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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022993

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents a worldwide threat to mental health. To optimize the allocation of health care resources, research on specific vulnerability factors, such as health anxiety, intolerance of uncertainty, and distress (in)tolerance, and particularly their effect on the time course of SARS-CoV-2 related anxiety appears crucial for supporting high risk groups suffering from elevated mental distress during the pandemic. N = 887 participants (78.4% female; Mage = 38.15, SD = 17.04) completed an online survey in Germany (April to mid-May 2020), comprising measures of SARS-CoV-2 related anxiety, health anxiety, safety and preventive behavior, intolerance of uncertainty, and distress intolerance. Higher levels of health anxiety pre and during COVID-19 were associated with an initially intensified increase (b = 1.10, p < 0.001), but later on a more rapid dampening (b = -0.18, p < 0.001) of SARS-CoV-2 related anxiety. SARS-CoV-2 related preventive behavior was intensified by both pre (b = 0.06, p = 0.01) and during (b = 0.15, p < 0.001) COVID-19 health anxiety, while reassurance behavior only was associated with health anxiety during COVID-19 (b = 0.14, p < 0.001). Distress intolerance and intolerance of uncertainty did not moderate the relationship between health anxiety and SARS-CoV-2 related anxiety and behavior. The results suggest detrimental effects of health anxiety on the emotional and behavioral response to virus outbreaks.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Angústia Psicológica , Incerteza
2.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 600, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028237

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The aim of this national survey was to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their healthcare experiences. METHODS: Through patient and public involvement, a questionnaire was developed and advertised via the BBC website, Twitter and other online media during May 2020. The findings were analysed by qualitative thematic analysis. Women who are currently pregnant, or who have delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic were invited to partake in a national online survey. RESULTS: One thousand four hundred fifty-one participants replied to the online questionnaire. Participants provided significant insight into the perceived barriers to seeking healthcare during this pandemic. These include 'not wanting to bother anyone', 'lack of wider support from allied healthcare workers' and the influence of the media. Other concerns included the use of virtual clinics antenatally and their acceptability to patients, the presence of birthing partners, and the way in which information is communicated about rapidly changing and evolving services. The influence of the media has also had a significant impact on the way women perceive hospital care in light of COVID-19 and for some, this has shaped whether they would seek help. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first ever reported study in the United Kingdom to explore pregnant women's perceptions of COVID-19 and their subsequent healthcare experiences. It has also provided insight into perceived barriers into seeking care as well as maternal concerns antenatally, intrapartum and postpartum.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez , Gestantes/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/prevenção & controle , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/psicologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Inquéritos e Questionários , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
4.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 140(10): 1275-1284, 2020.
Artigo em Japonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999206

RESUMO

In April 2018, as part of their fifth-year pre-clinical education curriculum, pharmacy students at Setsunan University attended a lecture presented by hepatitis B patients and their lawyer entitled "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients". This lecture was intended to help the students to understand the circumstances and difficulties encountered by hepatitis B patients on a daily basis. For this study, we conducted questionnaire surveys of the pharmacy students before and after the lecture. The survey items pertained to students' knowledge about hepatitis B (e.g., its spread and infection possibility in daily life). Students' responses before and after the lecture varied depending on the survey topic. Hepatitis B knowledge acquired by the students in their junior year increased after the lecture; moreover, attitudes to hepatitis B patients and understanding of the difficulties and prejudice that they experienced showed a significant change. For example, responses to the items, "Feel sympathy for patients suffering from discrimination and prejudice" and "Hard to work…" were much more sympathetic after the lecture; additionally, students were less likely to "Fear infection when near patients" and more likely "… to associate with patients". Thus, the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients" had a significant impact on the pharmacy students' perceptions of these patients, allowing them to cultivate greater empathy. From an educational standpoint, it is of the utmost importance for pharmacy/medical students to develop their humanity as members of healthcare teams. Educational real-world experiences, such as the "Lecture by Hepatitis B Patients", provide opportunities for this development.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Educação em Farmácia/métodos , Empatia , Hepatite B/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/métodos , Pacientes/psicologia , Aprendizagem Baseada em Problemas/métodos , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estudantes de Farmácia/psicologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Currículo , Humanos , Conhecimento , Inquéritos e Questionários
6.
Psicothema ; 32(4): 490-500, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073754

