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1.
DNA Cell Biol ; 38(10): 1025-1029, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31532239

RESUMO

Neutrophil trafficking into damaged or infected tissues is essential for the initiation of inflammation, clearance of pathogens and damaged cells, and ultimately tissue repair. Neutrophil recruitment is highly dependent on the stepwise induction of adhesion molecules and promigratory chemokines and cytokines. A number of studies in animal models have shown the efficacy of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) agonists in limiting inflammation in a range of preclinical models of inflammation, including colitis, atherosclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and ischemia-reperfusion injury. Recent work in preclinical models of inflammation raises two questions: by what mechanisms do CB2 agonists provide anti-inflammatory effects during acute inflammation and what challenges exist in the translation of CB2 modulating therapeutics into the clinic.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Colite/genética , Esclerose Múltipla/genética , Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/genética , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Agonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Antagonistas de Receptores de Canabinoides/uso terapêutico , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/metabolismo , Colite/patologia , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citocinas/farmacologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Inflamação , Ligantes , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Esclerose Múltipla/tratamento farmacológico , Esclerose Múltipla/metabolismo , Esclerose Múltipla/patologia , Infiltração de Neutrófilos , Neutrófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Neutrófilos/patologia , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/agonistas , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor CB2 de Canabinoide/deficiência , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/tratamento farmacológico , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/metabolismo , Traumatismo por Reperfusão/patologia
2.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1193: 211-220, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368106

RESUMO

Aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) is an important member of the functional aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDHs) family in human beings, playing a fundamental role in the detoxification of acetaldehyde and other aldehydes. In recent years, a number of researches have given attention to the association between ALDH2 and atherosclerosis, which provided insights on targeting ALDH2 for therapeutic intervention of atherosclerosis. In this review, these inspiring studies will be discussed, and the clinical implications and concerns will be expounded.


Assuntos
Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Acetaldeído , Aldeídos , Humanos
3.
Gene ; 711: 143948, 2019 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31255737

RESUMO

The incidence of atherosclerosis is greatly increased, which becomes the leading cause for the death and disability worldwide. Endothelial cells dysfunction plays a substantial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. MicroRNA-148a-3p (miR-148a-3p) and circular RNA 0003575 (circ_0003575) modulated lipid metabolism and proliferative function of endothelial cells, respectively. However, the role of them in modulation of endothelial cell function and progression of atherosclerosis remains unknown. Endothelial cells were isolated from the aorta of Apoe-/- mice. miR-148a-3p in atherosclerosis patients and healthy controls were measured by qRT-PCR. Overexpression and knockdown of miR-148a-3p in endothelial cells were established. The proliferation, migration and apoptosis of endothelial cells were measured by MTT, Transwell, and fluorescence microscope, respectively. Online software (miRWalk 2.0 and RegRNA2.0) and databases (miRWalk, miRanda, RNA22, and Targetscan) were used to predict potential target genes of miR-148a-3p and circ_0003575. The expression of target genes was detected through western blotting. The expression of miR-148a-3p was significantly upregulated in patients with atherosclerosis as relative to healthy people. Overexpression of miR-148a-3p exhibited stimulatory effects on endothelial cell proliferation and migration and inhibited programmed cell death. Six intersection target genes, c-MAF, FOXO4, FOXO3, MITF, ETV7, and CRX, were predicted between miR-148a-3p and circ_0003575. The opposite effects of circ_0003575 and miR-148a-3p on the expression of FOXO4 and FOXO3, which are essential for lipid metabolism. We demonstrate that miR-148a-3p suppresses FOXO4 and FOXO3 expression via interruption of circ_0003575 function, which in turn impairs the proliferative and migratory function of endothelial cells, eventually exacerbating the atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Apolipoproteínas E/deficiência , Aterosclerose/genética , Células Endoteliais/citologia , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , RNA/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apoptose , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Movimento Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Proteína Forkhead Box O3/genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Fatores de Transcrição/genética
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(28): 7869-7879, 2019 Jul 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31287296

