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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 45(17): 4099-4111, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33164394

RESUMO

The aim of this paper was to explore the mechanism of Xiaoyao Powder in treating atherosclerosis and depressive disorder with concept of "treating different diseases with same method" based on network pharmacology. TCMSP(Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform) and SymMap databases were used to search all the chemical components and targets related to Xiaoyao Powder. After preliminary screening, the network of "herbs-compounds-targets" was constructed. Through DisGeNET, CTD(Comparative Toxicogenomics Database) and TTD(Therapeutic Target Database), the targets of atherosclerosis and depressive disorder were obtained. The common targets were obtained by intersecting the herbal targets and disease targets. In order to screen the key common targets, STRING and Cytoscape were used to analyze the protein-protein interaction of common targets. BioGPS was used to obtain their distribution information in organs and tissues. Gene ontology(GO) and Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes(KEGG) analysis were conducted through Metascape. About 1 355 compounds of Xiaoyao Powder were found by TCMSP and Symmap database; 161 active compounds were screened out according to standard of oral bioavailability≥30% and drug like index≥0.18; 274 herbal targets were obtained and the "herbs-compounds-targets" network was constructed. About 1 004 atherosclerosis targets and 578 depressive disorder targets were obtained, and 37 common targets were obtained after intersection with herbal targets. By using STRING and Cytoscape for protein-protein interaction analysis, 18 key targets were screened. BioGPS showed that the key common targets were mainly distributed in heart, amygdala, pineal, liver and smooth muscle. Metascape was used for GO enrichment analysis and the results showed that there were 929 biological processes, 25 cell components and 23 molecular functions. Enrichment ana-lysis of KEGG showed that there were 108 signal pathways such as AGE-RAGE, HIF-1, FoxO, Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 signal pathways, which were mainly related to neuroendocrine system, metabolism, immune inflammation and oxidative stress. In conclusion, the main mechanism of Xiaoyao Powder in treating atherosclerosis and depressive disorder with concept of "treating different diseases with same method" was related to neuroendocrine system, metabolism, immune inflammation and oxidative stress-related signal pathway, providing reference for further experimental verification, potential pharmacological mechanism and clinical application.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Transtorno Depressivo , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Aterosclerose/genética , Humanos , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa
2.
Biol Res ; 53(1): 44, 2020 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008472

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis (AS) is the main pathological basis of coronary heart disease, cerebral infarction and peripheral vascular disease, which seriously endanger people's life and health. In recent years, long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been found to be involved in gene expression regulation, but the research on AS is still in the initial stage. In this study, we mainly studied the role of HCG11 in patients with AS. Quantitative Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (QRT-PCR) was used to detect the expression of HCG11 and miR-144 in the serum of AS patients and healthy volunteers. Oxidation Low Lipoprotein (Ox-LDL), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF α) radiation were used to establish human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in vitro model. Cell proliferation was determined by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. The apoptosis rate was determined by flow cytometry (FACS) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling assay (TUNEL) staining. The expression levels of Forkhead box protein F1 (FOXF1), B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) and BCL2-Associated X (Bax) were detected by qRT-PCR. Luciferase gene reporter and RNA pull down experiments confirmed the relationship between HCG11 and miR-144, miR-144 and FOXF1. RESULTS: This study showed that HCG11 was significantly upregulated in patients with AS, while miR-144 was down-regulated in patients with AS. Ox-LDL and IL-6 in VSMCs induced up-regulation of HCG11 and down-regulation of miR-144. Overexpression of HCG11 promoted the proliferation and inhibited apoptosis of VSMCs. Luciferase gene reporter gene assay showed that HCG11 could bind to miR-144, and miR-144 could bind to FOXF1. Overexpression of miR-144 reversed the effect of HCG11 on VSMCs. CONCLUSIONS: LncRNA HCG11 regulates proliferation and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cell through targeting miR-144-3p/FOXF1 axis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , MicroRNAs/genética , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Apoptose/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Músculo Liso Vascular/citologia
3.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 5426, 2020 10 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110060

RESUMO

Novel atherosclerosis models are needed to guide clinical therapy. Here, we report an in vitro model of early atherosclerosis by fabricating and perfusing multi-layer arteriole-scale human tissue-engineered blood vessels (TEBVs) by plastic compression. TEBVs maintain mechanical strength, vasoactivity, and nitric oxide (NO) production for at least 4 weeks. Perfusion of TEBVs at a physiological shear stress with enzyme-modified low-density-lipoprotein (eLDL) with or without TNFα promotes monocyte accumulation, reduces vasoactivity, alters NO production, which leads to endothelial cell activation, monocyte accumulation, foam cell formation and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Removing eLDL leads to recovery of vasoactivity, but not loss of foam cells or recovery of permeability, while pretreatment with lovastatin or the P2Y11 inhibitor NF157 reduces monocyte accumulation and blocks foam cell formation. Perfusion with blood leads to increased monocyte adhesion. This atherosclerosis model can identify the role of drugs on specific vascular functions that cannot be assessed in vivo.


