyses strongly favoring the null hypothesis. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast with the view of a 'unidimensional' self-bias, our findings provide evidence for a heterogeneous and multifaceted self consisting of a variety of related and unrelated aspects. None of the self-bias indices were found to relate to autistic traits in our neurotypical sample.


Assuntos
Atenção , Transtorno Autístico , Adulto , Teorema de Bayes , Viés , Cognição , Humanos
2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4672, 2021 08 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34344864

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms have natural relative variations among humans known as chronotype. Chronotype or being a morning or evening person, has a specific physiological, behavioural, and also genetic manifestation. Whether and how chronotype modulates human brain physiology and cognition is, however, not well understood. Here we examine how cortical excitability, neuroplasticity, and cognition are associated with chronotype in early and late chronotype individuals. We monitor motor cortical excitability, brain stimulation-induced neuroplasticity, and examine motor learning and cognitive functions at circadian-preferred and non-preferred times of day in 32 individuals. Motor learning and cognitive performance (working memory, and attention) along with their electrophysiological components are significantly enhanced at the circadian-preferred, compared to the non-preferred time. This outperformance is associated with enhanced cortical excitability (prominent cortical facilitation, diminished cortical inhibition), and long-term potentiation/depression-like plasticity. Our data show convergent findings of how chronotype can modulate human brain functions from basic physiological mechanisms to behaviour and higher-order cognition.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento/fisiologia , Excitabilidade Cortical , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Plasticidade Neuronal , Sono/fisiologia , Estimulação Magnética Transcraniana , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444590

RESUMO

Viewing nature has restorative qualities that might help people cope with their personal struggles. Three lab experiments (N = 506) studied whether environment (nature vs. built) influences cognitive coping with psychological distress. Psychological distress was induced with an autobiographical recall task about serious regret, whereafter participants were randomly assigned to view a nature or built video. Cognitive coping (i) Quantity, (ii) Content, and (iii) Quality were hereafter assessed as well as extent and vividness of the regretful memory during the video. Results showed a higher cognitive coping Quantity (Study 1 and 3) and a higher cognitive coping Quality (All studies) for the nature (vs. built) condition. Regarding cognitive coping Content, results varied across the studies. Additionally, participants reported to have thought about the experienced psychological distress to a greater extent while viewing the nature (vs. built) video. Yet they did rate viewing nature as more relaxing. We propose a two-step pathway as an underlying mechanism of restoration. In the first step the capacity for directed attention replenishes. Secondly, this renewed capacity is directed towards internal processes, creating the optimal setting for reflection. Hence, viewing nature allows people to truly process whatever is occupying their minds, which is ultimately relieving and beneficial for mental health.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Angústia Psicológica , Atenção , Cognição , Humanos , Rememoração Mental , Estresse Psicológico
4.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34451059

RESUMO

Tasks which require sustained attention over a lengthy period of time have been a focal point of cognitive fatigue research for decades, with these tasks including air traffic control, watchkeeping, baggage inspection, and many others. Recent research into physiological markers of mental fatigue indicate that markers exist which extend across all individuals and all types of vigilance tasks. This suggests that it would be possible to build an EEG model which detects these markers and the subsequent vigilance decrement in any task (i.e., a task-generic model) and in any person (i.e., a cross-participant model). However, thus far, no task-generic EEG cross-participant model has been built or tested. In this research, we explored creation and application of a task-generic EEG cross-participant model for detection of the vigilance decrement in an unseen task and unseen individuals. We utilized three different models to investigate this capability: a multi-layer perceptron neural network (MLPNN) which employed spectral features extracted from the five traditional EEG frequency bands, a temporal convolutional network (TCN), and a TCN autoencoder (TCN-AE), with these two TCN models being time-domain based, i.e., using raw EEG time-series voltage values. The MLPNN and TCN models both achieved accuracy greater than random chance (50%), with the MLPNN performing best with a 7-fold CV balanced accuracy of 64% (95% CI: 0.59, 0.69) and validation accuracies greater than random chance for 9 of the 14 participants. This finding demonstrates that it is possible to classify a vigilance decrement using EEG, even with EEG from an unseen individual and unseen task.