RESUMO

Carnitine, a dietary quaternary amine mainly from red meat, is metabolized to trimethylamine (TMA) by gut microbiota and subsequently oxidized to trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) by host hepatic enzymes, flavin monooxygenases (FMOs). The objective of this study aims to investigate the effects of flavonoids from oolong tea and citrus peels on reducing TMAO formation and protecting vascular inflammation in carnitine-feeding mice. The results showed that mice treated with 1.3% carnitine in drinking water significantly (p < 0.05) increased the plasma levels of TMAO compared to control group, whereas the plasma TMAO was remarkedly reduced by flavonoids used. Meanwhile, these dietary phenolic compounds significantly (p < 0.05) decreased hepatic FMO3 mRNA levels compared to carnitine only group. Additionally, oolong tea extract decreased mRNA levels of vascular inflammatory markers such as tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin. Polymethoxyflavones significantly lowered the expression of VCAM-1 and showed a decreasing trend in TNF-α and E-selectin mRNA expression compared to the carnitine group. Genus-level analysis of the gut microbiota in the cecum showed that these dietary phenolic compounds induced an increase in the relative abundances of Bacteroides. Oolong tea extract-treated group up-regulated Lactobacillus genus, compared to the carnitine only group. Administration of polymethoxyflavones increased Akkermansia in mice.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Camellia sinensis/química , Carnitina/metabolismo , Citrus/química , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/microbiologia , Bactérias/classificação , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/isolamento & purificação , Bactérias/metabolismo , Biotransformação/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Flavonas/análise , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Humanos , Metilaminas/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/genética , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 232: 116646, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302193

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some previous studies already explored associations between paraoxonase 1 (PON1) polymorphisms and atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD), with conflicting findings. Here, we aimed to better analyze the relationship between PON1 polymorphisms and ASCVD in a larger combined population by performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: We searched Pubmed, Embase and Web of Science for related articles. We calculated odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to estimate whether there are genetic associations between PON1 polymorphisms and ASCVD. RESULTS: One hundred and nine studies were included for this meta-analysis. The PON1 rs854560 (17,220 cases and 18,570 controls, recessive comparison: OR = 0.83, 95%CI 0.72-0.96) and rs662 (30,717 cases and 54,894 controls, dominant comparison: OR = 0.82, 95% CI 0.77-0.89; recessive comparison: OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.07-1.28; allele comparison: OR = 0.85, 95% CI 0.81-0.90) polymorphisms were both found to be significantly associated with susceptibility to ASCVD in general population. Subgroup analyses by ethnicity revealed similar significant findings for rs854560 polymorphism only in East Asians, while similar positive findings for rs662 polymorphism were observed in Caucasians, East Asians and South Asians. Subgroup analyses by type of disease indicated that the significant findings for rs854560 polymorphism were mainly driven by the ischemic stroke (IS) subgroup, whereas the positive results for rs662 polymorphism were mainly driven by the coronary artery disease (CAD) subgroup. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, this meta-analysis proved that PON1 rs854560 polymorphism could be used to identify individual with elevated susceptibility to IS, whereas rs662 polymorphism could be used to identify individual with elevated susceptibility to CAD.


Assuntos
Arildialquilfosfatase/genética , Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos
6.
Life Sci ; 232: 116664, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31325426