Assuntos
Arteríolas/fisiopatologia , Aterosclerose/fisiopatologia , Arteríolas/química , Arteríolas/citologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Fenômenos Biomecânicos , Adesão Celular , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , Células Espumosas/citologia , Células Espumosas/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Monócitos/citologia , Monócitos/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Engenharia Tecidual , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
4.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239284, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941503

RESUMO

The Rho GTPase RAC1 is an important regulator of cytoskeletal dynamics, but the role of macrophage-specific RAC1 has not been explored during atherogenesis. We analyzed RAC1 expression in human carotid atherosclerotic plaques using immunofluorescence and found higher macrophage RAC1 expression in advanced plaques compared with intermediate human atherosclerotic plaques. We then produced mice with Rac1-deficient macrophages by breeding conditional floxed Rac1 mice (Rac1fl/fl) with mice expressing Cre from the macrophage-specific lysosome M promoter (LC). Atherosclerosis was studied in vivo by infecting Rac1fl/fl and Rac1fl/fl/LC mice with AdPCSK9 (adenoviral vector overexpressing proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9). Rac1fl/fl/LC macrophages secreted lower levels of IL-6 and TNF-α and exhibited reduced foam cell formation and lipid uptake. The deficiency of Rac1 in macrophages reduced the size of aortic atherosclerotic plaques in AdPCSK9-infected Rac1fl/fl/LC mice. Compare with controls, intima/media ratios, the size of necrotic cores, and numbers of CD68-positive macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques were reduced in Rac1-deficient mice. Moreover, we found that RAC1 interacts with actin-binding filamin A. Macrophages expressed increased RAC1 levels in advanced human atherosclerosis. Genetic inactivation of RAC1 impaired macrophage function and reduced atherosclerosis in mice, suggesting that drugs targeting RAC1 may be useful in the treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Neuropeptídeos/genética , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/genética , Antígenos de Diferenciação Mielomonocítica/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas rac1 de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
5.
Life Sci ; 259: 118241, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791147

RESUMO

AIMS: Compelling evidences demonstrate that informative RNAs play essential role in therapy of atherosclerosis. Here, we attempted to study the role of hsa_circ_0000345 (circRSF1) in endothelial cell damage through competing endogenous RNA pathway. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Expression of circRSF1, miRNA-758-3p (miR-758) and cyclin D2 (CCND2) was detected using RT-qPCR and western blotting, and the cross-talk among them was identified using dual-luciferase reporter assay and RNA immunoprecipitation. The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level was measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Cell growth was measured by MTS assay, flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay kit. Migration and tube formation were determined by scratch migration assay and tube formation assay, respectively. KEY FINDINGS: CircRSF1 and CCND2 were downregulated, whereas miR-758 was upregulated in serum of patients with atherosclerosis and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-treated human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Moreover, levels of circRSF1, miR-758 and CCND2 were correlated with circulating LDL-C level. Restoring circRSF1 and silencing miR-758 could improve cell viability, tube formation and migration of HAECs under ox-LDL treatment, as well as attenuated apoptotic rate and caspase-3 activity. However, miR-758 upregulation counteracted the promotion of circRSF1 on cell growth, migration and tube formation in ox-LDL-induced HAECs; so did CCND2 deletion on effect of miR-758 silence. Notably, circRSF1 and CCND2 could competitively bound to miR-758, and circRSF1 positively regulated CCND2 expression via miR-758. SIGNIFICANCE: CircRSF1 could protect against ox-LDL-induced endothelial cell injury in vitro via miR-758/CCND2 axis, suggesting circRSF1 as a potential target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/sangue , Ciclina D2/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/sangue , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , RNA Circular/sangue , Transativadores/genética , Adulto , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ciclo Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ciclina D2/genética , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangue , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Lipoproteínas LDL/farmacologia , Masculino , MicroRNAs/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , RNA Circular/genética , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos
6.
Life Sci ; 259: 118251, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32795540

