Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 4.946
Filtrar
1.
Psychol Addict Behav ; 33(8): 710-720, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31657594

RESUMO

It is unclear whether nicotine and perceived nicotine exposure can influence automatic evaluations of cigarette stimuli. In the present study, we investigated the effects of nicotine dose and instructed dose on motivational responses to smoking cues. Forty overnight nicotine-deprived smokers completed an Implicit Association Test (IAT) at each of the four laboratory sessions in a balanced-placebo design that crossed nicotine dose (Given-NIC [given nicotine] vs. Given-DENIC [given denicotinized]) with instructed dose expectancy (Told-NIC [told-nicotine] vs. Told-DENIC. [told-denicotinized]). We measured participants' behavioral performance, including reaction time (RT) and accuracy rate, and the early posterior negativity (EPN) component using the event-related potential (ERP) technique to the target pictures. During congruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or unpleasant, smokers had greater classification accuracy, shorter RT latency, and greater EPN amplitudes compared to the incongruent trials when the categorization condition was smoking or pleasant. The Given-NIC condition was associated with increased classification accuracy, longer RT latency, and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Given-DENIC condition. Similarly, the Told-NIC condition was associated with increased accuracy and decreased EPN amplitudes compared to the Told-DENIC condition, but with shorter RT latency. Cigarette-related pictures produced greater EPN amplitudes than neutral pictures. Both behavioral and ERP results suggest that smokers have negative implicit attitudes toward smoking. While both nicotine dose and expected dose facilitated stimulus categorization, there was no evidence that either factor altered smokers' negative attitudes toward smoking cues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Atitude , Sinais (Psicologia) , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Fumantes/psicologia , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Afeto/fisiologia , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Motivação/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Fumar/psicologia
2.
Nutrients ; 11(8)2019 Jul 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370174

RESUMO

Women aging with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are particularly vulnerable to cognitive decline. Recent studies have highlighted the potential protective effects of olive oil on cognition in persons living without HIV. We sought to evaluate the association between olive oil consumption and domain-specific cognitive performance (dCog) t-scores (adjusted for age, race, education, reading level, practice effects) in women living with HIV (WLWH) and sociodemographically similar women living without HIV. A total of 166 women (113 WLWH and 53 women living without HIV) participating in the Cook County Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) completed cognitive testing and a Block 2014 Food Frequency Questionnaire within 18 months. Use of olive oil was associated with a 4.2 point higher attention/concentration (p = 0.02), 4.0 point higher for verbal learning (p = 0.02), and 1.91 point higher for verbal memory (p = 0.05). Associations between using olive oil and attention/concentration cognitive domain were seen in WLWH but not in women living without HIV. Associations between olive oil and verbal learning and memory were only seen in women without HIV. Our data suggest that using olive oil as a primary cooking oil may contribute to differential effects in attention/concentration, verbal learning, and verbal memory between women living with and without HIV.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/patologia , Azeite de Oliva , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Chicago/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
J Clin Psychopharmacol ; 39(5): 455-461, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31433334

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Animal models and human studies have identified the potential of modafinil as a cognitive enhancing agent, independent of its effects on promoting wakefulness in sleep-deprived samples. Given that single-dose applications of other putative memory enhancers (eg, D-cycloserine, yohimbine, and methylene blue) have shown success in enhancing clinical outcomes for anxiety-related disorders, we conducted a meta-analytic review examining the potential for single-dose effects for modafinil on cognitive functioning in non-sleep-deprived adults. METHODS: A total of 19 placebo-controlled trials that examined the effects of single-dose modafinil versus placebo on the cognitive domains of attention, executive functioning, memory, or processing speed were identified, allowing for the calculation of 67 cognitive domain-specific effect sizes. RESULTS: The overall positive effect of modafinil over placebo across all cognitive domains was small and significant (g = 0.10; 95% confidence interval, 0.05-0.15; P < 0.001). No significant differences between cognitive domains were found. Likewise, no significant moderation was found for modafinil dose (100 mg vs 200 mg) or for the populations studied (psychiatric vs nonpsychiatric). CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the available evidence indicates only limited potential for modafinil to act as a cognitive enhancer outside sleep-deprived populations.