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization has highlighted the importance of studying the consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health. The aim of this study is to examine the role of age in the early psychological responses to the pandemic in a Spanish community sample, focusing on how different generations coped with it. METHOD: An online survey was conducted during the early stages of the quarantine. Sociodemographic, health and behavioral variables were compared for five age groups. Mental health was assessed by the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS-21) and psychological impacts were assessed by the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). RESULTS: 3,524 participants were included (Mage = 39.24, SDage = 12.00). Participants aged between 18 and 33 years old showed more hyperactivation and evitation, were more depressed, anxious and stressed. Those aged between 26 and 33 years old showed more intrusion. Those aged between 18 and 25 years old suffered more sleep disturbances, claustrophobia and somatization and maintained worse routines. Elderly people showed better psychological responses in general. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides initial evidence that the negative psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic hits young people harder. These results should be taken into account when developing specific evidence-based strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/etiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Estudos Transversais , Depressão/etiologia , Feminino , Hábitos , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Acontecimentos que Mudam a Vida , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Amostragem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Espanha , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
7.
Cien Saude Colet ; 25(9): 3481-3491, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32876271

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: to understand how men's feelings and emotions contribute to the Covid-19 framing in Brazil. METHOD: Asocial-historical, qualitative study, carried out with 200 men resident in Brazil, through online search on digital platform.The grasped data were analyzed by the Collective Subject Discourse method in the light of the reference of epidemic disease proposed by Charles Rosemberg. RESULTS: Negative feelings and anxiety prevailed due to the knowledge about the growing number of hospitalized patients and deaths from the pandemic conveyed in the news. For men, the optimism is necessary to encourage attitudes with responsibility and trust that the crisis will be overcome.Subsequently, men present a set of attitudes and behaviors for coping with the pandemic.Moreover,the acceptance signals the emergence of the fourth dramaturgical act of the Covid-19framing. CONCLUSION: Men's feelings and emotions, in this historic context, pervade three of the four acts of the Covid-19 framingin Brazil.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Homens/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Brasil , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
9.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 476-480, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955232

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: The family is a reliable and permanent source of support for every human being. It is the key link in the welfare system. The aim of the study is to assess parents' attitudes towards the occurrence of a difficult situation resulting from a child's chronic illness. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study involved randomly selected parents of children with chronic diseases (N=107). The study was carried out at the Dental Clinic of the 'Little Prince' Children's Hospice in Lublin. RESULTS: The study revealed that for parents a difficult life situation is mainly associated with the disability of a family member or a friend, whereas the action approach is the most frequently chosen attitude towards a child's chronic disease. In the examined group of parents, a significant correlation was observed between the age of the parents and the choice of a specific parental attitude towards the child's chronic disease (in terms of intellectual approach). However, no significant correlations were found between the parents' place of residence and the choice of a specific parental attitude towards the chronic disease of a child. CONCLUSIONS: During the diagnosis of chronically ill children, parents should also be educated in this regard. Therapy and psychological help, as well as directing parents to relevant support groups, organizations or associations, will prove immensely valuable while coping with a difficult life situation.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Doença Crônica/psicologia , Pais/psicologia , Adaptação Psicológica , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polônia
10.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e220, 2020 09 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32951623

RESUMO

Due to the outbreak of the deadly coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19), Wuhan was on lockdown for more than 60 days by the state government. This study investigated the perceptions and attitudes of the public on quarantine as a practical approach to halting the spread of COVID-19. An online survey was conducted via WeChat between 10 January 2020 and 10 March 2020 on the general population in Hubei province at the height of the COVID-19 outbreak. In total, 549 respondents participated in the survey. Results revealed that the public displayed significantly strong support towards quarantine throughout the outbreak period, apart from locking people up and using imprisonment legal sanctions against those who failed to comply with the stringent regulations. The support exerted by the public stemmed from the execution of authorised officers to protect the public interest and provision of psychosocial support for those affected. In situations where quarantine could not be imposed, public health policy-makers and government officials should implement an extensive system of psychosocial support to safeguard, instruct and inform frontline public health workers. The public should also be enlisted in an open conversation concerning the ethical utility of restrictive values during the COVID-19 outbreak.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Opinião Pública , Quarentena , Adolescente , Adulto , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Governo Estadual , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236693, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870909