RESUMO

AIMS: Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are relevant to atherosclerosis progression. However, the role and mechanism of circRNA hsa_circ_0029589 (circ_0029589) in atherosclerosis are not fully understood. This research aims to explore the function and mechanism of circ_0029589 in oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-caused vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) injury in vitro. MAIN METHODS: VSMCs were challenged via ox-LDL to mimic atherosclerosis-like injury in vitro. Circ_0029589, microRNA-214-3p (miR-214-3p) and stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1) abundances were detected via quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction or western blot. Cell proliferation was investigated via cell viability, cycle, apoptosis and proliferation-associated protein levels. Cell migration and invasion were assessed via transwell analysis. The relationship between miR-214-3p and circ_0029589 or STIM1 was tested via dual-luciferase reporter analysis and RNA immunoprecipitation. KEY FINDINGS: Circ_0029589 level was enhanced in ox-LDL-challenged VSMCs. Circ_0029589 interference constrained cell proliferation, migration and invasion in ox-LDL-challenged VSMCs. miR-214-3p was targeted by circ_0029589 and miR-214-3p knockdown weakened the suppressive function of circ_0029589 silence on VSMCs proliferation, migration and invasion. STIM1 was targeted via miR-214-3p and miR-214-3p could suppress VSMCs proliferation, migration and invasion via decreasing STIM1. Moreover, circ_0029589 modulated STIM1 level by miR-214-3p. SIGNIFICANCE: Circ_0029589 knockdown repressed proliferation, migration and invasion of VSMCs challenged via ox-LDL by regulating miR-214-3p and STIM1, indicating that circ_0029589 might play important role in atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Proteínas de Neoplasias/metabolismo , RNA Circular/metabolismo , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/metabolismo , Apoptose/fisiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proliferação de Células/fisiologia , Sobrevivência Celular/fisiologia , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , MicroRNAs/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/fisiologia , Invasividade Neoplásica , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , RNA Circular/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Molécula 1 de Interação Estromal/genética
7.
Life Sci ; 258: 118030, 2020 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32739470

RESUMO

The risk of atherosclerosis (AS) ascends among post-menopausal women, while current hormone replacement therapy exerts several adverse effects. Alisol B 23-acetate (AB23A), a tetracyclic triterpenoid isolated from the rhizome of Alisma orientale, was reported to show multiple physiological activities, including regulating lipid metabolism. According to molecular docking analysis, it was predicted to bind with estrogen receptor α (ERα). In this study, we aimed to observe the effect of AB23A on preventing post-menopausal AS and explore whether the mechanism was mediated by ERα. In vitro, free fatty acid (FFA) was applied to induce the abnormal lipid metabolism of L02 cells. In vivo, the ApoE-/- mice were ovariectomized to mimic the cessation of estrogen. The high-fat diet was also given to induce post-menopausal AS. We demonstrated AB23A attenuated the accumulation of total cholesterol and triglyceride induced by free fatty acids in hepatocytes. In high-fat diet-ovariectomy-treated ApoE-/- mice, AB23A eliminated lipids in blood and liver. AB23A not only reduced the synthesis of proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) through sterol-regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) but also suppressed the secretion of PCSK9 through silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1). Notably, AB23A promoted the expression of ERα in vivo and in vitro. The both ERα inhibitor and ERα siRNA were also applied in confirming whether the hepatic protective effect of AB23A was mediated by ERα. We found that AB23A significantly promoted the expression of ERα. AB23A could inhibit the synthesis and secretion of PCSK9 through ERα, lower the accumulation of triglyceride and cholesterol, and prevent post-menopausal AS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/patologia , Colestenonas/farmacologia , Receptor alfa de Estrogênio/metabolismo , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pós-Menopausa/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Colestenonas/química , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Feminino , Lipoproteínas LDL/metabolismo , Camundongos , Ovariectomia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Sirtuína 1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a Elemento Regulador de Esterol/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236834, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780748