Assuntos
Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Modafinila/administração & dosagem , Nootrópicos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Modafinila/farmacologia , Nootrópicos/farmacologia
4.
Environ Pollut ; 252(Pt B): 1550-1560, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31277024

RESUMO

This study aimed to assess the association between exposure to chromium and neuropsychological development among children. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 393 children aged 6-11 years old randomly selected from State-funded schools in two provinces in Southern Spain (Almeria and Huelva), in 2010 and 2012. Chromium levels in urine and hair samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with an octopole reaction system. Neuropsychological development was evaluated using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition (WISC-IV) and three computerized tests from the Behavioural Assessment and Research System (BARS): Reaction Time Test (RTT), Continuous Performance Test (CPT) and Selective Attention Test (SAT). Multivariable linear regression models adjusted for potential confounders, including heavy metals, were applied to examine the association between chromium levels and neuropsychological outcomes. A 10-fold increase in urine chromium levels was associated with a decrease of 5.99 points on the WISC-IV Full-Scale IQ (95% CI: 11.98 to -0.02). Likewise, a 10-fold increase in urine chromium levels in boys was associated with a decrease of 0.03 points in the percentage of omissions (95% CI: 0.0 to 0.05) in the SAT, with an increase of 68.35 points in latency (95% CI: 6.60 to 130.12) in the RTT, and with an increase in the number of trials with latencies > 1000 ms (ß = 37.92; 95% CI: 2.73 to 73.12) in the RTT. An inverse significant association was detected between chromium levels in hair and latency in the SAT in boys (ß = -50.53; 95% CI: 86.86 to -14.22) and girls (ß = -55.95; 95% CI: 78.93 to -32.97). Excluding trials with latencies >1000 ms in the RTT increased latency scores by 29.36 points in boys (95% CI: 0.17 to 58.57), and 39.91 points in girls (95% CI: 21.25 to 58.59). This study is the first to show the detrimental effects of postnatal chromium exposure on neuropsychological development in school-aged children.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromo/análise , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Ambientais/análise , Inteligência/efeitos dos fármacos , Criança , Cromo/urina , Estudos Transversais , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Poluentes Ambientais/urina , Feminino , Cabelo/química , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Distribuição Aleatória , Espanha
6.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(11): 3209-3219, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31187152

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The catechol-O-methyl transferase (COMT) enzyme has been implicated in determining dopaminergic tone and the effects of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in the human brain. OBJECTIVE: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of (1) a functional polymorphism and (2) acute pharmacological inhibition of COMT on the acute response to THC in humans. METHODS: Sub-study I: The effect of intravenous (IV) THC (0.05 mg/kg) was investigated in 74 healthy subjects genotyped for the COMT rs4680 (Val/Met) polymorphism in a 2-test-day double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study. Sub-study II: COMT rs4680 homozygous subjects (Val/Val and Met/Met) from sub-study I received the COMT enzyme inhibitor tolcapone (200 mg) followed by IV THC or placebo on two additional test days. Subjective, behavioral, and cognitive data were obtained periodically on each test day. RESULTS: Sub-study I: Val/Val individuals were most sensitive to THC-induced attention and working memory deficits. In contrast, the psychotomimetic and subjective effects of THC were not influenced by COMT genotype. Sub-study II: Tolcapone reduced THC-induced working memory deficits, but not THC's psychotomimetic effects. Tolcapone and COMT genotype (met/met) were associated with an increased report of feeling "mellow." CONCLUSIONS: The interaction between COMT rs4680 polymorphisms and tolcapone on the cognitive, but not on the psychotomimetic and overall subjective effects of THC, suggests that modulation of dopaminergic signaling may selectively influence specific cannabinoid effects in healthy individuals. The role of dopaminergic signaling in the cognitive effects of cannabinoids should be considered in drug development efforts targeting these effects. CLINICALTRIALS.GOV REGISTRATION: https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00678730?term=NCT00678730&rank=1 ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00678730.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/metabolismo , Inibidores de Catecol O-Metiltransferase/administração & dosagem , Catecol O-Metiltransferase/genética , Dopamina/metabolismo , Dronabinol/administração & dosagem , Variação Genética/genética , Administração Intravenosa , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/fisiologia , Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/administração & dosagem , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Adulto Jovem
7.
Pharmacol Biochem Behav ; 181: 86-92, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31082417

