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1.
Accid Anal Prev ; 134: 105346, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31710957

RESUMO

Pedestrian distraction is a growing road safety concern worldwide. While there are currently no studies linking distraction and pedestrian crash risk, distraction has been shown to increase risky behaviours in pedestrians, for example, through reducing visual scanning before traversing an intersection. Illuminated in-ground Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) embedded into pathways are an emerging solution to address the growing distraction problem associated with mobile use while walking. The current study sought to determine if such an intervention was effective in attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. We conducted a controlled laboratory study (N = 24) to evaluate whether pedestrians detected the activation of flashing LEDs when distracted by a smartphone more accurately and efficiently when the lights were located on the floor compared to a control position on the wall. Eye gaze movements via an eye tracker and behavioural responses via response times assessed the detection of these flashing LEDs. Distracted participants were able to detect the activation of the floor and wall-mounted LEDs with accuracies above 90%. The visual and auditory distraction tasks increased reaction times by 143 and 124 ms, respectively. Even when distracted, performance improved with floor LEDs close to participants, with reaction time improvements by 43 and 159 ms for the LEDs 2 and 1 ms away from the participant respectively. The addition of floor LED lights resulted in a performance similar to the one observed for wall-mounted LEDs in the non-distracted condition. Moreover, participants did not necessarily need to fixate on the LEDs to detect their activation, thus were likely to have detected them using their peripheral vision. The findings suggest that LEDs embedded in pathways are likely to be effective at attracting the attention of distracted pedestrians. Further research needs to be conducted in the field to confirm these findings, and to evaluate the actual effects on behaviour under real-world conditions.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Ambiente Construído , Pedestres/psicologia , Smartphone , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Iluminação , Masculino , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Segurança , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
2.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(12): 2078-2086, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31712776

RESUMO

The medial temporal lobe is critical for both spatial navigation and memory. Although single neurons in the medial temporal lobe activate to represent locations in the environment during navigation, how this spatial tuning relates to memory for events involving those locations remains unclear. We examined memory-related changes in spatial tuning by recording single-neuron activity from neurosurgical patients performing a virtual-reality object-location memory task. We identified 'memory-trace cells' with activity that was spatially tuned to the retrieved location of the specific object that participants were cued to remember. Memory-trace cells in the entorhinal cortex, in particular, encoded discriminable representations of different memories through a memory-specific rate code. These findings indicate that single neurons in the human entorhinal cortex change their spatial tuning to target relevant memories for retrieval.


Assuntos
Córtex Entorrinal/fisiologia , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Percepção Espacial/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Humanos , Memória/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa , Células de Lugar/fisiologia
3.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(46): e17980, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31725664

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) which is characterized by developmentally inappropriate levels of attention, hyperactivity and impulsivity, is considered as the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood. Physical exercise has shown to have several benefits in the improvement of children with ADHD. In this meta-analysis, we aimed to systematically show, with evidence, the impact of physical exercise on children with ADHD. METHODS: Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Cochrane Central and http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov were the searched sources for studies which were based on the impact of physical exercise on children with ADHD. Relevant endpoints were assessed. This evidence based meta-analysis was carried out by the most relevant RevMan 5.3 software. Due to the involvement of continuous data (mean and standard deviation), weight mean difference (WMD) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were used to represent the final analysis. A significant level of P ≤ .05 was set and a fixed statistical effect model was used throughout the analysis. RESULTS: Fourteen studies with a total number of 574 participants with ADHD were included in this evidenced based meta-analysis. Two hundred and seventy six (276) participants were assigned to the physical activity group whereas 298 participants were assigned to the control group. Results of this analysis showed that anxiety and depression were significantly improved with physical activity in these children with ADHD (WMD: -1.84; 95% CI: [-2.65 - (-1.03)], P = .00001). Hyperactive/impulsive symptoms (WMD: -0.01; 95% CI: [-0.32 - 0.29], P = .93) and inattention symptoms (WMD: -0.22; 95% CI: [-0.51 - 0.08], P = .15) were also improved with physical exercise but the results were not statistically significant. This evidence based analysis showed thought problems (WMD: -3.49; 95% CI: [-5.51 - (-1.47)], P = .0007), social problems (WMD: -5.08; 95% CI: [-7.34 - (-2.82)], P = .0001), and aggressive behaviors (WMD: -3.90; 95% CI: [-7.10 - (-0.70)], P = .02) to have significantly been improved in participants with ADHD who were assigned to physical activity group. CONCLUSIONS: This current meta-analysis showed with evidence, that physical exercise has a major contribution owing to significant improvement in anxiety and depression, aggressive behaviors, thought and social problems among children suffering from ADHD. Therefore, physical exercise should be incorporated in the daily life of children with ADHD. Further future research should be able to confirm this hypothesis.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/terapia , Exercício/fisiologia , Agressão/fisiologia , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/terapia , Atenção/fisiologia , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/complicações , Transtorno do Deficit de Atenção com Hiperatividade/fisiopatologia , Criança , Depressão/etiologia , Depressão/terapia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental
4.
Sleep Med Clin ; 14(4): 413-421, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640869