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Pulse wave velocity (PWV), an indicator of vascular stiffness, increases with age and is increasingly recognized as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although many mechanical and chemical factors underlie the stiffness of the elastic artery, genetic risk factors related to age-dependent increases in PWV in apparently healthy people are largely unknown. The transcription factor nuclear factor E2 (NF-E2)-related factor 2 (Nrf2), which is activated by unidirectional vascular pulsatile shear stress or oxidative stress, regulates vascular redox homeostasis. Previous reports have shown that a SNP in the NRF2 gene regulatory region (-617C>A; hereafter called SNP-617) affects NRF2 gene expression such that the minor A allele confers lower gene expression compared to the C allele, and it is associated with various diseases, including CVD. We aimed to investigate whether SNP-617 affects vascular stiffness with aging in apparently healthy people. METHODS: Analyzing wide-ranging data obtained from a public health survey performed in Japan, we evaluated whether SNP-617 affected brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV) in never-smoking healthy subjects (n = 642). We also evaluated the effects of SNP-617 on other cardiovascular and blood test measurements. RESULTS: We have shown that not only AA carriers (n = 55) but also CA carriers (n = 247) show arterial stiffness compared to CC carriers (n = 340). Furthermore, SNP-617 also affected blood pressure indexes such as systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure but not the ankle brachial pressure index, an indicator of atherosclerosis. Multivariate analysis showed that SNP-617 accelerates the incremental ratio of baPWV with age. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to show that SNP-617 affects the age-dependent increase in vascular stiffness. Our results indicate that low NRF2 activity induces premature vascular aging and could be targeted for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases associated with aging.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/genética , Rigidez Vascular/fisiologia , Adulto , Alelos , Índice Tornozelo-Braço , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Pressão Sanguínea , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fumar
9.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2095-2107, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32757647

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Apo (apolipoprotein) CIII mediates the metabolism of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins. High levels of plasma apoCIII are positively correlated with the plasma TG levels and increase the cardiovascular risk. However, whether apoCIII is directly involved in the development of atherosclerosis has not been fully elucidated. Approach and Results: To examine the possible roles of apoCIII in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis, we generated apoCIII KO (knockout) rabbits using ZFN (zinc finger nuclease) technique. On a normal standard diet, apoCIII KO rabbits exhibited significantly lower plasma levels of TG than those of WT (wild type) rabbits while total cholesterol and HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol levels were unchanged. Analysis of lipoproteins isolated by sequential ultracentrifugation revealed that reduced plasma TG levels in KO rabbits were accompanied by prominent reduction of VLDLs (very-low-density lipoproteins) and IDLs (intermediate-density lipoproteins). In addition, KO rabbits showed faster TG clearance rate after intravenous fat load than WT rabbits. On a cholesterol-rich diet, KO rabbits exhibited constantly and significantly lower levels of plasma total cholesterol and TG than WT rabbits, which was caused by a remarkable reduction of ß-VLDLs-the major atherogenic lipoproteins. ß-VLDLs of KO rabbits showed higher uptake by cultured hepatocytes and were cleared faster from the circulation than ß-VLDLs isolated from WT rabbits. Both aortic and coronary atherosclerosis was significantly reduced in KO rabbits compared with WT rabbits. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that apoCIII deficiency facilitates TG-rich lipoprotein catabolism, and therapeutic inhibition of apoCIII expression may become a novel means not only for the treatment of hyperlipidemia but also for atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Doenças da Aorta/prevenção & controle , Apolipoproteína C-III/deficiência , Aterosclerose/prevenção & controle , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/prevenção & controle , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Doenças da Aorta/genética , Doenças da Aorta/metabolismo , Doenças da Aorta/patologia , Apolipoproteína C-III/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , HDL-Colesterol/sangue , VLDL-Colesterol/sangue , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/genética , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/metabolismo , Doença da Artéria Coronariana/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Células Hep G2 , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Humanos , Lipoproteínas IDL/sangue , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Oxirredução , Placa Aterosclerótica , Coelhos
10.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 21(1): 283, 2020 Jul 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620072

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The problem of assessing associations between multiple omics data including genomics and metabolomics data to identify biomarkers potentially predictive of complex diseases has garnered considerable research interest nowadays. A popular epidemiology approach is to consider an association of each of the predictors with each of the response using a univariate linear regression model, and to select predictors that meet a priori specified significance level. Although this approach is simple and intuitive, it tends to require larger sample size which is costly. It also assumes variables for each data type are independent, and thus ignores correlations that exist between variables both within each data type and across the data types. RESULTS: We consider a multivariate linear regression model that relates multiple predictors with multiple responses, and to identify multiple relevant predictors that are simultaneously associated with the responses. We assume the coefficient matrix of the responses on the predictors is both row-sparse and of low-rank, and propose a group Dantzig type formulation to estimate the coefficient matrix. CONCLUSION: Extensive simulations demonstrate the competitive performance of our proposed method when compared to existing methods in terms of estimation, prediction, and variable selection. We use the proposed method to integrate genomics and metabolomics data to identify genetic variants that are potentially predictive of atherosclerosis cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) beyond well-established risk factors. Our analysis shows some genetic variants that increase prediction of ASCVD beyond some well-established factors of ASCVD, and also suggest a potential utility of the identified genetic variants in explaining possible association between certain metabolites and ASCVD.