RESUMO

AIMS: MicroRNAs have been demonstrated to be involved in the development of atherosclerosis. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of miR-99a-5p and its target gene Homeobox A1 (HOXA1) in atherosclerosis. MAIN METHODS: The biological functions of miR-99a-5p on human aortic smooth muscle cells (ASMCs) were assessed by MTT, wound healing and transwell assays. The target genes of microRNAs were predicted by TargetScan and miRDB. The binding of miR-99a-5p and HOXA1 was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay. In the in vivo study, high-fat diet-induced atherosclerosis model was established in Apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Hematoxylin-eosin (H&E), oil Red O and Masson trichrome staining were performed for determination of atherosclerotic lesion. The levels of miR-99a-5p and HOXA1 mRNA were detected by real-time PCR. HOXA1 and migration-associated protein levels were detected by western blot or immunohistochemistry analysis. KEY FINDINGS: MiR-99a-5p inhibited HOXA1 expression by targeting 3'UTR of HOXA1 mRNA. Enforced HOXA1 significantly promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ASMCs. Furthermore, miR-99a-5p overexpression inhibited the proliferation, migration, and invasion of ASMCs stimulated by HOXA1, whereas miR-99a-5p inhibition reversed the effects of HOXA1 knockdown on these behaviours of ASMCs. In vivo, the specific overexpression of miR-99a-5p significantly abated atherosclerotic lesions formatted, accompanied with a significant down-regulation of HOXA1 mRNA and protein expression levels. SIGNIFICANCE: We demonstrate for first time that miR-99a-5p may serve as a potential inhibitor of the atherosclerosis, and miR-99a-5p plays its role partially through targeting HOXA1.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Genes Homeobox , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , MicroRNAs/fisiologia , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Regiões 3' não Traduzidas , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Células Cultivadas , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/fisiologia
7.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2631, 2019 06 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201301

RESUMO

Men and women differ in circulating lipids and coronary artery disease (CAD). While sex hormones such as estrogens decrease CAD risk, hormone replacement therapy increases risk. Biological sex is determined by sex hormones and chromosomes, but effects of sex chromosomes on circulating lipids and atherosclerosis are unknown. Here, we use mouse models to separate effects of sex chromosomes and hormones on atherosclerosis, circulating lipids and intestinal fat metabolism. We assess atherosclerosis in multiple models and experimental paradigms that distinguish effects of sex chromosomes, and male or female gonads. Pro-atherogenic lipids and atherosclerosis are greater in XX than XY mice, indicating a primary effect of sex chromosomes. Small intestine expression of enzymes involved in lipid absorption and chylomicron assembly are greater in XX male and female mice with higher intestinal lipids. Together, our results show that an XX sex chromosome complement promotes the bioavailability of dietary fat to accelerate atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Cromossomo X/fisiologia , Transtornos 46, XX do Desenvolvimento Sexual/sangue , Animais , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Dieta Aterogênica/efeitos adversos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Hormônios Esteroides Gonadais/metabolismo , Humanos , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ovário/metabolismo , Fatores Sexuais , Proteína da Região Y Determinante do Sexo/genética , Testículo/metabolismo
8.
BMC Med Genet ; 20(1): 97, 2019 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31164103

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors that include: abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and glucose intolerance. Angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a circulating peptide that is an inhibitor of lipoprotein lipase, a key enzyme in lipid metabolism. The objective of this study was to investigate the association of ANGPTL4 gene variants (E40K) with fasting serum triglyceride levels and with cardiovascular risk factors, that included the presence of MetS in 817 subjects recruited from the Mashhad stroke and heart Atherosclerosis Disorders (MASHAD) cohort Study. METHOD: ANGPTL4 genotypes were determined using a TaqMan genotyping based real time PCR method. The association of the genetic variant with the risk of metabolic syndrome and its relationship with lipid profile were determined. RESULT: The frequency of GG, GA and AA genotypes were 96.9, 2.7 and 0.4% in individuals with MetS, and 78.8, 20.8, 0.4%, in those without MetS. The GA genotype of the rs116843064 polymorphism was associated with a lower risk for MetS (e.g., OR in Codominant genetic model: 0.14, 95% CI: (0.06-0.33), p < 0.0001). Subject with an A allele had a higher risk for MetS (OR: 6.72, 95% CI: (3.05-14.82), p < 0.0001). There was a significant difference in fasted lipid profiles across the genotypes for ANGPTL4. Carriers of the AG genotype had higher levels of serum HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and lower TG, compared to the GG homozygotes genotype. CONCLUSION: The G allele at the rs116843064 polymorphic locus of the ANGPTL4 gene was associated with a lower prevalence of MetS.