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As long-term use of medicinal and recreational cannabis becomes more common and concentrations of delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in cannabis increase, it is timely to identify strategies to counteract the cognitive effects of cannabinoids. OBJECTIVE: Galantamine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor approved for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other dementias. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of galantamine administration to individuals with cannabis use disorder (CUD), and the effects of galantamine on cognition. We hypothesized galantamine would be well tolerated and would not have procognitive effects in the absence of acute cannabis intoxication. METHODS: Thirty individuals with CUD (73.5% male, 26.5% female) participated in a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group trial. Participants completed a baseline session followed by a 10-day outpatient treatment period, during which they received either 8 mg/day of galantamine orally or placebo. Cognitive assessments were conducted at three time points and self-reported measures that may impact cognitive performance (cannabis withdrawal, craving, and mood) were completed at six time points. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographic and baseline variables between groups (galantamine vs. placebo). There were no significant adverse effects from galantamine. Cannabis withdrawal and craving continuously decreased over the study. We saw evidence of a modest improvement in cognitive outcomes during the 10-day period, exemplified by a statistically significant increase in measures of response inhibition (increased median reaction time on the Stop Signal Task), and a trend for improvement in measures of attention (increased RVP A'), for both groups. Analyses did not show, however, a significant main effect for treatment or treatment-by-time interactions. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this pilot study support the feasibility of the administration of galantamine for individuals with CUD. Adequately powered, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are required to investigate the potential of galantamine to improve cognitive deficits associated with CUD.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Colinesterase/uso terapêutico , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Galantamina/uso terapêutico , Abuso de Maconha/tratamento farmacológico , Adolescente , Adulto , Afeto/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores da Colinesterase/administração & dosagem , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Galantamina/administração & dosagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Projetos Piloto , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Autorrelato , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto Jovem
8.
Horm Behav ; 113: 85-94, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31059697

RESUMO

The quick and efficient perception of facial expressions represents a special and fundamental capacity of humans to engage in social communication. Here, we examined the effects of vasopressin (AVP, a neuropeptide) on the processing of same- and other-gender facial expressions among males and females. After receiving either AVP or placebo (PBO) intranasally in a randomized and double-blind manner, participants were asked to rate their approachability to facial expressions while event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. Males rated lower approachability scores to neutral and positive male faces relative to the scores to emotion-matched female faces after AVP but not following PBO administration. These behavioral effects were correlated with the AVP-induced increased P1 and decreased N170 responses to male faces among male participants. Females rated higher approachability scores to negative female faces than the scores to negative male faces after AVP but not following PBO treatment. These results suggest that AVP decreases friendly responses to neutral/positive male faces in males and increases friendly responses to negative female faces in females. Overall, these results demonstrate the gender-specific effects of AVP in response to same- and other-gender facial expressions, indicating there are sex- and context-dependent effects of AVP on socioemotional processes.


Assuntos
Comunicação , Comportamento Social , Vasopressinas/farmacologia , Administração Intranasal , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/fisiologia , Método Duplo-Cego , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Potenciais Evocados/efeitos dos fármacos , Expressão Facial , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Masculino , Placebos , Caracteres Sexuais , Vasopressinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
9.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(5): 1380-1392, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004139

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is a long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid that has been linked to improved vision and cognition in postnatal feeding studies and has been consistently associated with reduction of early preterm birth in prenatal supplementation trials. This is a report of the first long-term follow-up of infants from mothers receiving prenatal DHA supplementation in a US cohort. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy of the prenatal supplementation on both global and granular longitudinal assessments of cognitive and behavioral development. METHODS: In a randomized double-blind clinical trial, mothers received either 600 mg/d of DHA or a placebo beginning at 14.5 weeks of gestation and capsules were provided until delivery. Children from those pregnancies were followed by cognitive and behavioral assessments administered from 10 mo through 6 y of age. From 301 mothers in the initial study, ∼200 infants completed the longitudinal schedule. RESULTS: Although this intervention had been shown to reduce high-risk pregnancies and improve visual attention in infants during the first year, only a few positive long-term effects of prenatal DHA supplementation emerged from analyses of this follow-up. Increases in maternal blood DHA during pregnancy were related to verbal and full scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 5 and 6 y, but these effects disappeared after controlling for SES. Maternal blood DHA concentrations at delivery were unrelated to outcomes, although maternal DHA at enrollment was related to productive vocabulary at 18 mo. CONCLUSIONS: Although prenatal DHA supplementation substantially reduced early preterm birth and improved visual attention in infancy in this sample, no consistent long-term benefits were observed into childhood. Increases in maternal blood DHA concentration in pregnancy were related to higher IQs but this effect was confounded with SES and disappeared when SES was statistically controlled. This trial was registered at http://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00266825 and NCT02487771.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/farmacologia , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Fenômenos Fisiológicos da Nutrição Pré-Natal , Adulto , Criança , Comportamento Infantil/efeitos dos fármacos , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/administração & dosagem , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/sangue , Ácidos Docosa-Hexaenoicos/uso terapêutico , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Kansas , Masculino , Mães , Gravidez , Nascimento Prematuro/prevenção & controle , Estados Unidos , Universidades
10.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(9): 2593-2611, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955107