RESUMO

Driving a vehicle during a night shift increases the accident risk and incidents of falling asleep at the wheel. Individuals having worked a night shift (in any type of occupation) run a similar risk when commuting home from a night shift. Early starts of driving may increase risk. Detailed field studies of sleepiness indicate high levels of sleepiness during late night driving. The mechanism includes exposure to the circadian trough of alertness during work and sleep loss. High levels of sleepiness and sleep loss associated with night and early morning work define the diagnosis of shift work disorder.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo , Transtornos do Sono do Ritmo Circadiano/fisiopatologia , Sono/fisiologia , Humanos , Vigília/fisiologia
5.
Gait Posture ; 74: 200-204, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557663

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Due to increased sedentary workstyles, active workstations have shown the ability to increase activity while only moderately affecting work ability. However, previous examinations have not examine fine motor mousing tasks on tripping descriptors. RESEARCH QUESTION: What affect do mousing tasks of varying target size have on tripping descriptors during walking workstation use? METHODS: Three-dimensional kinematic data were collected while participants used a walking workstation completing one baseline and three mousing conditions of varying target sizes. RESULTS: Target size main effects (p < 0.001) detected decreased stride length in all experimental conditions, which were supported by moderate effect sizes, and decreased stance width and time in double limb support (p < 0.001 for both comparisons). Stance width differences resulted in large effect sizes between baseline and all conditions, while only moderate effect sizes were observed between time in double limb support in baseline compared to all conditions. No changes in knee flexion range of motion were observed in response to target size (p = 0.278). SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that walking workstation users shorten their stride length and decrease their base of support while completing mousing tasks. The placement of the upper extremities on the workstation desk likely acted as the primary mechanism to increase stability. It is concluded that performing mousing tasks of varying target size using a walking workstation does not pose greater risk for adverse gait events.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Marcha/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Local de Trabalho , Adulto , Fenômenos Biomecânicos/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Amplitude de Movimento Articular/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adulto Jovem
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4106, 2019 09 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31511514

RESUMO

Conscious perception is crucial for adaptive behaviour yet access to consciousness varies for different types of objects. The visual system comprises regions with widely distributed category information and exemplar-level representations that cluster according to category. Does this categorical organisation in the brain provide insight into object-specific access to consciousness? We address this question using the Attentional Blink approach with visual objects as targets. We find large differences across categories in the attentional blink. We then employ activation patterns extracted from a deep convolutional neural network to reveal that these differences depend on mid- to high-level, rather than low-level, visual features. We further show that these visual features can be used to explain variance in performance across trials. Taken together, our results suggest that the specific organisation of the higher-tier visual system underlies important functions relevant for conscious perception of differing natural images.


Assuntos
Estado de Consciência/fisiologia , Imagem Tridimensional , Córtex Visual/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Piscadela , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
7.
Codas ; 31(4): e20170241, 2019 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483038

RESUMO

PURPOSE: This study investigated the effects of two levels of noise on the performance of young students of three educational levels and tested their ability to maintain attentional focus in reading and writing tasks. METHODS: 162 school children in the third, fourth and fifth grades were placed in three groups according to their educational level: Control Group (CG), Experimental Group A (GEA) and Experimental Group B (GEB). All groups were submitted to a Sustained Attention Test, Reading Assessment and Isolated Words Test and Writing Dictation Sub-test (part of the International Dyslexia Test). The GEA and GEB performed the tests in a noisy environment: 20dB and 40dB, respectively. The CG was assessed in the usual school environmental noise at the same time of the day. The data was submitted to an ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test and Spearman correlation test. RESULTS: The higher the score on the Sustained Attention Test, the shorter the time spent reading and fewer errors in the dictation task. There were no differences across the three grades within the GEA (lower levels of noise) with regard to the effect of noise on attention and in the reading and writing task performance. The higher levels of noise for the GEB, however, decreased the attention levels, therefore increasing mistakes on the dictation test. Comparing the performance across educational levels on the reading tasks, the fourth grade presented decreased reading time, while the third and fifth grades spent more time reading. CONCLUSION: Auditory interference can influence the ability to focus attention as well as worsen performance in reading and writing tasks at more intense noise levels.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Ruído , Leitura , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Redação , Análise de Variância , Criança , Humanos , Estatísticas não Paramétricas , Estudantes
8.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 318-323, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488747