Assuntos
Proteína 4 Semelhante a Angiopoietina/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Aterosclerose/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/sangue , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Triglicerídeos/sangue
9.
Life Sci ; 232: 116590, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31228514

RESUMO

Endothelial cell (EC) apoptosis is fundamental for the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis, in which microRNAs (miRNAs) emerge as critical regulators. miR-122 has been shown to regulate the apoptosis of various cell types, however, whether miR-122 is associated with atherosclerosis and EC apoptosis remains unknown. In this study, we found that miR-122 expression was increased in the aortic ECs of ApoE-/- mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD), as compared to normal-diet (ND), implying a potential association between miR-122 elevation and atherogenesis. In addition, in vitro, miR-122 expression was also induced in human aortic ECs (HAECs) by the treatment of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL), a common atherogenic factor. Functionally, miR-122 knockdown suppressed ox-LDL-induced apoptosis of HAECs, suggesting a pro-apoptotic role of miR-122 in HAECs under this pro-atherogenic condition. Further evidence revealed that the X-linked inhibitor-of-apoptosis protein (XIAP) was directly targeted and suppressed by miR-122 in HAECs, and more importantly, XIAP knockdown diminished miR-122 effect on apoptosis, thus establishing XIAP as a prominent target that mediates miR-122 regulation of the apoptosis of HAECs. Together, these results may identify miR-122 as a novel regulator in EC apoptosis, which offers it as a possible target for therapeutic interventions of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/metabolismo , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Linhagem Celular , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/genética , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Camundongos Transgênicos , MicroRNAs/genética , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética
10.
Life Sci ; 232: 116601, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31252000

RESUMO

AIMS: Tet1, Tet2, and interleukin-6 (IL-6) have been linked to atherosclerosis. Whether Tet3 has a relationship with atherosclerosis and IL-6 was unknown. This study aims to determine the link between Tet3 and IL-6, and the role of Tet3 in prenatal hypoxia-induced atherosclerosis in offspring rats. MAIN METHODS: Pregnant rats were divided into hypoxia and control group. Their male offspring were tested at 20 months old. Hematoxylin-eosin staining and transmission electron microscopic staining were used. Gene mRNA and protein levels were measured with q-PCR or Western blotting. Cell viability and migration was tested with MTT or cell scratch assay. 5-hmC and 5-mC expression were obtained by qGlucMS-PCR; 5-hmC and 5-mC activity were obtained by dot blotting. KEY FINDINGS: Chronic prenatal hypoxia increased Tet3 and IL-6 expression, and decreased Tet3 activity in offspring rats. GlucMS-qPCR showed the percentage of 5-hmC was significantly up-regulated in the promoter of IL-6 in both the rats and cells. Moreover, 5-hmC percentage also was increased in the A7r5 cells transfected with Tet3. Furthermore, Tet3 promoted proliferation and migration of A7r5 cells. However, Tet3 was not sensitive to acute hypoxia, while influenced by HIF-1α DNA element. SIGNIFICANCE: Tet3 enhanced IL-6 expression though up-regulating 5-hmC percentage in the IL-6 promoter.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Desoxicitidina/análogos & derivados , Dioxigenases/metabolismo , Hipóxia/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/biossíntese , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Desoxicitidina/metabolismo , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Hipóxia/genética , Hipóxia/patologia , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/genética , Subunidade alfa do Fator 1 Induzível por Hipóxia/metabolismo , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxigenases de Função Mista/metabolismo , Gravidez , Complicações na Gravidez/metabolismo , Complicações na Gravidez/patologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas/metabolismo , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Ratos , Ativação Transcricional , Regulação para Cima
11.
Biochimie ; 163: 152-162, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199942