Assuntos
Genômica/métodos , Metabolômica/métodos , Aterosclerose/genética , Variação Genética , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Análise Multivariada
11.
Yi Chuan ; 42(7): 632-640, 2020 Jul 20.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32694103

RESUMO

As an epigenetic modification, DNA hydroxymethylation plays a significant role in regulating gene expression. In recent years, there has been increasing evidence that suggests abnormal changes of 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) and ten-eleven translocation (TET) family proteins in cardiovascular diseases, indicating cardiovascular diseases are closely connected with DNA hydroxymethylation. The level of DNA hydroxymethylation is affected by some common risk factors of atherosclerosis, such as aging, gender, hypertension and smoking. It is also related to the immune and inflammatory reaction involved in the process of atherosclerosis as well as the function of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. In this review, we summarize the mechanism and research status of DNA hydroxymethylation and TET family proteins towards atherosclerosis, aiming to provide a reference for the development, diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , Metilação de DNA , 5-Metilcitosina , Aterosclerose/genética , DNA , Células Endoteliais , Epigênese Genética , Humanos
12.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(1): 113-117, 2020 May 25.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32621415

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis is an important pathological basis for coronary artery disease. ANRIL is an antisense non-coding RNA located in Chr9p21 locus, which was identified as the most significant risk locus associated with atherosclerosis. ANRIL can produce multiple transcripts including linear and circular transcripts after various transcript splicing. It has been illustrated that ANRIL plays important roles in the pathology of atherosclerosis by regulating the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular cells. Linear ANRIL can regulate the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in plaques by chromatin modification, as well as influence the proliferation and the apoptosis of macrophages in post transcription; circular ANRIL can affect the proliferation and apoptosis of VSMCs by chromatin modification as well as interfering with rRNA maturation. In this review, we describe the ANRIL evolution, different transcripts characteristics, and their roles in the proliferation and apoptosis of vascular cells to participate in the process of atherosclerosis, for further understanding the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and finding potential targets for diagnosis and treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose , RNA Longo não Codificante , Apoptose/genética , Aterosclerose/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Humanos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo
13.
Life Sci ; 257: 118053, 2020 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32634424

RESUMO

AIMS: Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) play a crucial role in the progression of atherosclerosis. Paired box 9 (Pax9) is a member of the Pax gene family which participates in the development of various tissues and organs. However, the effect of Pax9 on atherosclerosis and VSMCs and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. MAIN METHODS: Western blotting was performed to assess Pax9 expression in atherosclerosis and VSMCs. Pax9 siRNA and overexpression plasmid were constructed to explore the biological function. Cell proliferation assay, phalloidin staining, and Transwell assay, accompanied by the sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway antagonist, cyclopamine (5 µM) and agonist, SAG (100 nM), were used to evaluate the VSMC phenotype, proliferation, and migration, as well as explore the associated mechanisms. KEY FINDINGS: We first discovered Pax9 to be significantly increased in atherosclerotic mice and platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB)-induced VSMCs. Pax9 knockdown inhibited the phenotypic transformation, proliferation, and migration of VSMCs, whereas the opposite effect was observed when Pax9 was overexpressed. Next, we established that Shh was activated in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Moreover, Pax9 overexpression further activated Shh and exacerbated the phenotypic transformation, proliferation, and migration of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. These changes were effectively inhibited by treatment with the Shh signaling pathway antagonist. Consistently, Pax9 knockdown down-regulated Shh expression and inhibited the phenotypic transformation, proliferation, and migration of PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs. Treatment with the Shh signaling pathway agonist prevented these changes. SIGNIFICANCE: Pax9 regulated VSMC phenotypic transformation, proliferation, and migration via Shh, which may represent a novel target for the treatment of atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Proteínas Hedgehog/genética , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/citologia , Fator de Transcrição PAX9/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/patologia , Becaplermina/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/genética , Proliferação de Células/genética , Cicloexilaminas/farmacologia , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Fenótipo , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Tiofenos/farmacologia , Alcaloides de Veratrum/farmacologia
14.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2227-2243, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640901