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Eye movement pathology can assist in the identification, diagnosis and treatment of mental health disorders. Eye-tracking paradigms have been utilized to provide greater ecological validity, and directly capture the detailed sequence of processes in perception and attention, while quantifying classifiers in mood, anxiety, and psychotic disorders. Saccadic eye movements serve as an endophenotype for various mental health disorders. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Patients suffering from post-concussive syndrome and mental health concerns performed saccadic eye movements that were quantified for amplitude, velocity, latency and accuracy before and after Head-Eye Vestibular Motion therapy (HEVM). RESULTS: HEVM therapy is associated with statistical and substantive significant improvements in mental health and in saccadic metrics. CONCLUSIONS: Oculomotor dysfunction is related to the symptom dimensions of mental health disorders that may be treated with physical rehabilitation modalities. We feel it reasonable to suggest that psychiatrists and others involved in the treatment of mental health disorders quantify eye movements and use them as biomarkers in the evaluation of the outcomes of varied therapies.


Assuntos
Transtornos Mentais/fisiopatologia , Transtornos Mentais/terapia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cabeça/fisiologia , Humanos , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico
9.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(10): 1669-1676, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31477898

RESUMO

Visual attention dramatically improves individuals' ability to see and modulates the responses of neurons in every known visual and oculomotor area, but whether such modulations can account for perceptual improvements is unclear. We measured the relationship between populations of visual neurons, oculomotor neurons and behavior during detection and discrimination tasks. We found that neither of the two prominent hypothesized neuronal mechanisms underlying attention (which concern changes in information coding and the way sensory information is read out) provide a satisfying account of the observed behavioral improvements. Instead, our results are more consistent with the hypothesis that attention reshapes the representation of attended stimuli to more effectively influence behavior. Our results suggest a path toward understanding the neural underpinnings of perception and cognition in health and disease by analyzing neuronal responses in ways that are constrained by behavior and interactions between brain areas.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Animais , Tomada de Decisões/fisiologia , Macaca mulatta , Masculino , Neurônios Motores/fisiologia , Rede Nervosa/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Psicofísica
10.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102891, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31400651

RESUMO

Cognitive control enables optimal biasing of attention, perception, and actions in the service of mental or behavioral goals. To understand the variability of applied cognitive control, we need to unravel the relation between two underlying mechanisms: proactive and reactive modes. During proactive cognitive control, goal-relevant information is selected before the occurrence of a cognitively demanding event, and is actively maintained for as long as required by the task. During reactive mode, cognitive control is transiently activated only after the cognitively demanding event has occurred. Mechanistically, proactive and reactive control modes may be at least semi-independent and engaged simultaneously, but this has so far not been demonstrated empirically. Situational demands and an individual's cognitive capacity and motivation may bias behavior towards one or the other mode. Reward induces more proactive processing in the AX-CPT task, whereas context load induces reactive processing. We combined these manipulations to investigate the extent to which proactive and reactive control modes can operate independently and simultaneously. The results replicated already published effects of reward incentives and context load. Most importantly, these effects were essentially independent of each other, suggesting that proactive and reactive cognitive control modes depend on separate information-processing and neural mechanisms. The results also show that while proactive processing is influenced by reward, reactive processing seems independent of such factor. These findings have implications for our understanding of the structure of cognitive control and cognitive motivation, and are relevant for the design of interventions to improve cognitive control in various developmental and neuropsychiatric groups.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Recompensa , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Motivação/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
11.
Psychol Aging ; 34(6): 805-820, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414857

RESUMO

In hybrid foraging tasks, observers search visual displays, so called patches, for multiple instances of any of several types of targets with the goal of collecting targets as quickly as possible. Here, targets were photorealistic objects. Younger and older adults collected targets by mouse clicks. They could move to the next patch whenever they decided to do so. The number of targets held in memory varied between 8 and 64 objects, and the number of items (targets and distractors) in the patches varied between 60 and 105 objects. Older adults foraged somewhat less efficiently than younger adults due to a more exploitative search strategy. When target items became depleted in a patch and search slowed down, younger adults acted according to the optimal foraging theory and moved on to the next patch when the instantaneous rate of collection was close to their average rate of collection. Older adults, by contrast, were more likely to stay longer and spend time searching for the last few targets. Within a patch, both younger and older adults tended to collect the same type of target in "runs." This behavior is more efficient than continual switching between target types. Furthermore, after correction for general age-related slowing, RT × set size functions revealed largely preserved attention and memory functions in older age. Hybrid foraging tasks share features with important real-world search tasks. Differences between younger and older observers on this task may therefore help to explain age differences in many complex search tasks of daily life. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Atenção/fisiologia , Envelhecimento Cognitivo , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Memória , Reconhecimento Visual de Modelos/fisiologia , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Motivação , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
12.
Laterality ; 24(6): 707-739, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399020

RESUMO

Several non-verbal perceptual and attentional processes have been linked with specialization of the right cerebral hemisphere. Given that most people have a left hemispheric specialization for language, it is tempting to assume that functions of these two classes of dominance are related. Unfortunately, such models of complementarity are notoriously hard to test. Here we suggest a method which compares frequency of a particular perceptual asymmetry with known frequencies of left hemispheric language dominance in right-handed and non-right handed groups. We illustrate this idea using the greyscales and colourscales tasks, chimeric faces, emotional dichotic listening, and a consonant-vowel dichotic listening task. Results show a substantial "breadth" of leftward bias on the right hemispheric tasks and rightward bias on verbal dichotic listening. Right handers and non-right handers did not differ in terms of proportions of people who were left biased for greyscales/colourscales. Support for reduced typical biases in non-right handers was found for chimeric faces and for CV dichotic listening. Results are discussed in terms of complementary theories of cerebral asymmetries, and how this type of method could be used to create a taxonomy of lateralized functions, each categorized as related to speech and language dominance, or not.


Assuntos
Dominância Cerebral/fisiologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Percepção/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Testes com Listas de Dissílabos , Emoções , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Caracteres Sexuais , Fala/fisiologia , Percepção Visual , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Vis ; 19(9): 7, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31426085

RESUMO

Despite extensive investigation, the causes and nature of developmental prosopagnosia (DP)-a severe face identification impairment in the absence of acquired brain injury-remain poorly understood. Drawing on previous work showing that individuals identified as being neurotypical (NT) show robust individual differences in where they fixate on faces, and recognize faces best when the faces are presented at this location, we defined and tested four novel hypotheses for how atypical face-looking behavior and/or retinotopic face encoding could impair face recognition in DP: (a) fixating regions of poor information, (b) inconsistent saccadic targeting, (c) weak retinotopic tuning, and (d) fixating locations not matched to the individual's own face tuning. We found no support for the first three hypotheses, with NTs and DPs consistently fixating similar locations and showing similar retinotopic tuning of their face perception performance. However, in testing the fourth hypothesis, we found preliminary evidence for two distinct phenotypes of DP: (a) Subjects characterized by impaired face memory, typical face perception, and a preference to look high on the face, and (b) Subjects characterized by profound impairments to both face memory and perception and a preference to look very low on the face. Further, while all NTs and upper-looking DPs performed best when faces were presented near their preferred fixation location, this was not true for lower-looking DPs. These results suggest that face recognition deficits in a substantial proportion of people with DP may arise not from aberrant face gaze or compromised retinotopic tuning, but from the suboptimal matching of gaze to tuning.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Facial/fisiologia , Prosopagnosia/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Movimentos Sacádicos
14.
J Vis ; 19(9): 12, 2019 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434108

RESUMO

The preparation and execution of saccades and goal-directed movements elicits an accompanying shift in attention at the locus of the impending movement. However, some key aspects of the spatiotemporal profile of this attentional shift between eye and hand movements are not resolved. While there is evidence that attention is improved at the target location when making a reach, it is not clear how attention shifts over space and time around the movement target as a saccade and a reach are made to that target. Determining this spread of attention is an important aspect in understanding how attentional resources are used in relation to movement planning and guidance in real world tasks. We compared performance on a perceptual discrimination paradigm during a saccade-alone task, reach-alone task, and a saccade-plus-reach task to map the temporal profile of the premotor attentional shift at the goal of the movement and at three surrounding locations. We measured performance relative to a valid baseline level to determine whether motor planning induces additional attentional facilitation compared to mere covert attention. Sensitivity increased relative to movement onset at the target and at the surrounding locations, for both the saccade-alone and saccade-plus-reach conditions. The results suggest that the temporal profile of the attentional shift is similar for the two tasks involving saccades (saccade-alone and saccade-plus-reach tasks), but is very different when the influence of the saccade is removed. In this case, performance in the saccade-plus-reach task reflects the lower sensitivity observed when a reach-alone task is being conducted. In addition, the spatial profile of this spread of attention is not symmetrical around the target. This suggests that when a saccade and reach are being planned together, the saccade drives the attentional shift, and the reach-alone carries little attentional weight.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Movimento/fisiologia , Movimentos Sacádicos/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Mãos , Humanos , Masculino , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
15.
Sensors (Basel) ; 19(17)2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31450826