Assuntos
Aviação , Aprendizado Profundo , Atenção , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Vigília
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450924

RESUMO

(1) Goals: The purpose of this study was to analyze the feasibility of using the information obtained from a one-channel electro-encephalography (EEG) signal to control a mouse pointer. We used a low-cost headset, with one dry sensor placed at the FP1 position, to steer a mouse pointer and make selections through a combination of the user's attention level with the detection of voluntary blinks. There are two types of cursor movements: spinning and linear displacement. A sequence of blinks allows for switching between these movement types, while the attention level modulates the cursor's speed. The influence of the attention level on performance was studied. Additionally, Fitts' model and the evolution of the emotional states of participants, among other trajectory indicators, were analyzed. (2) Methods: Twenty participants distributed into two groups (Attention and No-Attention) performed three runs, on different days, in which 40 targets had to be reached and selected. Target positions and distances from the cursor's initial position were chosen, providing eight different indices of difficulty (IDs). A self-assessment manikin (SAM) test and a final survey provided information about the system's usability and the emotions of participants during the experiment. (3) Results: The performance was similar to some brain-computer interface (BCI) solutions found in the literature, with an averaged information transfer rate (ITR) of 7 bits/min. Concerning the cursor navigation, some trajectory indicators showed our proposed approach to be as good as common pointing devices, such as joysticks, trackballs, and so on. Only one of the 20 participants reported difficulty in managing the cursor and, according to the tests, most of them assessed the experience positively. Movement times and hit rates were significantly better for participants belonging to the attention group. (4) Conclusions: The proposed approach is a feasible low-cost solution to manage a mouse pointer.


Assuntos
Interfaces Cérebro-Computador , Atenção , Eletroencefalografia , Humanos , Movimento
6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360520

RESUMO

Studies on factors that can influence attention in healthy adolescents are recent and focus on recurrent topics. Students' contribution to public health research often revolves around collecting data but rarely around creating data collection instruments. The ATENC!Ó project reunited secondary students and scientists to create a questionnaire including factors that students thought could affect their attention. We conducted a cross-sectional study to assess whether the factors included in this questionnaire had an effect on attention in adolescents. A total of 1667 students (13-16 years old) from 28 schools in Barcelona performed a validated attention test and answered the questionnaire. The response speed consistency (attentiveness), expressed as hit reaction time standard error (HRT-SE, in ms), was used as the primary outcome. Analyses were conducted using conditional linear regression with school as strata, adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and further stratified by gender and maternal social class. Some factors showed a negative influence on attention, including taking medication and not reading regularly. We found a significant 14.3% (95% confidence interval: 3.4%, 25.3%) higher median of HRT-SE (increase inattentiveness) among students who reported not having a good relationship with classmates. Students' input into research is relevant for advancing the knowledge production in public health.


Assuntos
Ciência do Cidadão , Adolescente , Atenção , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Instituições Acadêmicas , Espanha , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários
7.
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 101(30): 2360-2362, 2021 Aug 10.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34404127

RESUMO

Traumatic pancreatitis(TP) is an acute non-infectious inflammation secondary to pancreatic injury.TP can be masked by analgesia or other organ damage after pancreatic injury. So it is difficult to diagnosis in the early stage, easy to missed and misdiagnosis, subsequently prone to infection of pancreatic necrosis (IPN).At present, the treatment of TP is advocated as a step-by-step treatment strategy, which takes minimally invasive surgery as the guidance and takes into account of the principles of multiple injury treatment, inflammation control, infection and necrosis clearance, which runs through the two important links of pancreatic injury and IPN management.