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Deficits in empathy constitute a distinctive feature of several psychopathologies, including conduct disorder (CD). The co-occurrence of callous-unemotional (CU) traits, excess rates of aggression and violation of societal norms confers specific risk for adult psychopathy. To date, the off-label use of methylphenidate (MPH) constitutes the drug treatment of choice. OBJECTIVES: Herein, we tested the therapeutic potential of MPH in a recently devised mouse model recapitulating the core phenotypic abnormalities of CD. METHODS: Two subgroups of BALB/cJ male mice exhibiting opposite profiles of emotional contagion (i.e. socially transmitted adoption of another's emotional states) were investigated for reactive aggression, sociability, attention control, anxiety-related behaviours and locomotor activity, in response to MPH administration (0.0, 3.0 or 6.0 mg/kg). RESULTS: Our data indicate that mice selected for excess callousness exhibit phenotypic abnormalities isomorphic to the symptoms of CD: stability of the low emotional contagion trait, increased aggression and reduced sociability. In accordance with our predictions, MPH reduced aggression and increased sociability in callous mice; yet, it failed to restore the low responsiveness to the emotions of a conspecific in pain, isomorphic to CU traits. CONCLUSIONS: Although our data support the notion that MPH may contribute to the management of excess aggression in CD patients, additional studies shall identify specific treatments to target the callousness domain. The latter, unaffected by MPH in our experimental model, demands focused consideration whereby it constitutes a specifier associated with a worse prognosis.


Assuntos
Agressão/efeitos dos fármacos , Agressão/psicologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores da Captação de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Metilfenidato/administração & dosagem , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno da Conduta/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno da Conduta/psicologia , Emoções/efeitos dos fármacos , Emoções/fisiologia , Empatia/efeitos dos fármacos , Empatia/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C
11.
Neurobiol Learn Mem ; 161: 51-56, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30862525

RESUMO

The rodent odor span task (OST) uses an incrementing non-matching to sample procedure in which a series of odors is presented and selection of the session-novel odor is reinforced. An OST is frequently used to test the effects of neurobiological variables on memory capacity as the number of odors to remember increases during the course of the session. In this regard, one important finding has been that NMDA receptor antagonists selectively impair OST performance at doses that spare accuracy on control tasks. However, in many versions of the odor span task the number of stimuli to remember is confounded with the number of distractor odors presented to the rat on each trial. The present study compared the effects of the NMDA antagonist dizocilpine when the number of choices was held constant at two (one novel odor-S+ and one previously presented distractor odor-S-) and when the number of choice stimuli was permitted to increase up to 10 (one S+ and 9 S-). Dizocilpine impaired OST accuracy at doses that had no effect on a reference memory control task in both 2-choice and 10-choice conditions; however, the dose-response function was shifted to the left in the 10-choice tests. The impairments produced by dizocilpine were exacerbated as the memory load increased in both 2- and 10-choice conditions. These findings support the hypothesis that NMDA antagonism reduces the number of stimuli that rats can remember accurately, but the interaction between the effective DZP dose and the number of distractors shows that drug effects on OST performances may involve attentional factors in addition to memory capacity. The findings also demonstrate that variations in number of OST distractors can be used to alter sensitivity of the task.