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounding arteries supports healthy vascular function. During obesity, PVAT loses its vasoprotective effect. We study pathological conversion of PVAT, which involves molecular changes in protein profiles and functional changes in adipocytes. Approach and Results: C57BL6/J mice were fed a 60% high-fat diet for 12 weeks or a cardioprotective 30% calorie-restricted diet for 5 weeks. Proteomic analysis identified PVAT as a molecularly distinct adipose depot, and novel markers for thermogenic adipocytes, such as GRP75 (stress-70 protein, mitochondrial), were identified. High-fat diet increased the similarity of protein signatures in PVAT and brown adipose, suggesting activation of a conserved whitening pathway. The whitening phenotype was characterized by suppression of UCP1 (uncoupling protein 1) and increased lipid deposition, leptin, and inflammation, and specifically in PVAT, elevated Notch signaling. Conversely, PVAT from calorie-restricted mice had decreased Notch signaling and less lipid. Using the Adipoq-Cre strain, we constitutively activated Notch1 signaling in adipocytes, which phenocopied the changes in PVAT caused by a high-fat diet, even on a standard diet. Preadipocytes from mouse PVAT expressed Sca1, CD140a, Notch1, and Notch2, but not CD105, showing differences compared with preadipocytes from other depots. Inhibition of Notch signaling during differentiation of PVAT-derived preadipocytes reduced lipid deposition and adipocyte marker expression. CONCLUSIONS: PVAT shares features with other adipose depots, but has a unique protein signature that is regulated by dietary stress. Increased Notch signaling in PVAT is sufficient to initiate the pathological conversion of PVAT by promoting adipogenesis and lipid accumulation and may thus prime the microenvironment for vascular disease.


Assuntos
Adipócitos Brancos/metabolismo , Adipogenia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/metabolismo , Lipogênese , Obesidade/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/metabolismo , Adipócitos Brancos/patologia , Tecido Adiposo Branco/patologia , Adiposidade , Animais , Ataxina-1/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Restrição Calórica , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Endoglina/metabolismo , Feminino , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Fenótipo , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/genética , Pró-Proteína Convertase 9/metabolismo , Proteômica , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Receptor Notch2/metabolismo , Receptor alfa de Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Receptores Notch/genética , Transdução de Sinais
15.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2108-2113, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640904

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Renin cleavage of angiotensinogen has species specificity. As the residues at positions 11 and 12 are different between human angiotensinogen and mouse angiotensinogen, we determined whether these 2 residues in angiotensinogen affect renin cleavage and angiotensin II-mediated blood pressure regulation and atherosclerosis using an adenoassociated viral approach for manipulating angiotensinogen in vivo. Approach and Results: Hepatocyte-specific angiotensinogen deficient (hepAGT-/-) mice in an LDL receptor-deficient background were infected with adenoassociated virals containing a null insert, human angiotensinogen, or mouse angiotensinogen expressing the same residues of the human protein at positions 11 and 12 (mouse angiotensinogen [L11V;Y12I]). Expression of human angiotensinogen in hepAGT-/- mice led to high plasma human angiotensinogen concentrations without changes in plasma endogenous mouse angiotensinogen, plasma renin concentrations, blood pressure, or atherosclerosis. This is consistent with human angiotensinogen not being cleaved by mouse renin. To determine whether the residues at positions 11 and 12 in human angiotensinogen lead to the inability of mouse renin to cleave human angiotensinogen, hepAGT-/- mice were injected with adenoassociated viral vector encoding mouse angiotensinogen (L11V;Y12I). Expression of mouse angiotensinogen (L11V;Y12I) in hepAGT-/- mice resulted in increased plasma mouse angiotensinogen concentrations, reduced renin concentrations, and increased renal AngII concentrations that were comparable to their concentrations in hepAGT+/+ mice. This mouse angiotensinogen variant increased blood pressure and atherosclerosis in hepAGT-/- mice to the magnitude of hepAGT+/+ mice. CONCLUSIONS: Replacement of L11 and Y12 to V11 and I12, respectively, in mouse angiotensinogen does not affect renin cleavage, blood pressure, and atherosclerosis in LDL receptor-deficient mice.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/metabolismo , Angiotensinogênio/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Pressão Sanguínea , Hepatócitos/metabolismo , Hipertensão/metabolismo , Renina/metabolismo , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Angiotensinogênio/deficiência , Angiotensinogênio/genética , Animais , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/genética , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos Knockout , Placa Aterosclerótica , Receptores de LDL/genética , Receptores de LDL/metabolismo , Especificidade da Espécie
16.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2054-2069, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32640907