Assuntos
Infecções Intra-Abdominais , Pancreatite Necrosante Aguda , Atenção , Drenagem , Humanos
8.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 208: 106281, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333207

RESUMO

Background and objectiveDetecting abnormal patterns within an electrocardiogram (ECG) is crucial for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases. We start from two unresolved problems in applying deep-learning-based ECG classification models to clinical practice: first, although multiple cardiac arrhythmia (CA) types may co-occur in real life, the majority of previous detection methods have focused on one-to-one relationships between ECG and CA type, and second, it has been difficult to explain how neural-network-based CA classifiers make decisions. We hypothesize that fine-tuning attention maps with regard to all possible combinations of ground-truth (GT) labels will improve both the detection and interpretability of co-occurring CAs. Methods To test our hypothesis, we propose an end-to-end convolutional neural network (CNN), xECGNet, that fine-tunes the attention map to resemble the averaged response maps of GT labels. Fine-tuning is achieved by adding to the objective function a regularization loss between the attention map and the reference (averaged) map. Performance is assessed by F1 score and subset accuracy. Results The main experiment demonstrates that fine-tuning alone significantly improves a model's multilabel subset accuracy from 75.8% to 84.5% when compared with the baseline model. Also, xECGNet shows the highest F1 score of 0.812 and yields a more explainable map that encompasses multiple CA types, when compared to other baseline methods. Conclusions xECGNet has implications in that it tackles the two obstacles for the clinical application of CNN-based CA detection models with a simple solution of adding one additional term to the objective function.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Redes Neurais de Computação , Arritmias Cardíacas/diagnóstico , Atenção , Eletrocardiografia , Humanos
9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444385

RESUMO

(1) Background: Mobile phone use during gait is associated with adverse health outcomes, namely increased risk of pedestrian injury. Healthy individuals can voluntarily prioritize concurrent task performance, but the factors underlying the impact of phone use during walking remain largely unknown. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate the relationship between subjective (perceived) prioritization, cognitive flexibility and dual-task performance when using a mobile phone during walking. (2) Methods: Thirty young participants walked for one minute with and without reading or texting on a mobile phone, as well as reading or texting while sitting. Walking performance (kinematics) was recorded, as well as phone use (text comprehension, text read/written), mental workload, perceived prioritization (visual analog scale), and cognitive flexibility (trail-making test). (3) Results: Texting while walking was associated with larger decreases in gait speed, larger gait variability, higher mental workload, and lower text comprehension compared to reading. Perceived prioritization was associated with walking dual-task costs (DTCs) (r = 0.39-0.42, p < 0.04) when texting, and better cognitive flexibility was associated with lower gait DTCs when texting (r = 0.55, p = 0.002) but not reading. (4) Conclusions: The context-dependent link between perceived prioritization, cognitive flexibility, and walking DTCs promotes our understanding of the factors underlying texting-while-walking performance. This could identify individuals who are more prone to dual-task interference in this increasingly common and dangerous task.


Assuntos
Uso do Telefone Celular , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Atenção , Função Executiva , Marcha , Humanos , Caminhada
10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444460

RESUMO

This study assessed the contributions of urban green spaces on mental health with joint consideration of people's physiological and psychological responses. The psychological and physiological responses of participants aged between 22 and 28, who visited green spaces in a low-density area of Fuzhou, Fujian Province, China, were measured using Perceived Restorativeness Scale (PRS) methods and biometric wearable sensing devices, respectively. Results showed that exposure to green space led to significant changes in PRS, electrodermal activity (EDA), facial electromyography (EMG), respiration sensor (RESP), and photoplethysmography (PPG), while there is no significant impact on skin temperature (SKT). Additionally, psychological and physiological responses were highly consistent and correlated (R < 0.8). The results also indicated that green spaces with high plant species richness, a water landscape, bumpy ground, cultural landscape, and without roadways presented a high performance on stress recovery and attention restoration. At the same time, the influence of openness was negligible in the low-density area. The study provides planners and landscape designers with specific guidance for implementing urban green spaces to improve mental health in low-density residential areas.


Assuntos
Saúde Mental , Parques Recreativos , Adulto , Atenção , China , Cidades , Humanos , Adulto Jovem
11.
AMIA Annu Symp Proc ; 2021: 663-671, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34457182