Assuntos
Atenção , Maleato de Dizocilpina/farmacologia , Antagonistas de Aminoácidos Excitatórios/farmacologia , Memória de Curto Prazo , Percepção Olfatória , Desempenho Psicomotor , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Percepção Olfatória/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção Olfatória/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/efeitos dos fármacos , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley
12.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(7): 2259-2271, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30874860

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The non-selective nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist nicotine has been argued to improve attention via enhanced filtering of irrelevant stimuli. Here, we tested this hypothesis in the context of smooth pursuit eye movements (SPEMs), an oculomotor function previously shown to improve with nicotine in some but not all studies. OBJECTIVES: In order to test whether nicotine improves performance particularly when the inhibition of distracting stimuli is required, SPEM was elicited in conditions with or without peripheral distractors. Additionally, different target frequencies were employed in order to parametrically vary general processing demands on the SPEM system. METHODS: Healthy adult non-smokers (N = 18 females, N = 13 males) completed a horizontal sinusoidal SPEM task at different target frequencies (0.2 Hz, 0.4 Hz, 0.6 Hz) in the presence or absence of peripheral distractors in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over design using a 2 mg nicotine gum. RESULTS: Nicotine increased peak pursuit gain relative to placebo (p < .001), but an interaction with distractor condition (p = .001) indicated that this effect was most pronounced in the presence of distractors. Catch-up saccade frequency was reduced by nicotine (p = .01), particularly at higher target frequencies (two-way interaction, p = .04). However, a three-way interaction (p = .006) indicated that the reduction with nicotine was strongest at the highest target frequency (0.6 Hz) only without distractors, whereas in the presence of distractors, it was strongest at 0.4-Hz target frequency. There were no effects of nicotine on subjective state measures. CONCLUSIONS: Together, these findings support a role of both distractor inhibition and general processing load in the effects of nicotine on smooth pursuit.


Assuntos
Nicotina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas Nicotínicos/administração & dosagem , não Fumantes , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Atenção/fisiologia , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Movimentos Oculares/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes/psicologia , Acompanhamento Ocular Uniforme/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 197: 255-261, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30875646

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The severity of substance use disorder (SUD) is currently defined by the sum of DSM-5 criteria. However, little is known about the validity of this framework or the role of additional severity indicators in relapse prediction. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between DSM-5 criteria, neurocognitive functioning, substance use variables and cocaine relapse among inpatients with cocaine use disorder (CUD). METHODS: 128 adults aged between 18 and 45 years were evaluated; 68 (59 males, 9 females) had CUD and 60 (52 males, 8 females) were healthy controls. For the group with CUD, the use of other substances was not an exclusion criterion. Participants were tested using a battery of neurocognitive tests. Cocaine relapse was evaluated 3 months after discharge. RESULTS: Scores for attention span and working memory were worse in patients compared to controls. Earlier onset and duration of cocaine use were related to poorer inhibitory control and global executive functioning, respectively; recent use was related to worse performance in inhibitory control, attention span and working memory. More DSM-5 criteria at baseline were significantly associated with relapse. CONCLUSIONS: Recent cocaine use was the most predictive variable for neurocognitive impairments, while DSM-5 criteria predicted cocaine relapse at three months post treatment. The integration of neurocognitive measures, DSM-5 criteria and cocaine use variables in CUD diagnosis could improve severity differentiation. Longitudinal studies using additional biomarkers are needed to disentangle the different roles of severity indicators in relapse prediction and to achieve more individualized and effective treatment strategies for these patients.


Assuntos
Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Cocaína/psicologia , Transtornos Neurocognitivos/induzido quimicamente , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Adolescente , Adulto , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Estudos Prospectivos , Recidiva , Adulto Jovem
14.
Neuropharmacology ; 150: 59-69, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30876931

RESUMO

The role of norepinephrine (NE) in visuo-spatial attention remains poorly understood. Our goal was to identify the attentional processes influenced by atomoxetine (ATX) injections, a NE-reuptake inhibitor that boosts the level of NE in the brain, and to characterize these influences. We tested the effects of ATX injections, on seven monkeys performing a saccadic cued task in which cues and distractors were used to manipulate spatial attention. We found that when the cue accurately predicted the location of the upcoming cue in 80% of the trials, ATX consistently improved attentional orienting, as measured from reaction times (RTs). These effects were best accounted for by a faster accumulation rate in the valid trials, rather than by a change in the decision threshold. By contrast, the effect of ATX on alerting and distractor interference was more inconsistent. Finally, we also found that, under ATX, RTs to non-cued targets were longer when these were presented separately from cued targets. This suggests that the impact of NE on visuo-spatial attention depends on the context, such that the adaptive changes elicited by the highly informative value of the cues in the most frequent trials were accompanied by a cost in the less frequent trials.