RESUMO

Extra-cellular signal regulated kinase-5 (Erk-5), a transcriptional activator and regulator of endothelial cells (ECs) homeostasis, has been implicated in shear stress-induced endothelial dysfunction (ED), however its role in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)- induced ED during metabolic stress is not known. Herein, regulation and function of Erk-5 in oxLDL-induced EC death, inflammation and dysfunction has been investigated. Primary Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (pHUVECs) were stimulated with oxLDL. MTT and Trypan blue exclusion assays to assess cell viability, RT-qPCR and Western blotting assays to determine expression of endothelial and inflammatory markers and ED mediators at mRNA and protein levels, respectively were performed. Monocyte adhesion assay was performed to examine monocytes adherence to oxLDL-stimulated pHUVECs. The exposure of oxLDL induced a dose- and time-dependent decrease in pHUVECs viability, which concurred with decreased Erk-5 expression. Further, oxLDL (100 µg/ml) decreased the expression of endothelial markers eNOS and vWF, and increased the expression of ICAM-1, at both mRNA and protein levels. SiRNA-mediated silencing of Erk-5 or its inhibition showed that changes in eNOS, vWF and ICAM-1 expression could be mediated through Erk-5. Furthermore, oxLDL decreased the levels of Erk-5's upstream regulator MEK5 and downstream regulators Mef2c and KLF2, which were similar to their expressions in Erk-5 silenced cells. Fisetin, a phytochemical and bioflavonoid, could reduce the effect of oxLDL in ECs by upregulating the expression of endothelial markers including Erk-5, and downregulating the expression of inflammation markers. These results suggest that Erk-5 could be a critical regulator of oxLDL-induced EC death, inflammation and dysfunction via downregulation of Erk-5/Mef2c-KLF2 signaling pathway, which can be ameliorated by a bioflavonoid, fisetin.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Lipoproteínas LDL/toxicidade , Proteína Quinase 7 Ativada por Mitógeno/metabolismo , Monócitos/fisiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Aterosclerose/induzido quimicamente , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Células Cultivadas , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Inflamação/genética , Inflamação/metabolismo , Inflamação/prevenção & controle , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/genética , Fatores de Transcrição Kruppel-Like/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/genética , Fatores de Transcrição MEF2/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo III/genética , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia
12.
Genet Epidemiol ; 43(7): 776-785, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31218750

RESUMO

Nontraditional glycemic biomarkers, including fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-anhydroglucitol (1,5-AG) are potential alternatives or complement to traditional measures of hyperglycemia. Genetic variants are associated with these biomarkers, but the heritability, or extent to which genetics control their variation, is not known. We estimated pedigree-based, SNP-based, and bivariate heritabilities for traditional glycemic biomarkers (fasting glucose, HbA1c), and nontraditional biomarkers (fructosamine, glycated albumin, 1,5-AG) among white participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study (N = 400 first-degree relatives from sibships, N = 5,575 unrelated individuals). Pedigree-based heritabilities (representing heritability from the entire genome) for nontraditional biomarkers were substantial (0.44-0.55) and comparable to HbA1c (0.34); the fasting glucose estimate was nonsignificant. SNP-based heritabilities (representing heritability from common variants) were lower than pedigree-based heritabilities for all biomarkers. Bivariate heritabilities showed shared genetics between fructosamine and glycated albumin (0.46 pedigree-based, 1.00 SNP-based) and glycated albumin and 1,5-AG (0.50 pedigree-based, 0.47 SNP-based). Genetic factors contribute to a considerable proportion of the variance of fructosamine, glycated albumin, and 1,5-AG and a portion of this heritability likely comes from common variants.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/genética , Padrões de Herança/genética , Glicemia/metabolismo , Feminino , Frutosamina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco , Albumina Sérica/metabolismo
13.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 107, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043156

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) refers to a series of diseases caused by atherosclerosis (AS). It is one of the most important causes of death worldwide. According to the inflammatory response theory, macrophages play a critical role in AS. However, the potential targets associated with macrophages in the development of AS are still obscure. This study aimed to use bioinformatics tools for screening and identifying molecular targets in AS macrophages. METHODS: Two expression profiling datasets (GSE7074 and GSE9874) were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus dataset, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between non-AS macrophages and AS macrophages were identified. Functional annotation of the DEGs was performed by analyzing the Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes databases. STRING and Cytoscape were employed for constructing a protein-protein interaction network and analyzing hub genes. RESULTS: A total of 98 DEGs were distinguished between non-AS macrophages and AS macrophages. The functional variations in DEGs were mainly enriched in response to hypoxia, respiratory gaseous exchange, protein binding, and intracellular, ciliary tip, early endosome membrane, and Lys63-specific deubiquitinase activities. Three genes were identified as hub genes, including KDELR3, CD55, and DYNC2H1. CONCLUSION: Hub genes and DEGs identified by using microarray techniques can be used as diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers for AS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos , Análise por Conglomerados , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Ontologia Genética , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética
14.
Braz J Med Biol Res ; 52(5): e8108, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038578

RESUMO

Animal models of diseases are invaluable tools of modern medicine. More than forty years have passed since the first successful experiments and the spectrum of available models, as well as the list of methods for creating them, have expanded dramatically. The major step forward in creating specific disease models was the development of gene editing techniques, which allowed for targeted modification of the animal's genome. In this review, we discuss the available tools for creating transgenic animal models, such as transgenesis methods, recombinases, and nucleases, including zinc finger nuclease (ZFN), transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN), and CRISPR/Cas9 systems. We then focus specifically on the models of atherosclerosis, especially mouse models that greatly contributed to improving our understanding of the disease pathogenesis and we outline their characteristics and limitations.


Assuntos
Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Engenharia Genética/métodos , Nucleases dos Efetores Semelhantes a Ativadores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Pesquisa Biomédica/métodos , Feminino , Técnicas de Transferência de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos
15.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 47(1): 2031-2041, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31116040

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is a complex disease with involvement of intermediate-, large-sized arteries. Atherosclerosis is characterized by the accumulation of vascular lipids, immune system activation, inflammation, oxidative stress and oxidized low-density lipoproteins (LDLs), endothelial cell (EC) activation, arterial smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation, macrophage activation and foam cell formation that cause endothelial dysfunction. DNA methylation is one of important epigenetic mechanisms which changes gene expression. It has been evident that this mechanism plays an important role in the initiation and propagation of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, DNA methylation is a crucial and distinct mechanism that modulates genes governing cell proliferation, thereby connecting environmental insults with gene expression. This study represents many atherosclerosis-related genes which are regulated through DNA methylation mechanism. Although the role of epigenetics in atherosclerosis is at their infancy. Nevertheless, various studies demonstrated that DNA methylation involvement in this disease is undeniable. DNA methyltransferases are the main player of the smooth muscle cell proliferation, endothelial cell integrity, as well as arteriosclerosis formation. In this review, we focus on recent achievements in the functional and description interpretation of the DNA methylation pattern of cells and tissues implicated in atherosclerosis. Besides, we discuss the association of DNA methylation with oxidative stress, hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), ageing, and inflammation in the development and pathogenesis of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Metilação de DNA , Envelhecimento/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/complicações , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Humanos , Hiper-Homocisteinemia/complicações , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31049144

RESUMO

Given its role in many biochemical processes essential to life, cholesterol remains a topic of intense research. Of all the plasma lipids, cholesterol is distinctive because it is a precursor to steroidogenic molecules, some of which regulate metabolism, and its blood concentration in the form of low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) are positive and negative risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). New research, however, has challenged the widely held belief that high HDL-C levels are atheroprotective and is showing that both low and high plasma HDL-C levels confer an increased risk of ASCVD. Furthermore, it is disputing the widely cited mechanism involved in reverse cholesterol transport. This review explores the evolution of cholesterol research starting with the Gofman and Framingham studies, the development of traditional and emerging lipid-lowering therapies, and the role of reverse cholesterol transport in HDL cardioprotection.