RESUMO

White Matter Hyperintensities (WMH) are the most common manifestation of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD) on the brain MRI. Accurate WMH segmentation algorithms are important to determine cSVD burden and its clinical con-sequences. Most of existing WMH segmentation algorithms require both fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images and T1-weighted images as inputs. However, T1-weighted images are typically not part of standard clinical scans which are acquired for patients with acute stroke. In this paper, we propose a novel brain atlas guided attention U-Net (BAGAU-Net) that leverages only FLAIR images with a spatially-registered white matter (WM) brain atlas to yield competitive WMH segmentation performance. Specifically, we designed a dual-path segmentation model with two novel connecting mechanisms, namely multi-input attention module (MAM) and attention fusion module (AFM) to fuse the information from two paths for accurate results. Experiments on two publicly available datasets show the effectiveness of the proposed BAGAU-Net. With only FLAIR images and WM brain atlas, BAGAU-Net outperforms the state-of-the-art method with T1-weighted images, paving the way for effective development of WMH segmentation. Availability: https://github.com/Ericzhang1/BAGAU-Net.


Assuntos
Substância Branca , Algoritmos , Atenção , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Substância Branca/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360272

RESUMO

Nowadays, medical facilities are developing their treatment environment to provide better services to their patients. In particular, dental hospitals have been considered uncomfortable and uninviting spaces, which needs to change so that people can visit easily and feel more relaxed. However, only a few systematic studies have reported on the demand for building a comfortable space. This study aimed to investigate gaze characteristics based on a color preference survey of the dental unit chair, which has the most influence on spatial perception in the dental treatment environment, using an eye tracking technique for color. The results of this study showed that the color perception by eye tracking and the color preference by survey did not tend to match. The color most viewed by a majority of subjects was pink, which attracted a high level of attention, regardless of personal preference. In addition, for the psychological color images associated with color preference, the subjects tended to prefer images such as warmth, friendliness, and calmness. This appeared to reflect the psychology of the subjects who wished to replace their feelings of anxiety or fear when going to the dental hospital with comfort and tranquility. Therefore, colors that can provide comfort and tranquility to patients should be considered first as visual elements (e.g., brown) in creating a dental treatment environment.


Assuntos
Percepção de Cores , Tecnologia de Rastreamento Ocular , Atenção , Cor , Assistência Odontológica , Humanos , Percepção Espacial
13.
BMC Psychiatry ; 21(1): 403, 2021 08 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34429091

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anxiety and depression are common, disabling and frequently start in youth, underscoring the need for effective, accessible early interventions. Empirical data and consultations with lived experience youth representatives suggest that maladaptive cognitive patterns contribute to and maintain anxiety and depression in daily life. Promoting adaptive cognitive patterns could therefore reflect "active ingredients" in the treatment and/or prevention of youth anxiety and depression. Here, we described and compared different therapeutic techniques that equipped young people with a more flexible capacity to use attention and/or promoted a tendency to positive/benign (over threatening/negative) interpretations of uncertain situations. METHODS: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, and PsycARTICLES) for studies containing words relating to: intervention; youth; anxiety and/or depression and attention and/or interpretation, and selected studies which sought to reduce self-reported anxiety/depression in youth by explicitly altering attention and/or interpretation patterns. Ten young people with lived experiences of anxiety and depression and from diverse backgrounds were consulted on the relevance of these strategies in managing emotions in their daily lives and also whether there were additional strategies that could be targeted to promote adaptive thinking styles. RESULTS: Two sets of techniques, each targeting different levels of responding with different strengths and weaknesses were identified. Cognitive bias modification training (CBM) tasks were largely able to alter attention and interpretation biases but the effects of training on clinical symptoms was more mixed. In contrast, guided instructions that teach young people to regulate their attention or to evaluate alternative explanations of personally-salient events, reduced symptoms but there was little experimental data establishing the intervention mechanism. Lived experience representatives suggested that strategies such as deliberately recalling positive past experiences or positive aspects of oneself to counteract negative thinking. DISCUSSION: CBM techniques target clear hypothesised mechanisms but require further co-design with young people to make them more engaging and augment their clinical effects. Guided instructions benefit from being embedded in clinical interventions, but lack empirical data to support their intervention mechanism, underscoring the need for more experimental work. Feedback from young people suggest that combining complimentary techniques within multi-pronged "toolboxes" to develop resilient thinking patterns in youth is empowering.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Ansiedade , Depressão , Adolescente , Ansiedade/prevenção & controle , Atenção , Depressão/prevenção & controle , Emoções , Humanos
14.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4714, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34354071

