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1.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e214270, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, BBO - Odontologia | ID: biblio-1254738

RESUMO

There are various instruments to measure attitudes toward persons with disabilities (PwD). The Multidimensional Attitudes Scale (MAS) toward PwD is a three-dimension scale with good psychometric properties; the Spanish version has been validated with a four-factor structure. Aim: To examine the factor structure of a cross-cultural adapted version of the Spanish MAS towards deaf persons in a sample of Chilean dental students. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved five Chilean public health experts that reviewed the scale for obtaining a preliminary version of a 30-item modified MAS towards deaf persons; a pilot with 15 dental students was performed, and a final sample composed of 311 students was included. For the exploratory factor analysis (EFA), maximum likelihood estimation (ML) for determining the number of factors and parallel analysis (PA) was used, with Oblimin for the rotation method. Cronbach's alpha was used to assess reliability. The root mean square error of approximation (RMSEA), comparative fit index (CFI), incremental fit index (IFI), goodness of fit index (GFI), Tucker-Lewis fit index (TLI-NNF) and root mean square of residuals (RMSR) were used to assess model fit. Results: All items had a normal distribution with the exception of items 7 and 10. The four-factor structure without item 10 in this EFA presented an adequate Cronbach's alpha (>0.83), suggesting acceptable reliability. RMSEA, TLI-NNFI, RMSR, GFI and CFI indices suggested a good fit of the model and were consistent with the literature. Conclusion: The Spanish modified version of the MAS towards deaf persons has a four-factor structure, which in consistent with a previous version of the MAS


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Estudantes de Odontologia , Atitude , Hispano-Americanos , Chile , Surdez , Estudos de Validação como Assunto
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 716421, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34485238

RESUMO

Objective: Key to reducing the spread of COVID-19 in the UK is increased use of the NHS Test and Trace (NHSTT) system. This study explored one of the main issues that determine whether people engage with NHSTT, how people understand symptoms that may indicate the presence of COVID-19 and that should trigger a request for a test. Methods: In this qualitative study, a series of semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 40 people (21 members of the general population, 19 students). There was nearly an equal split between male and female participants in both samples. Data were collected between 30 November and 11 December 2020 and explored using thematic analysis. There was substantial similarity in responses for both populations so we combined our results and highlighted where differences were present. Results: Participants generally had good knowledge of the main symptoms of COVID-19 (high temperature, new, persistent cough, anosmia) but had low confidence in their ability to differentiate them from symptoms of other illnesses. Attribution of symptoms to COVID-19 was most likely where the symptoms were severe, many symptoms were present, symptoms had lasted for some time and when perceived risk of exposure to infection was high due to previous contact with others. Participants felt encouraged to engage in testing where symptoms were present and had persisted for several days, though, many had concerns about the safety of testing centres and the accuracy of test results. Students had mixed feelings about mass asymptomatic testing, seeing it as a way to access a more normal student experience, but also a potential waste of resources. Conclusions: This study offers novel insights into how people attribute symptoms to COVID-19 and barriers and facilitators to engaging with NHSTT. Participants had positive views of testing, but there is a need to improve not just recognition of each main symptom, but also understanding that even single, mild symptoms may necessitate a test rather than a "wait and see" approach, and to address concerns around test accuracy to increase testing uptake.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Atitude , Tosse/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Reino Unido/epidemiologia
3.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 477, 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493266