Assuntos
Anticolesterolemiantes/uso terapêutico , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Colesterol na Dieta/efeitos adversos , Colesterol na Dieta/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/efeitos adversos , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , LDL-Colesterol/efeitos adversos , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Animais , Anticolesterolemiantes/efeitos adversos , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Transporte Biológico , Humanos , Placa Aterosclerótica , Prognóstico , Fatores de Proteção , Fatores de Risco
17.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(1): e12766, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30929259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPa) is an essential signalling molecule that modulates inflammatory responses in macrophages. However, the regulation of SIRPs and its dynamic changes in macrophages under inflammatory stimulation in atherosclerosis remain uncertain. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to identify the miRNAs that regulate SIRPa transcription and their roles in modulating phagocytosis, differentiation and cholesterol efflux in macrophages. METHODS: ApoE knockout mice were fed with a high-fat diet for 12 weeks. Intimal lesion areas and lipid accumulation were assessed by haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and oil red O staining. The expression of mRNAs/miRNAs was assessed by RNA-seq (RNA sequencing) and RT-qPCR (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction). The identification of miR-378a associated with SIRPa regulation in macrophages induced by ox-LDL was confirmed by RT-qPCR and Western blot. The phagocytosis and differentiation of macrophages were detected to figure out the role of miR-378a and SIRPa. RESULTS: SIRPa was proved to be a target of miR-378a. Reduced miR-378a can promote the expression of SIRPa. RNA-seq data showed that the levels of mRNA associated with macrophage phenotypes and SIRPa-CD47 axis were increasing significantly with a decreasing phagocytic phenotype in ApoE-/- mice vs wild-type (WT) mice (P < 0.01). The level of miR-378a was reduced in the aorta of ApoE-/- mice vs WT mice. The experiment in vitro showed that overexpression of miR-378a in macrophages decreased the level of Sirpa mRNA obviously vs control (P < 0.01). The phagocytic activity of miR-378a-transfected macrophages was promoted vs control (P < 0.05). miR-378a significantly depleted Sirpa levels in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-stimulated macrophages (P < 0.05), and depletion of miR-378a reversed Sirpa reduction obviously (P < 0.05). miR-378a promoted the secretion of TNF-a and IL-6 indirectly. CONCLUSION: It has been demonstrated that miR-378a regulates SIRPa-mediated phagocytosis and polarization of macrophages by a direct or indirect way. This research may provide a new path to promote reverse cholesterol transport of macrophages and hinder the progress of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Inflamação/genética , Macrófagos/fisiologia , MicroRNAs/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/imunologia , Antígeno CD47/genética , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Colesterol/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Humanos , Inflamação/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Fagocitose/genética , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Transdução de Sinais
18.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2019: 7306867, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30944697

RESUMO

Oxidative and inflammatory substances play an important role in the genesis of processes related to cardiometabolic risk. High levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) and of triggering receptor-expressed myeloid cells (TREM-1) are associated with cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. In this study, we evaluate the association of the plasma concentrations of Ox-LDL and serum levels of circulating TREM-1 (sTREM-1) with the components of cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and other associated risk parameters. Although the individuals in this study were young, nonobese, and did not have signs, symptoms, and diagnosis of diseases, they already presented components of CMR. Ox-LDL lipid fraction correlated positively with CMR-related markers: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), body fat percentage, total cholesterol, LDL-c, VLDL-c, triglycerides, atherogenic cholesterol, and atherogenic index. Among these parameters, atherogenic cholesterol had a greater predictive effect for Ox-LDL alterations. Individuals with higher serum concentrations of sTREM-1 presented higher values for BMI, WC, triglycerides, VLDL-c, and atherogenic cholesterol. WC showed an effect on the association between the sTREM-1's inflammatory response and the components of CMR. The association of oxidative and inflammatory markers with anthropometric parameters and atherogenic cholesterol in nonobese, clinically healthy, and young individuals suggests the importance of early evaluation of these markers in order to prevent future cardiac events.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Receptor Gatilho 1 Expresso em Células Mieloides/metabolismo , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
19.
Lipids Health Dis ; 18(1): 104, 2019 Apr 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31010436