Assuntos
Inibidores da Captação Adrenérgica/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Atomoxetina/farmacologia , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Orientação Espacial/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos
15.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 100: 166-179, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826386

RESUMO

The spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) are the most widely used model for ADHD. While face and construct validity are consolidated, questions remain about the predictive validity of the SHR model. We aim at summarizing the evidence for the predictive validity of SHR by evaluating its ability to respond to methylphenidate (MPH), the most well documented treatment for ADHD. A systematic review was carried out to identify studies evaluating MPH effects on SHR behavior. Studies (n=36) were grouped into locomotion, attention, impulsivity or memory, and a meta-analysis was performed. Meta-regression, sensitivity, heterogeneity, and publication bias analyses were also conducted. MPH increased attentional and mnemonic performances in the SHR model and decreased impulsivity in a dose-dependent manner. However, MPH did not reduce hyperactivity in low and medium doses, while increased locomotor activity in high doses. Thus, since the paradoxical effect of stimulant in reducing hyperactivity was not observed in the SHR model, our study does not fully support the predictive validity of SHR, questioning their validity as an animal model for ADHD.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/psicologia , Comportamento Animal/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/administração & dosagem , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Metilfenidato/administração & dosagem , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos Endogâmicos SHR , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
16.
Psychopharmacology (Berl) ; 236(7): 2015-2026, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30826849

RESUMO

RATIONALE: The 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) is a widely used operant task for measuring attention and motor impulsivity in rodents. Training animals in this task requires an extensive period of daily operant sessions. Recently, a self-paced, automated version of this task has been developed for mice, which substantially reduces training time. Whether a similar approach is effective for rats is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: Here, we tested whether attention and impulsivity can be assessed in rats with a self-paced version of the 5-CSRTT. METHODS: Operant boxes were connected to home-cages with tunnels. Two groups of rats self-paced their training by means of an automated script. The first group of animals was allowed unlimited access (UA) to start trials in the task; for the second group, trial availability was restricted to the first 2.5 h of the dark cycle (TR). Task parameter manipulations, such as variable inter-trial intervals and stimulus durations as well as pharmacological challenges with scopolamine, were tested to validate the task. RESULTS: Self-paced training took less than 1 week. Animals in the UA group showed higher levels of omissions compared with the TR group. In both protocols, variable inter-trial intervals increased impulsivity, and variable stimulus durations decreased attentional performance. Scopolamine affected cognitive performance in the TR group only. CONCLUSIONS: Home-cage-based training of the 5-CSRTT in rats, especially the TR protocol, presents a valid and fast alternative for measuring attention and impulsivity.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento de Escolha/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/fisiologia , Abrigo para Animais , Comportamento Impulsivo/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Animais , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento de Escolha/efeitos dos fármacos , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/farmacologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Cognição/fisiologia , Condicionamento Operante/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Long-Evans , Tempo de Reação/efeitos dos fármacos , Escopolamina/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Kaohsiung J Med Sci ; 35(6): 373-378, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913362

RESUMO

Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood cancer. While ALL therapies are highly effective, western studies have shown excesses late life effects of therapies in survivors. In this survey, we recruited subjects being diagnosed as ALL before the age of 18-year-old and had been in complete continuous remission for at least 3 years. Subjects were arranged to receive three cognitive tests (Wechsler intelligence test, Conners' continuous performance test, and Wisconsin card sorting test). Standardized questionnaires were used to inquiry about attention problem in real life context. Treatment outcome were compared between the standard risk and high/very high risk groups. Final survivors were 42 subjects (26 males, 16 females) with median current age of 17.8 years. Subjects were diagnosed to be with ALL at a median age of 4.8 years. The median survival time (from discontinuation of ALL treatment to the study date) was 8.4 years. Results indicated that 17 subjects (40.5%) had chronic physical conditions in need of clinical management and six subjects (14.3%) had mental condition. For the performance-based cognitive outcome, the average full scale intelligence quotient was 91.7 ± 13.8. Ten percent of the subjects had problem in test of attention, 20% had problem in test of impulsivity and 42.8% of the subject had problems in executive function. When judged from real life contexts, 19 subjects (42%) were with obvious attention problems. Group comparison between standard risk vs high/very high risk patients revealed no difference in neurocognitive outcomes. We hope that this information may benefit the implementation of follow-up program for Taiwanese pediatric leukemia survivors.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/efeitos adversos , Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobreviventes de Câncer/psicologia , Cognição/efeitos dos fármacos , Função Executiva/efeitos dos fármacos , Comportamento Impulsivo/efeitos dos fármacos , Adolescente , Adulto , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/patologia , Indução de Remissão , Resultado do Tratamento
18.
eNeuro ; 6(1)2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30847388