RESUMO

As the main component of an autonomous driving system, the motion planner plays an essential role for safe and efficient driving. However, traditional motion planners cannot make full use of the on-board sensing information and lack the ability to efficiently adapt to different driving scenes and behaviors of different drivers. To overcome this limitation, a personalized behavior learning system (PBLS) is proposed in this paper to improve the performance of the traditional motion planner. This system is based on the neural reinforcement learning (NRL) technique, which can learn from human drivers online based on the on-board sensing information and realize human-like longitudinal speed control (LSC) through the learning from demonstration (LFD) paradigm. Under the LFD framework, the desired speed of human drivers can be learned by PBLS and converted to the low-level control commands by a proportion integration differentiation (PID) controller. Experiments using driving simulator and real driving data show that PBLS can adapt to different drivers by reproducing their driving behaviors for LSC in different scenes. Moreover, through a comparative experiment with the traditional adaptive cruise control (ACC) system, the proposed PBLS demonstrates a superior performance in maintaining driving comfort and smoothness.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Automação/métodos , Condução de Veículo , Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Simulação por Computador , Direção Distraída/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Aprendizagem , Masculino , Segurança
16.
Hum Mov Sci ; 67: 102509, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415962

RESUMO

This study had two main aims: 1) to investigate if the walk-to-run (WR-) transition occurs when the speed of locomotion is kept constant below the WR-transition speed (speed clamp) and the stride rate is increased monotonously using a metronome and 2) to investigate if diversion of attention and awareness from the locomotion process influences the position of the WR-transition in stride rate, stride length, and locomotion speed (SrSlLs) space. Eighteen healthy individuals (13 men and 5 women) were recruited (age: 23.9 ±â€¯1.5 years, height: 1.77 ±â€¯0.10 m and body mass: 77.3 ±â€¯12.8 kg). Stride-by-stride stride rates, stride lengths, locomotion speeds, and duty factors were determined on a treadmill in 4 different tests: 1) reference WR-transition, 2) preferred walking speed, 3) dual-task test including arithmetic calculations and 4) four speed clamp bouts with different initial velocities. Walk-to-run transitions were elicited in all participants in the speed clamp bouts. When the stride rate ramp was clamped at preferred walking speed the WR-transition stride rate was not significantly different from the WR-transition stride rate during the reference test (t = 2.2, p = 0.312). However, in the SrSlLs space the speed clamp WR-transitions all deviated from the position of the reference WR-transition. Additionally, it was demonstrated that intensive attentional diversion using a dual-task paradigm had very little influence on the position of the WR-transition in the SrSlLs space. It is argued that these observations can be explained in the context of the behavior of complex systems.


Assuntos
Corrida/fisiologia , Caminhada/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Conscientização/fisiologia , Teste de Esforço , Feminino , Marcha/fisiologia , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Velocidade de Caminhada/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Neural Netw ; 119: 113-138, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31404805

RESUMO

Behavioral and neural data suggest that visual attention spreads along contour segments to bind them into a unified object representation. Such attentional labeling segregates the target contour from distractors in a process known as mental contour tracing. A recurrent competitive map is developed to simulate the dynamics of mental contour tracing. In the model, local excitation opposes global inhibition and enables enhanced activity to propagate on the path offered by the contour. The extent of local excitatory interactions is modulated by the output of the multi-scale contour detection network, which constrains the speed of activity spreading in a scale-dependent manner. Furthermore, an L-junction detection network enables tracing to switch direction at the L-junctions, but not at the X- or T-junctions, thereby preventing spillover to a distractor contour. Computer simulations reveal that the model exhibits a monotonic increase in tracing time as a function of the distance to be traced. Also, the speed of tracing increases with decreasing proximity to the distractor contour and with the reduced curvature of the contours. The proposed model demonstrated how an elaborated version of the winner-takes-all network can implement a complex cognitive operation such as contour tracing.


Assuntos
Atenção , Percepção de Forma , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Pensamento , Atenção/fisiologia , Simulação por Computador , Percepção de Forma/fisiologia , Humanos , Pensamento/fisiologia
18.
Psychon Bull Rev ; 26(5): 1472-1502, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31432330

RESUMO

How do emotional stimuli influence perception, attention, and ultimately memory? This debate at the cross-section of emotion and cognition research has a long tradition. The emotional oddball paradigm (EOP) has frequently been applied to investigate the detection and processing of (emotional) change detection (Schlüter & Bermeitinger, 2017). However, the EOP has also been used to reveal the effects of emotional deviants on memory for serially presented stimuli. In this integrative article, we review the results of 29 experiments published between the years 2000 and 2017. Based on these data, we provide an overview of how the EOP is applied in the context of memory research. We also review and integrate the empirical evidence for memory effects in the EOP (with a special focus on retrograde and anterograde emotion-induced effects) and present theories of emotional memory as well as their fit with the results obtained by the EOP. Directions for future research are presented that would help to address important issues of the current debate around emotion-induced memory effects.


Assuntos
Emoções/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição/fisiologia , Humanos , Teoria Psicológica
19.
Behav Ther ; 50(5): 967-977, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422851

RESUMO

In exposure therapy, the client can either be confronted with the fear-eliciting situations in a hierarchical way or in a random way. In the current study we developed a procedure to investigate the effects of hierarchical versus random exposure on long-term fear responding in the laboratory. Using a fear conditioning procedure, one stimulus (CS+) was paired with an electric shock (US), whereas another stimulus was not paired with the shock (CS-). The next day, participants underwent extinction training including presentations of the CS-, CS+ and a series of morphed stimuli between the CS- and CS+. In the hierarchical extinction condition (HE; N = 32), participants were first presented with the CS-, subsequently with the morph most similar to the CS-, then with the morph most similar to that one, and so forth, until reaching the CS+. In the random extinction condition (RE; N = 32), the same stimuli were presented but in a random order. Fear responding to the CS+, CS- and a new generalization stimulus (GS) was measured on the third day. Higher expectancy violation, t(62) = -2.67, p = .01, physiological arousal, t(62) = -2.08, p = .04, and variability in US-expectancy ratings, t(62) = -2.25, p = .03, were observed in the RE condition compared to the HE condition, suggesting the validity of this novel procedure. However, no differences between the RE and HE condition were found in fear responding as tested one day later, F(1, 62) < 1. In conclusion, we did not find evidence for differential long-term fear responding in modeling hierarchical versus random exposure in Pavlovian fear extinction.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Condicionamento Clássico/fisiologia , Extinção Psicológica/fisiologia , Medo/fisiologia , Generalização do Estímulo/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Humanos , Terapia Implosiva , Masculino
20.
Acta Psychol (Amst) ; 199: 102922, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31446312

RESUMO

The effect of forgetting cues on maintenance rehearsal in item-method directed forgetting (DF) paradigm was explored from behavioral and electrophysiological evidence. In Experiment 1, maintenance rehearsal was induced by a maintenance cue. Specifically, after the studied word, a maintenance (M) cue was presented before the presentation of a remembering/forgetting cue. When an M cue appeared, participants were required to wait for the following remembering (M-R) or forgetting (M-F) cue to determine whether the word needs to be remembered or not, and words were kept in short-term memory with maintenance rehearsal until the presentation of M-R/M-F cues. Four conditions were utilized: maintain-remembering (M-R), maintain-forgetting (M-F), maintenance (M), and forgetting (F). The results showed that, 1) superior recognition was found for the M-R relative to the M-F words, revealing a typical DF effect; 2) No recognition difference was found between M and M-F words, indicating that M-F cues showed little effect in promoting forgetting; 3) Inferior recognition was found for F than M words, indicating that the maintenance rehearsal might cease or be reduced by the presentation of F cues. In Experiment 2, event related potentials time-locked to cue (M-R, M-F, M, and F cues) onset during study phase. An enhanced fronto-central P3a component was evoked for F relative to M cues, indicating a more intensive attention orienting or attentional inhibition process triggered by F cues. These results demonstrated that forgetting cues might trigger an inhibition process to terminate the maintenance rehearsal process.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Sinais (Psicologia) , Rememoração Mental/fisiologia , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Papel (figurativo) , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Orientação Espacial/fisiologia , Distribuição Aleatória , Adulto Jovem
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