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Altruism refers to acting in 'the best interest of patients, not self-interest'. With an observed discordance between the concept and practice of altruism, and increasing attention to 'pathologic altruism', the role of altruism is blurred in present day medical care. In this background, the required balance of altruistic attitude which needs to be fostered in medical students needs clarity. This problem may be best addressed by the practicing clinicians. The objectives of this study were to explore clinicians' understanding of altruism in the clinical context and to identify the key concepts of altruism which they felt, must be included in clinical practice. METHODS: It was an exploratory qualitative study to identify clinicians' understanding of altruism and the key practice points for altruism. Online semi-structured interviews were conducted from 18 clinicians through Zoom and transcribed using Otter. Open coding of interview transcripts was done using Atlas ti 8 and grouped by commonalities under sub themes and themes. RESULTS: The main concepts regarding the clinicians' understanding of altruism were prioritizing patients' interest above oneself, favouring patients beyond routine duty and organized team work for practicing altruism. The essential practice areas identified for altruism were finding a balance between altruistic tendency and self/family life, identifying one's individual capacity for altruism, establishing teamwork for developing a workplace altruistic attitude, and facilitating patients beyond routine duty. CONCLUSIONS: Altruism is an important professionalism attribute for clinicians, however prioritizing patients interest requires a balanced approach so that it is effective and sustainable. Workplace altruistic cultures may be better promoted through organized team-based approach rather than individual efforts.


Assuntos
Altruísmo , Estudantes de Medicina , Atitude , Humanos , Pesquisa Qualitativa
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 602-606, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495068

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A survey among medical students in a Brazilian public university was performed to investigate the acceptance of organ donation in Brazil, particularly donation after circulatory death (DCD). METHODS: A questionnaire including 26 objectives and Likert scale questions was validated and sent to all medical students of our institution. The answers were analyzed considering the whole set of individuals as well as by dividing the medical students into two groups: less graduated students and more graduated students. RESULTS: From 1050 students, 103 spontaneous answers (9.8%) were retrieved after 3 weeks. A total of 89.3% agreed totally with deceased donor organ donation and 8.7% agreed partially. However, only 50.5% of the students agreed totally and 31.1% agreed partially to living donation. Students revealed that 82.6% know the concept of brain death. On the other hand, 71.8% of them declared not knowing the concept of planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, mainly cardiorespiratory support. A total of 85.4% of students agreed totally with donation after brain death and 11.7% agreed partially. However, when questioned about donation in awaiting circulatory death after a planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy, only 18.4% agreed totally and 32% agreed partially. Both groups of less and more graduated students showed similar results. CONCLUSIONS: Our study found a clear lack of information and consequently in acceptance of DCD. Education in the field of end-of-life management may improve not only the acceptance of DCD donation but also the whole understanding of planned withdrawal of life-sustaining therapy.


Assuntos
Estudantes de Medicina , Obtenção de Tecidos e Órgãos , Atitude , Morte Encefálica , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Doadores de Tecidos
5.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(17)2021 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34502854

RESUMO

This paper deals with analysis of behavioural patterns in human-computer interaction. In the study, keystroke dynamics were analysed while participants were writing positive and negative opinions. A semi-experiment with 50 participants was performed. The participants were asked to recall the most negative and positive learning experiences (subject and teacher) and write an opinion about it. Keystroke dynamics were captured and over 50 diverse features were calculated and checked against the ability to differentiate positive and negative opinions. Moreover, classification of opinions was performed providing accuracy slightly above the random guess level. The second classification approach used self-report labels of pleasure and arousal and showed more accurate results. The study confirmed that it was possible to recognize positive and negative opinions from the keystroke patterns with accuracy above the random guess; however, combination with other modalities might produce more accurate results.


Assuntos
Atitude , Computadores , Humanos , Redação
6.
BMC Med Educ ; 21(1): 483, 2021 Sep 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34503497