RESUMO

Methylphenidate (MPH), commonly known as Ritalin, is the most widely prescribed drug worldwide to treat patients with attention deficit disorders. Although MPH is thought to modulate catecholamine neurotransmission in the brain, it remains unclear how these neurochemical effects influence neuronal activity and lead to attentional enhancements. Studies in rodents overwhelmingly point to the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) as a main site of action of MPH. To understand the mechanism of action of MPH in a primate brain, we recorded the responses of neuronal populations using chronic multielectrode arrays implanted in the caudal LPFC of two macaque monkeys while the animals performed an attention task (N = 2811 neuronal recordings). Over different recording sessions (N = 55), we orally administered either various doses of MPH or a placebo to the animals. Behavioral analyses revealed positive effects of MPH on task performance at specific doses. However, analyses of individual neurons activity, noise correlations, and neuronal ensemble activity using machine learning algorithms revealed no effects of MPH. Our results suggest that the positive behavioral effects of MPH observed in primates (including humans) may not be mediated by changes in the activity of caudal LPFC neurons. MPH may enhance cognitive performance by modulating neuronal activity in other regions of the attentional network in the primate brain.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Estimulantes do Sistema Nervoso Central/farmacologia , Metilfenidato/farmacologia , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Pré-Frontal/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Eletrodos Implantados , Macaca fascicularis , Aprendizado de Máquina , Masculino , Neurônios/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Processamento de Sinais Assistido por Computador , Percepção Visual/efeitos dos fármacos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
19.
Quintessence Int ; 50(2): 126-134, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720022

RESUMO

The use of hormonal anti-inflammatory drugs is a common practice in oral and dental surgery. They have proven enhanced efficacy, increasing therapeutic success when the treatment is properly chosen and managed. However, given the complexity of neurophysiologic processes, little is known regarding the consequences of administering glucocorticoids on brain function. This article aims to bring to the attention of dental health professionals the main neurophysiologic mechanisms by which glucocorticoid hormones can affect memory and attention. In addition, in the context of increasing global prevalence and incidence of cannabinoid consumption, both for medical and recreational purposes, the issue of the association of cortisone-derived drugs in the systemic context of these phytocannabinoids is addressed, in terms of memory issues and attention.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Glucocorticoides/efeitos adversos , Memória/efeitos dos fármacos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Bucais , Humanos
20.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211023, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30726251

RESUMO

The phenomenon of 'microdosing', that is, regular ingestion of very small quantities of psychedelic substances, has seen a rapid explosion of popularity in recent years. Individuals who microdose report minimal acute effects from these substances yet claim a range of long-term general health and wellbeing benefits. There have been no published empirical studies of microdosing and the current legal and bureaucratic climate makes direct empirical investigation of the effects of psychedelics difficult. In Study One we conducted a systematic, observational investigation of individuals who microdose. We tracked the experiences of 98 microdosing participants, who provided daily ratings of psychological functioning over a six week period. 63 of these additionally completed a battery of psychometric measures tapping mood, attention, wellbeing, mystical experiences, personality, creativity, and sense of agency, at baseline and at completion of the study. Analyses of daily ratings revealed a general increase in reported psychological functioning across all measures on dosing days but limited evidence of residual effects on following days. Analyses of pre and post study measures revealed reductions in reported levels of depression and stress; lower levels of distractibility; increased absorption; and increased neuroticism. To better understand these findings, in Study Two we investigated pre-existing beliefs and expectations about the effects of microdosing in a sample of 263 naïve and experienced microdosers, so as to gauge expectancy bias. All participants believed that microdosing would have large and wide-ranging benefits in contrast to the limited outcomes reported by actual microdosers. Notably, the effects believed most likely to change were unrelated to the observed pattern of reported outcomes. The current results suggest that dose controlled empirical research on the impacts of microdosing on mental health and attentional capabilities are needed.


Assuntos
Atenção/efeitos dos fármacos , Cultura , Alucinógenos/administração & dosagem , Saúde Mental , Personalidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Pesquisa Empírica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medidas de Resultados Relatados pelo Paciente , Psicometria , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA