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1.
Exp Psychol ; 67(3): 186-193, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900295

RESUMO

Previous research on inattentional blindness (IB) has focused almost entirely on the visual modality. This study extends the paradigm by pairing visual with auditory stimuli. New visual and auditory stimuli were created to investigate the phenomenon of inattention in visual, auditory, and paired modality. The goal of the study was to assess to what extent the pairing of visual and auditory modality fosters the detection of change. Participants watched a video sequence and counted predetermined words in a spoken text. IB and inattentional deafness occurred in about 40% of participants when attention was engaged by this difficult (auditory) counting task. Most importantly, participants detected the changes considerably more often (88%) when the change occurred in both modalities rather than just one. One possible reason for the drastic reduction of IB or deafness in a multimodal context is that discrepancy between expected and encountered course of events proportionally increases across sensory modalities.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Audição/fisiologia , Acuidade Visual/fisiologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
2.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238627, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915831

RESUMO

People often form perceptions about how prevalent a behavior is in a social group. However, these perceptions can be inaccurate and biased. While persistent undesirable practices in low-income countries have drawn global attention, evidence regarding people's perception of how prevalent these practices are is scarce. Among those harmful practices, open defecation in India remains a significant public health concern, where it perpetuates the vicious cycle of disease and poverty. In this study, we focus on measuring the perceived prevalence of open defecation among respondents in Bihar, India. We examined the bias in perceived prevalence, which is defined as a pattern of deviation from the actual prevalence of open defecation. Results showed that respondents who defecate in the open overestimate the prevalence of open defecation, whereas those who consistently use toilets underestimate it. This finding suggests a false consensus bias in the perceived prevalence of open defecation. Scholars, policymakers, and program implementers who seek to correct misperceptions about open defecation by broadcasting real prevalence should be aware of biases in the perceived prevalence and address them in behavior change interventions.


Assuntos
Defecação/ética , Saúde Pública/normas , Saneamento/normas , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Defecação/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública/tendências , Classe Social , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781529

RESUMO

The use of mobile phones while driving is a very common phenomenon that has become one of the main causes of traffic accidents. Many studies on the effects of mobile phone use on accident risk have focused on conversation and texting; however, few studies have directly compared the impacts of speech-based texting and handheld texting on accident risk, especially during sudden braking events. This study aims to statistically model and quantify the effects of potential factors on accident risk associated with a sudden braking event in terms of the driving behavior characteristics of young drivers, the behavior of the lead vehicle (LV), and mobile phone distraction tasks (i.e., both speech-based and handheld texting). For this purpose, a total of fifty-five licensed young drivers completed a driving simulator experiment in a Chinese urban road environment under five driving conditions: baseline (no phone use), simple speech-based texting, complex speech-based texting, simple handheld texting, and complex handheld texting. Generalized linear mixed models were developed for the brake reaction time and rear-end accident probability during the sudden braking events. The results showed that handheld texting tasks led to a delayed response to the sudden braking events as compared to the baseline. However, speech-based texting tasks did not slow down the response. Moreover, drivers responded faster when the initial time headway was shorter, when the initial speed was higher, or when the LV deceleration rate was greater. The rear-end accident probability respectively increased by 2.41 and 2.77 times in the presence of simple and complex handheld texting while driving. Surprisingly, the effects of speech-based texting tasks were not significant, but the accident risk increased if drivers drove the vehicle with a shorter initial time headway or a higher LV deceleration rate. In summary, these findings suggest that the effects of mobile phone distraction tasks, driving behavior characteristics, and the behavior of the LV should be taken into consideration when developing algorithms for forward collision warning systems.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/estatística & dados numéricos , Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Uso do Telefone Celular/efeitos adversos , Telefone Celular/estatística & dados numéricos , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Adolescente , China , Cidades , Simulação por Computador , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fala , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
4.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236423, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735611

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Use of functional MRI (fMRI) in pre-surgical planning is a non-invasive method for pre-operative functional mapping for patients with brain tumors, especially tumors located near eloquent cortex. Currently, this practice predominantly involves task-based fMRI (T-fMRI). Resting state fMRI (RS-fMRI) offers an alternative with several methodological advantages. Here, we compare group-level analyses of RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as methods for language localization. PURPOSE: To contrast RS-fMRI vs. T-fMRI as techniques for localization of language function. METHODS: We analyzed data obtained in 35 patients who had both T-fMRI and RS-fMRI scans during the course of pre-surgical evaluation. The RS-fMRI data were analyzed using a previously trained resting-state network classifier. The T-fMRI data were analyzed using conventional techniques. Group-level results obtained by both methods were evaluated in terms of two outcome measures: (1) inter-subject variability of response magnitude and (2) sensitivity/specificity analysis of response topography, taking as ground truth previously reported maps of the language system based on intraoperative cortical mapping as well as meta-analytic maps of language task fMRI responses. RESULTS: Both fMRI methods localized major components of the language system (areas of Broca and Wernicke) although not with equal inter-subject consistency. Word-stem completion T-fMRI strongly activated Broca's area but also several task-general areas not specific to language. RS-fMRI provided a more specific representation of the language system. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate several advantages of classifier-based mapping of language representation in the brain. Language T-fMRI activated task-general (i.e., not language-specific) functional systems in addition to areas of Broca and Wernicke. In contrast, classifier-based analysis of RS-fMRI data generated maps confined to language-specific regions of the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Área de Broca/patologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Adulto , Idoso , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico/métodos , Área de Broca/diagnóstico por imagem , Feminino , Lobo Frontal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Frontal/patologia , Lateralidade Funcional/fisiologia , Glioblastoma/diagnóstico por imagem , Glioblastoma/patologia , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Descanso/fisiologia , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem , Lobo Temporal/patologia , Adulto Jovem
5.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 605-613, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744844

RESUMO

Inhibitory theory suggests that a major determinant of individual differences in cognitive performance (including differences that are typically observed with increasing age) is the ability to dampen down goal-irrelevant stimuli, thoughts, and actions. While this theory has garnered a lot of support over the years, it has also seen several challenges. This special issue of Psychology and Aging entitled "Aging and Inhibition: The View Ahead" continues with this theme and includes 14 articles by top researchers in the field of cognitive aging. While most of the articles included here lend support to the theory, some challenge it or provide limiting conditions. We organize our overview of these articles according to the different functions, or stages, of inhibition, which we refer to as access, deletion, and restraint, followed by a discussion of potential moderators, including practice, motivation, and arousal. In our view, these articles contribute to our understanding of how and when age differences in inhibitory control are observed and the wider implications (both positive and negative) for cognition. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Memória/fisiologia , Humanos
6.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 627-638, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744846

RESUMO

Optimal performance in many tasks requires minimizing the impact of both visual distraction and mind-wandering. Yet, so far, these two types of distraction have been studied in isolation and it remains unclear whether they act in similar or dissociable ways across age groups. Here, we studied the impact of visual distraction and mind-wandering on performance in a go/no-go task in young and older adults. Older adults reported higher task focus than young, which was associated with a specific age-related reduction in mind-wandering, rather than to thoughts triggered by the task. Older adults exhibited fewer no-go errors, higher mean reaction time (RT) and reduced RT variability compared to young adults. In contrast, visual distraction was associated with a disproportionate effect in older versus young adults on go accuracy, mean RT, and RT variability. Decreasing task focus was similarly associated with reduced go- and no-go accuracy and increased RT variability across age groups. In summary, our results suggest that whereas older adults are disproportionately affected by visual distraction compared to young, they exhibit a reduction in mind-wandering frequency. Moreover, the impact of decreasing task focus on task performance is similar across age groups. Our results suggest a dissociation of the impact of visual distraction and mind-wandering as a function of age. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Inibição Psicológica , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tempo de Reação , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 710-719, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744852

RESUMO

Previously, we demonstrated that in young adults, briefly thinking of (i.e., refreshing) a just-seen word impairs immediate (100-ms delay) perceptual processing of the word, relative to words seen but not refreshed. We suggested that such reflective-induced inhibition biases attention toward new information. Here, we investigated whether reduced accessibility of refreshed targets dissipates with a longer delay and whether older adults would show a smaller and/or delayed effect compared with young adults. Young adult and older adult participants saw 2 words, followed by a cue to refresh one of these words. After either a 100-ms or 500-ms delay, participants read a word that was the refreshed word (refreshed probe), the nonrefreshed word (nonrefreshed probe), or a new word (novel probe). Young adults were slower to read refreshed probes than nonrefreshed probes at the 100-ms, but not the 500-ms, delay. Conversely, older adults were slower to read refreshed probes than nonrefreshed probes at the 500-ms, but not the 100-ms, delay. The delayed slowing of responses to refreshed probes was primarily observed in older-old adults (75+ years). A delay in suppressing the target of refreshing may disrupt the fluidity with which attention can be shifted to a new target. Importantly, a long-term memory benefit of refreshing was observed for both ages and delays. These results suggest that a full characterization of age-related memory deficits should consider the time course of effects and how specific component cognitive processes affect both working and long-term memory. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
8.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 744-764, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744855

RESUMO

In most attentional-control tasks, incongruent trials (i.e., trials with a conflict between two responses) are intermixed with congruent trials (i.e., trials without conflict). Typically, performance is slower and more error-prone on incongruent trials than on congruent trials. This congruency effect has been found to be smaller after incongruent trials than after congruent trials. This finding-labeled the congruency sequence effect (CSE)-has been assumed to reflect a dynamic adjustment of attentional control, which enables participants to enhance goal-relevant features and to inhibit irrelevant features. Only a few studies have investigated the impact of aging on the CSE, and their results are mixed. Compared to young adults, older adults were found to show a similar CSE, no CSE, a larger CSE, or a smaller CSE. This discrepancy in results has been interpreted as the consequence of using different tasks. To test for this, we conducted new analyses on 9 tasks-the color Stroop, number Stroop, arrow flanker, letter flanker, Simon, global-local, positive compatibility, and negative compatibility task-from our previous study (Rey-Mermet, Gade, & Oberauer, 2018). Both a null-hypothesis significance testing approach and a Bayesian hypothesis testing approach showed a similar CSE in both age groups for most tasks. Only in the Stroop tasks, the CSE was larger for older adults. These results are incompatible with the hypothesis of a general age-related deficit in attentional control. At the same time, they question the construct validity of the CSE. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
9.
Psychol Aging ; 35(5): 780-791, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32744858

RESUMO

Aging affects brain circuitry involved in both inhibition and arousal. In this study, we tested whether older adults are more or less prone to distraction from emotionally arousing events than young adults. To do so, we examined how arousing taboo distractor words affected concurrent 1-back task performance and subsequent memory for distractors. Our second goal was to examine how the arousal level of 1 item can modulate processing of preceding neutral distractors (taboo-minus-1 distractors). During the task, participants first made 1-back judgments about target pictures that were superimposed with to-be-ignored neutral or taboo distractors. Relative to young adults, older adults were more distracted by taboo than neutral words on the 1-back task and remembered more of the taboo distractors on a later incidental recognition task. Furthermore, young adults showed better suppression of taboo-minus-1 distractors than neutral distractors, whereas in older adults, arousal did not facilitate suppression of taboo-minus-1 distractors. This effect appeared to require attentional control as adding an unrelated attentional load during the 1-back task eliminated the beneficial effect of arousal for young adults' suppression of taboo-minus-1 distractors. Finally, when top-down attentional guidance was provided by increasing the goal relevance of target pictures, both groups showed enhanced suppression of taboo-minus-1 distractors versus other neutral distractors. Together, these findings imply that the effect of arousal on distractibility in aging may arise from an interaction between top-down and bottom-up processes. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Envelhecimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
10.
PLoS Biol ; 18(8): e3000548, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32745077

RESUMO

Sleep is vital for survival. Yet under environmentally challenging conditions, such as starvation, animals suppress their need for sleep. Interestingly, starvation-induced sleep loss does not evoke a subsequent sleep rebound. Little is known about how starvation-induced sleep deprivation differs from other types of sleep loss, or why some sleep functions become dispensable during starvation. Here, we demonstrate that down-regulation of the secreted cytokine unpaired 2 (upd2) in Drosophila flies may mimic a starved-like state. We used a genetic knockdown strategy to investigate the consequences of upd2 on visual attention and sleep in otherwise well-fed flies, thereby sidestepping the negative side effects of undernourishment. We find that knockdown of upd2 in the fat body (FB) is sufficient to suppress sleep and promote feeding-related behaviors while also improving selective visual attention. Furthermore, we show that this peripheral signal is integrated in the fly brain via insulin-expressing cells. Together, these findings identify a role for peripheral tissue-to-brain interactions in the simultaneous regulation of sleep quality and attention, to potentially promote adaptive behaviors necessary for survival in hungry animals.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Proteínas de Drosophila/genética , Drosophila melanogaster/genética , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Inanição/genética , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Animais , Encéfalo/citologia , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Proteínas de Drosophila/deficiência , Proteínas de Drosophila/metabolismo , Drosophila melanogaster/metabolismo , Corpo Adiposo/metabolismo , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Neurônios/citologia , Neurônios/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Sono/fisiologia , Privação do Sono/genética , Privação do Sono/metabolismo , Inanição/metabolismo
11.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236521, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32756593

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The study aimed at determining the EEG correlates of concentration on either low or high-distressed tinnitus. METHODS: Sixty-seven patients (36 women, mean age = 50.34 ± 12.94 years) with chronic tinnitus were assigned to either a high (HD) or low (LD) tinnitus-related distress group based on THI results. All participants took part in the EEG study comprising two 3-4 min blocks of focusing on either tinnitus (Tinnitus Focus Condition, TFC) or the sensations from one's own body (Body Focus Condition, BFC). The absolute power and current density of 8 frequency bands in 7 clusters were compared between conditions and groups. RESULTS: The most pronounced differences were found in the HD patients in the TFC, relative to the BFC, i.e. reduced power of frontally distributed low alpha (8-10 Hz) and posterior high alpha (10-12 Hz) as well as lower current density of 8-10 Hz rhythm over the right frontal/anterior cingulate cortex and higher middle beta (15-18 Hz) density in the precuneus. The HD, relative to LD patients, in both conditions, exhibited increased low beta (12-15 Hz) power over the left middle area and greater higher beta (15-25 Hz) power in the left posterior region. CONCLUSIONS: The present study contrasted bioelectrical activity, acquired when concentrating on tinnitus with EEG data collected whilst patients focused on their body. Decreased alpha power and current density in the frontal/cingulate cortex when listening to bothersome tinnitus might reflect greater cortical arousal whereas increased beta power and density in the precuneus/posterior cingulate activity in this condition could be indicative for elevated tension or augmented cognitive/emotional processing of tinnitus sound. Enhanced beta rhythm in patients with high versus low tinnitus distress, observed independently of the study condition, may be due to greater self-focused attention or more active processing of sensations derived from the own body.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Percepção Auditiva/fisiologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Zumbido/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Nível de Alerta/fisiologia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Mapeamento Encefálico , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções/fisiologia , Feminino , Giro do Cíngulo/diagnóstico por imagem , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zumbido/complicações , Zumbido/diagnóstico por imagem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237717, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810159

RESUMO

The effect of spatial contexts on attention is important for evaluating the risk of human errors and the accessibility of information in different situations. In traditional studies, this effect has been investigated using display-based and non-laboratory procedures. However, these two procedures are inadequate for measuring attention directed toward 360-degree environments and controlling exogeneous stimuli. In order to resolve these limitations, we used a virtual-reality-based procedure and investigated how spatial contexts of 360-degree environments influence attention. In the experiment, 20 students were asked to search for and report a target that was presented at any location in 360-degree virtual spaces as accurately and quickly as possible. Spatial contexts comprised a basic context (a grey and objectless space) and three specific contexts (a square grid floor, a cubic room, and an infinite floor). We found that response times for the task and eye movements were influenced by the spatial context of 360-degree surrounding spaces. In particular, although total viewing times for the contexts did not match the saliency maps, the differences in total viewing times between the basic and specific contexts did resemble the maps. These results suggest that attention comprises basic and context-dependent characteristics, and the latter are influenced by the saliency of 360-degree contexts even when the contexts are irrelevant to a task.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Processamento Espacial/fisiologia , Adulto , Movimentos Oculares/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estimulação Luminosa/métodos , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Realidade Virtual , Adulto Jovem
13.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0238235, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845925

RESUMO

In addition to quantitative individual differences in working memory (WM) capacity, qualitative aspects, such as enhanced sensory modality (modality dominance), can characterize individual WM ability. This study aimed to examine the neurological basis underlying the individual modality dominance component of WM using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). To quantify the degree of individual WM modality dominance, 24 participants were required to find seven hidden targets and hold their spatial location and appearance order with vibrotactile or visual stimuli aids. In this searching task, eight participants demonstrated higher performance with the tactile condition (tactile-dominant) whereas sixteen demonstrated visual dominance. We then measured prefrontal activity by fNIRS during memorization of visual stimulus numbers while finger tapping as a cognitive-motor dual-task. Individual modality dominance significantly correlated with bilateral frontopolar and dorsolateral prefrontal activity changes over repeated fNIRS sessions. In particular, individuals with stronger visual dominance showed marked decreases in prefrontal area activity. These results suggest that distinct processing patterns in the prefrontal cortex reflect an individual's qualitative WM characteristics. Considering the individual modality dominance underlying the prefrontal areas could enhance cognitive or motor performance, possibly by optimizing cognitive resources.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Córtex Pré-Frontal/fisiologia , Desempenho Psicomotor/fisiologia , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Mapeamento Encefálico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Projetos Piloto , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Adulto Jovem
14.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236147, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32797082

RESUMO

PURPOSE: A variety of visual and psychometric tests have been developed for assessing on-road driving performance and fitness to drive. The diagnostic power of a state of the art psychometric test battery (Vienna Test System) combined with a set of standard visual parameters recommended for assessing fitness to drive is investigated using an on-road driving test. The study aimed to determine whether a psychometric test battery could predict older adults' on-road driving performance. The relevance of visual standards required by law is discussed. METHODS: Vision impairment is more prevalent in later adulthood and many studies on visual and cognitive impact on driving safety and performance therefore focus on adults above 60 years of age. We therefore acquired an extensive set of driving-related visual and psychometric performance parameters in a group of elderly drivers (N = 84, median age 69, SD 6.6 years). Visual assessment included foveal acuity, perimetric field size, and dynamic aspects of peripheral vision (termed "PP") in the computer-based Vienna Test System (VTS; Schuhfried), as well as letter contrast thresholds in foveal and parafoveal vision in a separate setup. A selection of psychometric driving-aptitude tests that demonstrated the battery's capacity to predict aspects of driving performance and safety were further conducted on the VTS. Driving performance was assessed in a standardized on-road driving test. Two independent observers rated driving performance using a fixed scoring system assessing the number of driving errors in pre-defined traffic situations. In addition, globalized driving competence scores were assigned on a 6-point scale. RESULTS: The test battery performed excellent in identification of good drivers but failed in the prediction of bad driving performance. Visual performance indicators required by German law were less indicative of driving ability than psychometric assessment. Selective and divided attention turned out to be much more important for predicting fitness to drive than either visual acuity, size of the visual field, or contrast sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Predicting fitness to drive by means of visual and psychometric tests is an ambitious challenge. On the one hand sensitivity of a multi-disciplinary test-battery is too low to predict reliable driving ability in diagnostic settings which require an unambiguous interpretation of test results for individual drivers. Low sensitivity and low predictive values are incompatible with that objective. On the other hand, the results are valuable for a routine screening of fitness to drive. For that case, the assessment of attentional abilities in particular appears to be promising. Performance measures of divided and selective attention showed themselves to be the most predictive for fitness to drive in a sample pre-screened for clear visual deficits. Visual performance parameters required by law, in contrast, had no meaningful impact on driving performance, indicating a gap between mandatory regulations of state authorities and research results. Our results suggest that visual acuity tests designed for clinical diagnosis and monitoring of eye diseases should not at all be the choice for a screening of fitness to drive.


Assuntos
Acidentes de Trânsito/prevenção & controle , Atenção/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/legislação & jurisprudência , Psicometria/métodos , Campos Visuais/fisiologia , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Feminino , Alemanha , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Padrões de Referência , Testes Visuais/normas , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/legislação & jurisprudência , Pessoas com Deficiência Visual/psicologia
15.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237461, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790726

RESUMO

Mind wandering (MW) is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from task-related thoughts toward task-unrelated thoughts. Recent studies have demonstrated that MW occurs during tasks in which participants are unmotivated. However, motivation ranges on a continuum from trait to state. We examined the association between trait-state motivation and trait-state MW. Participants (176 undergraduate students 18-24 years old; 68 male) completed three questionnaires for our trait level investigation. State level indices were measured using the experience sampling method with 104 students completing a sustained attention to response task. Through correlation analyses, we demonstrated an association between motivation and MW within the same dimension (trait and state, respectively) but found no association across dimensions in which the correlation coefficient was nearly zero. We show the significant association between motivation and MW whose novelty is especially evident in the trait level. Although the relationship between motivation and MW is substantial, trait-state dimensionality would be important for them. The state MW is a phasic phenomenon driven by a range of factors, one being state motivation. The causality and confounding factors remain to be further studied.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Motivação , Estudantes/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237339, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32833969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cognitive ability refers to the ability to receive, process, store, and extract information. It is the most important psychological condition for people to successfully complete activities. Previous studies have shown that the design of the human-computer interface of the command and control system cannot exceed the cognitive ability of the operator of the command and control system, and it must match the cognitive ability of the operator in order to reduce the mental load intensity, and improve the accuracy, timeliness and work efficiency. However, previous researchers in the field of cognitive science have not put forward a core index system that can represent the cognitive ability of ship command and control system operators and the importance of each index, and there are few achievements that can be used for reference. OBJECTIVE: To explore the core index system of cognitive ability that affecting the cognitive process of command and control system operators, and to verify the index system. METHODS: Based on the classic O*NET questionnaire, two indexes of O*NET were revised, three indexes of response ability were added, and then a questionnaire on the importance evaluation of cognitive abilities index was formed. The questionnaire includes 24 indexes in six aspects: verbal abilities, idea generation and reasoning abilities, quantitative abilities, visual perception abilities, mnemonic and attentive abilities, and response abilities. The cognitive ability importance evaluation data of 202 people from different positions in the ship command and control system were collected. These data reflect the overall level of cognitive ability of operators in the whole ship command and control field. RESULTS: The data analysis results show that: firstly, the most important cognitive abilities affecting command and control system operators were visual perception abilities, mnemonic and attentive abilities, and response abilities. Secondly, the results of confirmatory factor analysis show that CMIN/DF, GFI, CFI, TLI, RMSEA, RMR and other indicators used in the model test all meet the requirements. The model has a good fitting degree, and the overall index extraction method is feasible. Thirdly, the independence T test results show that for beginners and experienced experts, there is a significant difference in the important evaluation of mnemonic and attentive abilities, while there is no significant difference in the important evaluation of response and visual perception abilities. Fourthly, the results of Bi-group confirmatory factor analysis experiment show that the structural model has good stability and factor invariance. CONCLUSIONS: Through the research of this paper, the index system which can express the core cognitive ability of the commander of command and control system is successfully constructed, and the index system has been fully verified by mathematics. The 3 abilities and 10 indexes in the index system are closely related to the work tasks of operators, which also reflects the correctness of our construction results to a certain extent. According to the results of data analysis, there are differences between assistant commanders and professional commanders in the evaluation of the importance of some indexes, which reflects the importance of working age and experience to the promotion of position skills. The results of this research are of great significance for the subsequent acquisition of cognitive ability data and assessment of post cognitive ability of command and control system operators.


Assuntos
Cognição/fisiologia , Militares/psicologia , Navios/instrumentação , Interface Usuário-Computador , Adulto , Atenção/fisiologia , Análise Fatorial , Estudos de Viabilidade , Humanos , Masculino , Memória/fisiologia , Militares/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos Psicológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos , Percepção Visual/fisiologia
17.
Psychol Aging ; 35(6): 881-893, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32816506