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Poor communication skills can potentially compromise patient care. However, as communication skills training (CST) programs are not seen as a priority to many clinical departments, there is a discernible absence of a standardised, recommended framework for these programs to be built upon. This systematic scoping review (SSR) aims to gather prevailing data on existing CSTs to identify key factors in teaching and assessing communication skills in the postgraduate medical setting. METHODS: Independent searches across seven bibliographic databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, EMBASE, ERIC, CINAHL, Scopus and Google Scholar) were carried out. Krishna's Systematic Evidence-Based Approach (SEBA) was used to guide concurrent thematic and content analysis of the data. The themes and categories identified were compared and combined where possible in keeping with this approach and then compared with the tabulated summaries of the included articles. RESULTS: Twenty-five thousand eight hundred ninety-four abstracts were identified, and 151 articles were included and analysed. The Split Approach revealed similar categories and themes: curriculum design, teaching methods, curriculum content, assessment methods, integration into curriculum, and facilitators and barriers to CST. Amidst a wide variety of curricula designs, efforts to develop the requisite knowledge, skills and attitudes set out by the ACGME current teaching and assessment methods in CST maybe categorised into didactic and interactive methods and assessed along Kirkpatrick's Four Levels of Learning Evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: A major flaw in existing CSTs is a lack of curriculum structure, focus and standardisation. Based upon the findings and current design principles identified in this SSR in SEBA, we forward a stepwise approach to designing CST programs. These involve 1) defining goals and learning objectives, 2) identifying target population and ideal characteristics, 3) determining curriculum structure, 4) ensuring adequate resources and mitigating barriers, 5) determining curriculum content, and 6) assessing learners and adopting quality improvement processes.


Assuntos
Currículo , Aprendizagem , Atitude , Comunicação , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360063

RESUMO

Misinformation that accompanied the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to an impaired risk perception, resulting in the refusal of personal protection measures, as well as a reduced willingness to receive a vaccination. In order to identify factors that might influence people's attitudes towards COVID-19 policies and engagement in mitigation measures, we carried out a cross-sectional study in Germany. Altogether, n = 808 participants completed our questionnaire concerning items on demographics, media consumption, risk perception, and trust in health authorities, as well as willingness to receive a vaccination. An overwhelming majority of our participants perceived SARS-CoV-2 as a health threat (85.7%), and almost two thirds (63.5%) mentioned they would get vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 when a vaccination was available. A greater likelihood of vaccination intention was associated with being male (71.5% male vs. 60% female, p < 0.05), left-wing voting, trusting health authorities, using public media as an information source about COVID-19, and, in particular, perceiving COVID-19 as a health threat. A better understanding of factors that contribute to vaccine hesitancy is indispensable in order to eliminate doubts, increase vaccination rates, and create herd immunity, to stop further virus transmission.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Atitude , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Política , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34360138

RESUMO

The total isolation of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) requires non-face-to-face medical assistance. There is evidence of the efficacy of home treatments with exercises in patients with respiratory disorders which could become the therapeutic method of choice for the treatment and supervision of patients isolated due to infection during home confinement. This study's objective was to analyse the experience and opinions of isolated patients with COVID-19 included in a programme of telerehabilitation exercises for 14 days and it is intended to reflect, from a qualitative point of view, the viability and usefulness of telerehabilitation tools in the management of these patients. Twenty-five participants of a telerehabilitation programme were interviewed by telephone through semi-structured interviews, following a positivist and objective model. The data were categorised and analysed through NVIVO qualitative analysis software. The information obtained was classified into four main topics (telerehabilitation programme, perception of clinical benefit, psychological aspects and level of health care) and six subtopics (technical aspects, communication, improvement aspects, exercise plan, motivation and applicability to public health systems). The telerehabilitation programme established in patients confined by COVID-19 is very well received, without considerable technical difficulties and generates physical and psychological improvements. Patients highlight the importance of applying this type of programme in public health systems.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Telerreabilitação , Atitude , Humanos , Motivação , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Front Public Health ; 9: 702699, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368065