RESUMO

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide, and diet therapy plays a key role in treating this disease. Since most patients show difficulties in adhering to nutritional interventions, research on the association of positive psychological characteristics with greater engagement in physical health is relevant to this field. The present study aimed to evaluate the association between positive psychology attributes (optimism, hope, self-esteem, positive/negative affect and life satisfaction) and changes in diet quality and anthropometric parameters of individuals with MetS who received nutritional counseling. The study assessed 63 patients at a nutrition outpatient clinic. Anthropometric parameters and 24-hour food recall data (for evaluation of the Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised-BHEI-R) were collected at the first visit and subsequent return visit (on average five months later). Psychological data were collected at the first visit using validated and standardized scales. The results were adjusted in relation to the depression scores of the patients, which were evaluated using the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Changes in anthropometric factors and in the BHEI-R were assessed, and their associations with the psychological attributes were investigated. The results indicated that positive affect and hope were associated with improvement in the BHEI-R scores (Cohen effect sizes -0.65 and -0.58; p = 0.012 and 0.025, respectively). A significant association was also observed between optimism and a reduction in abdominal circumference (Cohen effect size 0.56; p = 0.031). The associations remained significant even after adjusting for the BDI-II scores (p = 0.022, p = 0.037 and p = 0.05, respectively). No statistically significant associations were observed for the other attributes assessed.The study suggests that some attributes may have a greater influence on the nutritional treatment of MetS and that future studies should be conducted in order to enable effective multidisciplinary interventions to treat MetS.


Assuntos
Síndrome Metabólica/dietoterapia , Síndrome Metabólica/psicologia , Otimismo , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Brasil/epidemiologia , Dieta , Dieta Saudável , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Circunferência da Cintura
16.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 6(3): e22060, 2020 09 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32930670

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The success of behavioral interventions and policies designed to reduce the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic depends on how well individuals are informed about both the consequences of infection and the steps that should be taken to reduce the impact of the disease. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate associations between public knowledge about COVID-19, adherence to social distancing, and public trust in government information sources (eg, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention), private sources (eg, FOX and CNN), and social networks (eg, Facebook and Twitter) to inform future policies related to critical information distribution. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional survey (N=1243) between April 10 and 14, 2020. Data collection was stratified by US region and other demographics to ensure representativeness of the sample. RESULTS: Government information sources were the most trusted among the public. However, we observed trends in the data that suggested variations in trust by age and gender. White and older populations generally expressed higher trust in government sources, while non-White and younger populations expressed higher trust in private sources (eg, CNN) and social networks (eg, Twitter). Trust in government sources was positively associated with accurate knowledge about COVID-19 and adherence to social distancing. However, trust in private sources (eg, FOX and CNN) was negatively associated with knowledge about COVID-19. Similarly, trust in social networks (eg, Facebook and Twitter) was negatively associated with both knowledge and adherence to social distancing. CONCLUSIONS: During pandemics such as the COVID-19 outbreak, policy makers should carefully consider the quality of information disseminated through private sources and social networks. Furthermore, when disseminating urgent health information, a variety of information sources should be used to ensure that diverse populations have timely access to critical knowledge.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Disseminação de Informação/métodos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Isolamento Social , Confiança , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Governo , Humanos , Masculino , Meios de Comunicação de Massa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Distância Social , Mídias Sociais , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1337, 2020 Sep 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32878612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: People who are houseless (also referred to as homeless) perceive high stigma in healthcare settings, and face disproportionate disparities in morbidity and mortality versus people who are housed. Medical students and the training institutions they are a part of play important roles in advocating for the needs of this community. The objective of this study was to understand perceptions of how medical students and institutions can meet needs of the self-identified needs of the houseless community. METHODS: Between February and May 2018, medical students conducted mixed-methods surveys with semi-structured qualitative interview guides at two community-based organizations that serve people who are houseless in Portland, Oregon. Medical students approach guests at both locations to ascertain interest in participating in the study. Qualitative data were analyzed using thematic analysis rooted in an inductive process. RESULTS: We enrolled 38 participants in this study. Most participants were male (73.7%), white (78.9%), and had been houseless for over a year at the time of interview (65.8%). Qualitative themes describe care experiences among people with mental health and substance use disorders, and roles for medical students and health-care institutions. Specifically, people who are houseless want medical students to 1) listen to and believe them, 2) work to destigmatize houselessness, 3) engage in diverse clinical experiences, and 4) advocate for change at the institutional level. Participants asked healthcare institutions to use their power to change laws that criminalize substance use and houselessness, and build healthcare systems that take better care of people with addiction and mental health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: Medical students, and the institutions they are a part of, should seek to reduce stigma against people who are houseless in medical systems. Additionally, institutions should change their approaches to healthcare delivery and advocacy to better support the health of people who are houseless.