RESUMO

The present study investigated age-related differences in the ability to constrain attention to the current task, without contamination (bleeding) from an upcoming decision. Each experiment included two blocks of trials. During Block 1, participants initially incidentally encoded a list of high- and low-frequency words, after which they pronounced aloud the studied words intermixed with a new set of words during a test phase. Block 2 was identical to Block 1 with the exception that after pronouncing each word aloud, participants made an additional decision (episodic recognition decision in Experiments 1 and 2 and animacy decision in Experiment 3). In the first two experiments, older adults showed disproportionate slowing in their response times to pronounce the words when they additionally had to make a recognition judgment afterward (Block 2) compared to when they only pronounced the words aloud (Block 1). Importantly, the difference between high-frequency and low-frequency words (the word frequency effect) was disproportionately attenuated for older adults in Block 2 compared to Block 1 and compared to younger adults. These results suggest that older adults experience greater cross-task bleeding than younger adults because word frequency has opposing effects in pronunciation and recognition tasks. As predicted, this age modulation of the word frequency effect in pronunciation performance was not replicated in Experiment 3 when participants made an animacy judgment, wherein word frequency effects act in concert with those of the pronunciation task. Discussion focuses on age-related differences in the ability to constrain attention to a current task. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/psicologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Tempo de Reação/fisiologia , Reconhecimento Psicológico , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Julgamento , Idioma , Masculino , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237912, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32857813

RESUMO

The present study examined the role of exogenous and endogenous attention in task relevant visual perceptual learning (TR-VPL). VPL performance was assessed by examining the learning to a trained stimulus feature and transfer of learning to an untrained stimulus feature. To assess the differential role of attention in VPL, two types of attentional cues were manipulated; exogenous and endogenous. In order to assess the effectiveness of the attentional cue, the two types of attentional cues were further divided into three cue-validity conditions. Participants were trained, on a novel task, to detect the presence of a complex gabor patch embedded in fixed Gaussian contrast noise while contrast thresholds were varied. The results showed initial differences were found prior to training, and so the magnitude of learning was assessed. Exogenous and endogenous attention were both found to facilitate learning and feature transfer when investigating pre-test and post-test thresholds. However, examination of training data indicate attentional differences; with endogenous attention showing consistently lower contrast thresholds as compared to exogenous attention suggesting greater impact of training with endogenous attention. We conclude that several factors, including the use of stimuli that resulted in rapid learning, may have contributed to the generalization of learning found in the present study.


Assuntos
Atenção/fisiologia , Aprendizagem Espacial/fisiologia , Análise e Desempenho de Tarefas , Percepção Visual/fisiologia , Sensibilidades de Contraste , Sinais (Psicologia) , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
19.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3983, 2020 08 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32770078

RESUMO

Frontal top-down cortical neurons projecting to sensory cortical regions are well-positioned to integrate long-range inputs with local circuitry in frontal cortex to implement top-down attentional control of sensory regions. How adolescence contributes to the maturation of top-down neurons and associated local/long-range input balance, and the establishment of attentional control is poorly understood. Here we combine projection-specific electrophysiological and rabies-mediated input mapping in mice to uncover adolescence as a developmental stage when frontal top-down neurons projecting from the anterior cingulate to visual cortex are highly functionally integrated into local excitatory circuitry and have heightened activity compared to adulthood. Chemogenetic suppression of top-down neuron activity selectively during adolescence, but not later periods, produces long-lasting visual attentional behavior deficits, and results in excessive loss of local excitatory inputs in adulthood. Our study reveals an adolescent sensitive period when top-down neurons integrate local circuits with long-range connectivity to produce attentional behavior.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Comportamento Animal/fisiologia , Neurônios/fisiologia , Potenciais de Ação/fisiologia , Animais , Channelrhodopsins/metabolismo , Giro do Cíngulo/fisiologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Neurológicos , Inibição Neural/fisiologia , Terminações Pré-Sinápticas/fisiologia , Raiva/fisiopatologia , Sinapses/fisiologia , Visão Ocular/fisiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0219233, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790667

RESUMO

Our aim was to examine the effect of a smartphone's presence on learning and memory among undergraduates. A total of 119 undergraduates completed a memory task and the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS). As predicted, those without smartphones had higher recall accuracy compared to those with smartphones. Results showed a significant negative relationship between phone conscious thought, "how often did you think about your phone", and memory recall but not for SAS and memory recall. Phone conscious thought significantly predicted memory accuracy. We found that the presence of a smartphone and high phone conscious thought affects one's memory learning and recall, indicating the negative effect of a smartphone proximity to our learning and memory.


Assuntos
Telefone Celular/tendências , Aprendizagem/fisiologia , Memória/fisiologia , Atenção/fisiologia , Cognição , Dependência Psicológica , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Memória de Curto Prazo/fisiologia , Smartphone , Estudantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
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