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In recent years, an increasing number of studies have proved that circulating miRNAs could be used for the early diagnosis of cardiovascular diseases and even play vital roles in the evaluation of therapeutic effects or prognosis. This study was conducted to examine the correlation between serum microRNAs and hyperlipidemia to provide a theoretical basis for the early screening and intervention of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (ASCVD). METHODS: The serum samples and clinical data of 122 patients with hyperlipidemia and 168 healthy subjects were collected. Related clinical information was statistically analyzed for the two groups. Expression of circulating miRNAs was detected by miRNA microarray analysis and further verified by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). RESULTS: Statistical analysis of clinical information revealed a significant difference in the incidence of ASCVD between the two groups. The MiRNA microarray analysis (n = 10) showed 22 miRNAs with significantly different expression, among which 12 showed upregulation, and the others showed downregulation. Those possessing obvious differences and stable expression in the miRNA microarray, including miRNA-191-3p, miRNA-933, and miRNA-425-3p, were chosen for further investigation using RT-qPCR. The results demonstrated that several miRNAs were related to lipid metabolism disorders, especially miRNA-933. The area under the curve (AUC) of miRNA-933 in distinguishing the hyperlipidemia and ASCVD patients was 0.739 (95% CI, 0.682-0.795; P < 0.01) and 0.703 (95% CI, 0.643-0.763, P < 0.01), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, miRNA-191-3p, miRNA-933, and miRNA-425-3p may be depressed in the peripheral circulation of patients with lipid metabolism disorders (mainly LDL). Circulating miRNA-933 could be a feasible predictor for ASCVD at the early stage.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , MicroRNA Circulante/genética , Hiperlipidemias/sangue , Hiperlipidemias/genética , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos de Casos e Controles , MicroRNA Circulante/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(7)2019 Apr 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959963

RESUMO

Lifestyle choices play a significant role in the etiology of atherosclerosis. Male Apoe-/- mice that develop spontaneous atherosclerotic lesions were fed 0%, 0.3%, and 0.4% mangosteen extracts, composed largely of α-mangostin (MG), for 17 weeks. Body weight gains were significantly decreased in both MG-treated groups compared to the control, but the general condition remained good throughout the study. The levels of total cholesterol (decreased very-low-density lipoprotein in lipoprotein profile) and triglycerides decreased significantly in the MG-treated mice in conjunction with decreased hepatic HMG-CoA synthase and Fatty acid transporter. Additionally, increased serum lipoprotein lipase activity and histopathology further showed a significant reduction in atherosclerotic lesions at both levels of MG exposure. Real-time PCR analysis for macrophage indicators showed a significant elevation in the levels of Cd163, an M2 macrophage marker, in the lesions of mice receiving 0.4% MG. However, the levels of Nos2, associated with M1 macrophages, showed no change. In addition, quantitative immunohistochemical analysis of macrophage subtypes showed a tendency for increased M2 populations (CD68⁺/CD163⁺) in the lesions of mice given 0.4% MG. In further analysis of the cytokine-polarizing macrophage subtypes, the levels of Interleukin13 (Il13), associated with M2 polarization, were significantly elevated in lesions exposed to 0.4% MG. Thus, MG could suppress the development of atherosclerosis in Apoe-/- mice, possibly through an M2 macrophage-mediated mechanism.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Xantonas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Apolipoproteínas E/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/sangue , Aterosclerose/genética , Colesterol/sangue , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Placa Aterosclerótica/sangue , Placa Aterosclerótica/tratamento farmacológico , Placa Aterosclerótica/genética , Placa Aterosclerótica/metabolismo , Xantonas/química
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