Assuntos
Assistência à Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua , Transtornos Mentais , Defesa do Paciente , Relações Profissional-Paciente , Estigma Social , Estudantes de Medicina , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamento Aditivo , Feminino , Necessidades e Demandas de Serviços de Saúde , Pessoas em Situação de Rua/psicologia , Habitação , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/complicações , Saúde Mental , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Oregon , Saúde da População , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Mudança Social , Apoio Social , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/complicações , Inquéritos e Questionários
19.
Transl Behav Med ; 10(4): 843-849, 2020 10 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32893867

RESUMO

Despite early warnings and calls for action, COVID-19 infection rates continue to climb in many areas of the United States. The current study examined participants' reported likelihood of engaging in eight behaviors designated by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as critical for the prevention of COVID-19 at the outset of the epidemic. Self-efficacy, perceived threat, and internal and external health locus of control were explored as potential predictors of those behaviors. In addition, demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not participants were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for analysis. Overall, participants reported high engagement with the prevention behaviors. Higher levels of self-efficacy, perceived severity of the illness, and external locus of control in regard to medical professionals were all positively associated with plans to take the recommended precautions. Based on the results, it appears that messaging regarding COVID-19 prevention may be particularly effective when it focuses on the high risk of the illness, the ease with which the prevention behaviors can be taken, and a reassurance that the medical establishment has individuals' best health in mind when it makes its specific recommendations. While numerous countries have succeeded in reducing the spread of COVID-19, the number of new cases in the United States remains high, even relative to other populations also heavily impacted by the disease [1]. Although it would be difficult to pinpoint a single cause or explanation for the epidemic's course in the USA, at the heart of its spread, like the spread of all infectious diseases, is noncompliance with preventative measures. The current research served as a preliminary exploration of the prevalence and predictors of eight COVID-19 prevention behaviors. A brief survey was sent out at the end of March 2020 to 350 U.S. residents in order to assess the likelihood of their engaging in various prevention behaviors recommended at that time and several related psychosocial factors. The psychological factors assessed included health locus of control (HLOC) beliefs, self-efficacy, and perceived threat. In addition, a handful of demographic and contextual factors, such as age, gender, political identity, and whether or not they were working outside the home or were currently living under a quarantine advisory, were recorded for examination.


Assuntos
Comportamento Cooperativo , Infecções por Coronavirus , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Autoeficácia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Percepção Social , Adulto , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Máscaras , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Prevalência , Psicologia , Controle Social Formal/métodos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Precauções Universais/métodos , Precauções Universais/estatística & dados numéricos
20.
Cuad Bioet ; 31(102): 139-149, 2020.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32910668

RESUMO

The crisis of COVID-19 leaves us a teaching in the form of reminiscence. We do not learn anything new from it, but it reminds us of something we knew and forgot. It shows us in a new light our vulnerability, the impossibility of protecting ourselves perfectly through prediction and control. The sciences do not predict with certainty and the technologies do not manage to have everything under control, although the former and the latter have many other and worthwhile functions. Ideologies do not see the future, no matter how much they pretend to do so. However, we are not without reliable guidance in deciding our actions. This orientation must be sought in being, not in the future. It is fidelity to our common human nature that must advise us. It is the full realization of our personal being, of our peculiar vocation, that guides us. So, the means for self-realization consists in the development of a virtuous character. The same character that has mitigated the ravages of the pandemic, given that, to some degree, it was already present in many of our fellow citizens. The same that would have alleviated the suffering even more if it had been available in more people and to a greater degree.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Suscetibilidade a Doenças , Previsões , Características Humanas , Humanos , Pandemias/ética , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Resiliência Psicológica , Responsabilidade Social , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Virtudes , Populações Vulneráveis
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