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Increased CTSS (cathepsin S) has been reported to play a critical role in atherosclerosis progression. Both CTSS synthesis and secretion are essential for exerting its functions. However, the underlying mechanisms contributing to CTSS synthesis and secretion in atherosclerosis remain unclear. Approach and Results: In this study, we showed that nicotine activated autophagy and upregulated CTSS expression in vascular smooth muscle cells and in atherosclerotic plaques. Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining showed that nicotine inhibited the mTORC1 (mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1) activity, promoted the nuclear translocation of TFEB (transcription factor EB), and upregulated the expression of CTSS. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-qualificative polymerase chain reaction, electrophoretic mobility shift assay, and luciferase reporter assay further demonstrated that TFEB directly bound to the CTSS promoter. mTORC1 inhibition by nicotine or rapamycin promoted lysosomal exocytosis and CTSS secretion. Live cell assays and IP-MS (immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry) identified that the interactions involving Rab10 (Rab10, member RAS oncogene family) and mTORC1 control CTSS secretion. Nicotine promoted vascular smooth muscle cell migration by upregulating CTSS, and CTSS inhibition suppressed nicotine-induced atherosclerosis in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that nicotine mediates CTSS synthesis and secretion through regulating the autophagy-lysosomal machinery, which offers a potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis treatment.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/tratamento farmacológico , Autofagia/efeitos dos fármacos , Catepsinas/biossíntese , Lisossomos/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Nicotina/farmacologia , Animais , Aterosclerose/enzimologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/genética , Fatores de Transcrição de Zíper de Leucina e Hélice-Alça-Hélix Básicos/metabolismo , Catepsinas/genética , Linhagem Celular , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Exocitose , Lisossomos/enzimologia , Lisossomos/ultraestrutura , Alvo Mecanístico do Complexo 1 de Rapamicina/metabolismo , Camundongos Knockout para ApoE , Músculo Liso Vascular/enzimologia , Músculo Liso Vascular/ultraestrutura , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/enzimologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/ultraestrutura , Via Secretória , Transdução de Sinais , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Proteínas rab de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo
17.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2002-2017, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698685

RESUMO

Despite major advances in the primary and secondary prevention of atherosclerosis and its risk factors, atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease remains a major clinical and financial burden on individuals and health systems worldwide. In addition, neointima formation and proliferation due to mechanical trauma to the vessel wall during percutaneous coronary interventions can lead to vascular restenosis and limit the longevity and effectiveness of coronary revascularization. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as a novel class of epigenetic regulators with critical roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and restenosis following vascular injury. Here, we provide an in-depth review of lncRNAs that regulate the development of atherosclerosis or contribute to the pathogenesis of restenosis following mechanical vascular injury. We describe the diverse array of intracellular mechanisms by which lncRNAs exert their regulatory effects. We highlight the utility and challenges of lncRNAs as biomarkers. Finally, we discuss the immense translational potential of lncRNAs and strategies for targeting them therapeutically using oligonucleotide-based therapeutics and novel gene therapy platforms.


Assuntos
Artérias/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , RNA Longo não Codificante/metabolismo , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/metabolismo , Animais , Artérias/patologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Aterosclerose/terapia , Constrição Patológica , Epigênese Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Humanos , Oligonucleotídeos Antissenso/uso terapêutico , Placa Aterosclerótica , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/uso terapêutico , Terapêutica com RNAi , Transdução de Sinais , Remodelação Vascular , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/genética , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/patologia , Lesões do Sistema Vascular/terapia
18.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 40(9): 2195-2211, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32698686

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To delineate temporal and spatial dynamics of vascular smooth muscle cell (SMC) transcriptomic changes during aortic aneurysm development in Marfan syndrome (MFS). Approach and Results: We performed single-cell RNA sequencing to study aortic root/ascending aneurysm tissue from Fbn1C1041G/+ (MFS) mice and healthy controls, identifying all aortic cell types. A distinct cluster of transcriptomically modulated SMCs (modSMCs) was identified in adult Fbn1C1041G/+ mouse aortic aneurysm tissue only. Comparison with atherosclerotic aortic data (ApoE-/- mice) revealed similar patterns of SMC modulation but identified an MFS-specific gene signature, including plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (Serpine1) and Kruppel-like factor 4 (Klf4). We identified 481 differentially expressed genes between modSMC and SMC subsets; functional annotation highlighted extracellular matrix modulation, collagen synthesis, adhesion, and proliferation. Pseudotime trajectory analysis of Fbn1C1041G/+ SMC/modSMC transcriptomes identified genes activated differentially throughout the course of phenotype modulation. While modSMCs were not present in young Fbn1C1041G/+ mouse aortas despite small aortic aneurysm, multiple early modSMCs marker genes were enriched, suggesting activation of phenotype modulation. modSMCs were not found in nondilated adult Fbn1C1041G/+ descending thoracic aortas. Single-cell RNA sequencing from human MFS aortic root aneurysm tissue confirmed analogous SMC modulation in clinical disease. Enhanced expression of TGF-ß (transforming growth factor beta)-responsive genes correlated with SMC modulation in mouse and human data sets. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic SMC phenotype modulation promotes extracellular matrix substrate modulation and aortic aneurysm progression in MFS. We characterize the disease-specific signature of modSMCs and provide temporal, transcriptomic context to the current understanding of the role TGF-ß plays in MFS aortopathy. Collectively, single-cell RNA sequencing implicates TGF-ß signaling and Klf4 overexpression as potential upstream drivers of SMC modulation.