RESUMO

Although the contents of working memory can be decoded from visual cortex activity, these representations may play a limited role if they are not robust to distraction. We used model-based fMRI to estimate the impact of distracting visual tasks on working memory representations in several visual field maps in visual and frontoparietal association cortex. Here, we show distraction causes the fidelity of working memory representations to briefly dip when both the memorandum and distractor are jointly encoded by the population activities. Distraction induces small biases in memory errors which can be predicted by biases in neural decoding in early visual cortex, but not other regions. Although distraction briefly disrupts working memory representations, the widespread redundancy with which working memory information is encoded may protect against catastrophic loss. In early visual cortex, the neural representation of information in working memory and behavioral performance are intertwined, solidifying its importance in visual memory.


Assuntos
Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Neuroimagem Funcional , Humanos , Imageamento por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Neurológicos , Modelos Psicológicos , Estimulação Luminosa , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
15.
Dev Psychol ; 57(6): 837-850, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34424003

RESUMO

In direct interactions with others, 9-month-old infants' learning about objects is facilitated when the interaction partner addresses the infant through eye contact before looking toward an object. In this study we investigated whether similar factors promote infants' observational learning from third-party interactions. In Experiment 1, 9-month-old typically developing infants from mixed socioeconomic backgrounds from urban Germany (N = 32, 13 female) were presented with four types of videos showing one object and two adults. The scenarios varied systematically regarding the eye contact between the adults (eye contact or no eye contact), and the adults' object-directed gaze (looking toward or away from the object). To assess infants' encoding performance we measured their looking times when seeing the familiarized object subsequently next to a novel object, interpreting an enhanced novelty preference as reversely indicating greater encoding of the familiarized object. Infants showed an increased novelty preference, but only after observing a joint attentional setting during which two adults attended to the familiarized object together (following eye contact). In Experiment 2, we found an identical pattern of results in a matched first-party design in which 9-month-old infants (N = 32, 16 female) were directly addressed by one single adult on screen. Infants' encoding was only enhanced when the adult made eye contact with the infant before looking at an object. Together, this suggests that the capacity to learn through observing others' interactions emerges already in the first postnatal year, and that it may depend on similar factors as infants' learning through direct social engagement. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção , Comportamento do Lactente , Adulto , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Lactente
16.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103375, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34333278

RESUMO

Subsequent search misses (SSM) refer to the decrease in accuracy of second target detection in dual-target visual search. One of the theoretical explanations of SSM errors is similarity bias - the tendency to search for similar targets and to miss the dissimilar ones. The current study focuses on both perceptual and categorical similarity and their individual roles in SSM. Five experiments investigated the role of perceptual and categorical similarity in subsequent search misses, wherein perceptual and categorical similarities were manipulated separately, and task relevance was controlled. The role of both perceptual and categorical similarity was revealed, however, the categorical similarity had greater impact on second target detection. The findings of this research suggest the revision of the traditional perceptual set hypothesis that mainly focuses on perceptual target similarity in multiple target visual search.


Assuntos
Atenção , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos , Viés , Humanos , Percepção Visual
17.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 219: 103397, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34392013

RESUMO

This study aims to explore the impact of symbolic and numerical representations in asymmetric visual search. Heterogeneous and homogeneous mathematical units, letters, symbols and numbers were used in the first and second experiments, respectively. Target was searched among 6 or 12 stimuli. Analysis showed that the search efficiency was greatest in LaS (large among small), but the performance decreased significantly in SaS (small among small). Moreover, LaS was faster than SaL (small among large). However, SaL was faster than LaL (large among large) and LaL was faster than SaS. The findings of this study showed that the search efficiency was indirectly proportional to the number of stimuli. This implies that processing of visual stimuli of different sizes and appearance was asymmetric, all requiring varied attention. In summary, these findings strengthen the integration theory, similarity theory and guided search model.