Assuntos
Aneurisma Aórtico/genética , Fibrilina-1/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Síndrome de Marfan/complicações , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Análise de Célula Única , Transcriptoma , Animais , Aorta/metabolismo , Aorta/patologia , Aneurisma Aórtico/metabolismo , Aneurisma Aórtico/patologia , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Progressão da Doença , Matriz Extracelular/genética , Matriz Extracelular/metabolismo , Matriz Extracelular/patologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Masculino , Síndrome de Marfan/genética , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Mutação , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Fenótipo , RNA-Seq , Fatores de Tempo , Remodelação Vascular/genética
19.
Angiology ; 71(10): 934-941, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696678

RESUMO

This meta-analysis was conducted to estimate associations between CDKN2B antisense (CDKN2B-AS) polymorphisms and susceptibility to atherosclerotic cardio-cerebral vascular diseases (ASCVD). A systematic literature research of PubMed, Medline, Web of Science, Embase, and CNKI was performed to identify eligible studies. Overall, 34 studies were included for meta-analyses. Pooled overall analyses showed that rs1333040, rs1333049, rs2383206, and rs2383207 polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to ASCVD in the whole population. Further analyses by ethnicity revealed that all investigated polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to ASCVD in East Asians. Moreover, rs2383206, rs2383207, rs10757274, and rs10757278 polymorphisms were associated with susceptibility to ASCVD in West Asians, while rs2383206, rs10757274, and rs10757278 were associated with susceptibility to ASCVD in Caucasians. When we stratified eligible studies by type of disease, positive results were found for all investigated polymorphisms in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction, whereas positive results were only detected for rs2383206 and rs10757274 polymorphisms in patients with ischemic stroke (IS). Our findings suggest that rs1333040, rs1333049, rs2383206, rs2383207, rs10757274, and rs10757278 polymorphisms might serve as genetic biomarkers of CAD, and rs2383206 and rs10757274 polymorphisms might serve as genetic biomarkers of IS.


Assuntos
Aterosclerose/genética , Transtornos Cerebrovasculares/genética , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , RNA Longo não Codificante/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos
20.
Vascul Pharmacol ; 131: 106763, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32593718

RESUMO

Atherosclerosis (AS) is one of the most common cardiovascular events in patients with chronic renal insufficiency (CRI). During the development of CRI, uremic toxins, including indoxyl sulfate (IS), are pivotal risk factors for AS. However, the underlying mechanism between AS and IS has not been fully elucidated. The present study was designed to test our hypothesis that IS promotes the AS by regulating viability, proliferation, migration and apoptosis of endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells. In this present study, our date showed that IS inhibited the cell viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HA-VSMCs) in a dose-dependent manner (P < .05). Moreover, IS inhibited the proliferation, migration and induced apoptosis of HUVECs and HA-VSMCs significantly (P < .05). However, inhibition of the miR-34a abolished these effects of IS in vitro, indicating that miR-34a is involved in the development of AS induced by IS. In addition, the luciferase reporter gene assay showed that up-regulating of miR-34a inhibited the Notch1 transcriptional activity remarkably (P < .05). The expression of Notch1 decreased after IS treatment, while miR-34a inhibitor attenuated this effect. Moreover, the expression of miR-34a-related proteins Wnt-1, Jag1, E2F1 and SIRT1 decreased, while the expression of p53 increased in HUVECs and HA-VSMCs after IS treatment. Consistently, blockage of miR-34a abolished the remarkable effects on protein expressions induced by IS. Taken together, this study showed that IS can inhibit the proliferation, migration and promote apoptosis of HUVECs and HA-VSMCs through the Notch1 signal and miR-34a-related proteins by up-regulating miR-34a. These findings may provide new insights into the underlying mechanism of AS in CRI.


Assuntos
Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Indicã/toxicidade , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Aterosclerose/genética , Aterosclerose/patologia , Células Cultivadas , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/metabolismo , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/patologia , Humanos , MicroRNAs/genética , Músculo Liso Vascular/metabolismo , Músculo Liso Vascular/patologia , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Miócitos de Músculo Liso/patologia , Receptor Notch1/genética , Receptor Notch1/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Regulação para Cima
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