Assuntos
Atenção , Humanos , Matemática
18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444152

RESUMO

The correct diagnosis and recognition of crop diseases play an important role in ensuring crop yields and preventing food safety. The existing methods for crop disease recognition mainly focus on accuracy while ignoring the algorithm's robustness. In practice, the acquired images are often accompanied by various noises. These noises lead to a huge challenge for improving the robustness and accuracy of the recognition algorithm. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposes a residual self-calibration and self-attention aggregation network (RCAA-Net) for crop disease recognition in actual scenarios. The proposed RCAA-Net is composed of three main modules: (1) multi-scale residual module, (2) feedback self-calibration module, and (3) self-attention aggregation module. Specifically, the multi-scale residual module is designed to learn multi-scale features and provide both global and local information for the appearance of the disease to improve the performance of the model. The feedback self-calibration is proposed to improve the robustness of the model by suppressing the background noise in the original deep features. The self-attention aggregation module is introduced to further improve the robustness and accuracy of the model by capturing multi-scale information in different semantic spaces. The experimental results on the challenging 2018ai_challenger crop disease recognition dataset show that the proposed RCAA-Net achieves state-of-the-art performance on robustness and accuracy for crop disease recognition in actual scenarios.


Assuntos
Algoritmos , Atenção , Calibragem , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Reconhecimento Psicológico
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444326

RESUMO

Over the past decade, China has witnessed fast-paced technological advancements in the media industry, as well as major shifts in the health agenda portrayed in the media. Therefore, a key starting point when discussing health communication lies in whether media attention and public attention towards health issues are structurally aligned, and to what extent the news media guides public attention. Based on data mined from 73,060 sets of the Baidu Search Index and Media Index on 20 terms covering different types of cancer from 2011 to 2020, the Granger test demonstrates that, in the last decade, public attention and media attention towards cancer in China has gone through two distinct phases. During the first phase, 2011-2015, Chinese news media still held the key in transferring the salience of issues on most cancer types to the public. In the second phase, from 2016-2020, public attention towards cancer has gradually diverged from media coverage, mirroring the imbalance and mismatch between the demand of active public and the supply of cancer information from news media. This study provides an overview of the dynamic transition on cancer issues in China over a ten-year span, along with descriptive results on public and media attention towards specific cancer types.


Assuntos
Comunicação em Saúde , Neoplasias , Atenção , China/epidemiologia , Humanos , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Neoplasias/epidemiologia
20.
Behav Neurol ; 2021: 6655103, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257741

RESUMO

This study is aimed at assessing differences in basic attentional functioning between substantial and minimal work-related exposure to COVID-19 patients in professionals working in a tertiary referral hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Therefore, hospital employees performed a Continuous Visual Attention Test. This test consisted of a 90-second Go/No-Go task with 72 (80%) targets and 18 (20%) nontargets. For each participant, reaction time and intraindividual variability of reaction times of all correct target responses, as well as the number of omission and commission errors, were evaluated. Participants were divided into 2 groups based on their exposure to COVID-19 patients (substantial versus minimal exposure). The substantial exposure group consisted of participants with 24 hours/week or more direct contact with COVID-19 patients. This cut-off was based on the clear division between professionals working and not working with COVID-19 patients and considered that 12-hour and 24-hour daily shifts are common for hospital employees in Brazil. A MANCOVA was performed to examine between-group differences, using age, sleep quality, sex, education level, previous COVID-19 infection, and profession as covariates. Of 124 participants, 80 had substantial exposure and 44 had minimal exposure to COVID-19. The overall MANCOVA reached statistical significance (P = 0.048). Post hoc ANCOVA analysis showed that the substantial exposure group had a statistically significantly higher intraindividual variability of reaction time of all correct target responses (P = 0.017, Cohen's δ = -0.55). This result remained after removing those with a previous COVID-19 infection (P = 0.010, Cohen's δ = -0.64) and after matching groups for sample size (P = 0.004, Cohen's δ = -0.81). No other variables reached statistical significance. Concluding, hospital professionals with a substantial level of exposure to patients with COVID-19 show a significant attention decrement and, thus, may be at a higher risk of accidental SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Assuntos
Atenção , COVID-19/terapia , COVID-19/transmissão , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional , Centros de Atenção Terciária , Adulto , Brasil/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/prevenção & controle , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa do Paciente para o Profissional/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , SARS-CoV-2 , Tolerância ao Trabalho Programado , Adulto Jovem
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