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is spreading globally at an unprecedented rate. To protect the world against this devastating catastrophe, vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been produced following consistent clinical trials. However, the durability of a protective immune response due to vaccination has not been confirmed. Moreover, COVID-19 vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is not 100% guaranteed, as new variants arise due to mutations. Consequently, health officials are pleading with the public to take extra precautions against the virus and continue wearing masks, wash hands, and observe physical distancing even after vaccination. The current research collected data from 4,540 participants (1,825 vaccinated and 2,715 not vaccinated) in China to analyze this phenomenon empirically. The propensity score matching (PSM) model is employed to analyze the impact of vaccination against COVID-19 on participants' attitudes toward protective countermeasures. The findings showed that gender, age, education level, occupation risk, individual health risk perception, public health risk perception, social responsibility, peer effect, and government supervision are the main drivers for participants to be vaccinated with COVID-19's vaccines. The results further show that vaccination lessened participants' frequency of hand washing by 1.75 times and their compliance frequency intensity of observing physical distancing by 1.24 times. However, the rate of mask-wearing did not reduce significantly, implying that China's main countermeasure of effective mask-wearing effectively controls COVID-19. Moreover, the findings indicate that a reduction in the frequency of hand washing and observing physical distance could cause a resurgence of COVID-19. In conclusion, factors leading to the eradication of SARS-CoV-2 from the world are complex to be achieved, so the exploration of COVID-19 vaccination and people's attitude toward protective countermeasures may provide insights for policymakers to encourage vaccinated people to follow protective health measures and help in completely defeating the COVID-19 from the globe.


Assuntos
Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Atitude , Humanos , Pandemias , Saúde Pública , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacinação
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 704465, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368067

RESUMO

Introduction: Hospital-at-Home (HaH) programmes are well-established in Australia, Europe, and the United States. However, there is limited experience in Asia, where the hospital is traditionally seen as a safe and trusted space for healing. This cross-sectional study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions among patients and caregivers in Singapore toward this care model. Methods: A quantitative study design was adopted to collect data among patients and their caregivers from medical wards within two acute hospitals in Singapore. Using a series of closed-ended and open-ended questions, the investigator-administered survey aimed to explore barriers and facilitators determining patients' and caregivers' responses. The study questionnaire was pretested and validated. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics, and logistic regression was performed to determine key factors influencing patients' decisions to enrol in such programmes. Results: Survey responses were collected from 120 participants (101 patients, 19 caregivers; response rate: 76%), of which 87 respondents (72.5%) expressed willingness to try HaH if offered. Many respondents valued non-quantifiable programme benefits, including perceived gains in quality of life. Among them, reasons cited for acceptance included preference for the comfort of their home environment, presence of family members, and confidence toward remote monitoring modalities. Among respondents who were unwilling to accept HaH, a common reason indicated was stronger confidence toward hospital care. Discussion: Most patients surveyed were open to having acute care delivered in their home environment, and concerns expressed may largely be addressed by operational considerations. The findings provide useful insights toward the planning of HaH programmes in Singapore.


Assuntos
Atitude , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Hospitais , Humanos , Percepção , Estados Unidos
11.
Sante Publique ; Vol. 33(1): 121-126, 2021 Jun 24.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34372631

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In a context of future generalization of access to genetic risk profiles, general practitioners (GP) will have a major role to play. The objective of this study was to understand their attitude towards this approach and the potential consequences on their practice. METHODS: In 2018, the University Center of General Medicine and Public Health of Lausanne, the Department of Primary Care Medicine of the University Hospitals of Geneva, and the Institute of Social Sciences of the University of Lausanne set up a study with patients and general practitioners concerning the access to genetic risk profiles. The GPs attitude, the subject of this study, was explored using the two-round Delphi consensus method. 120 interns and senior clinicians responded to 24 statements. RESULTS: A consensus was reached for 80% of the statements. The GP’s significant role in terms of access to genetic profiles became evident, even if their position seems conditioned by their position as front-line health workers, and doubts remain as to the impact of this process in guiding their practice. The need for training was widely emphasized as well as the possibility multidisciplinary support and management. There was also a consensus for the need of a legislative framework for these practices. CONCLUSION: This study has underlined the importance of anticipating the needs in developing an advanced and evolving training and information program for GPs in the domain of genomic medicine in light of the prevention activities that could result.


Assuntos
Medicina Geral , Clínicos Gerais , Atitude , Doença Crônica , Humanos , Medicina de Precisão
12.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção , Polícia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
Nurs Educ Perspect ; 42(5): 320-322, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34415700

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Male students often report experiencing barriers during nursing education, resulting in decreased retention and success. Clinical instructors are one influence that potentially deters men in nursing. This qualitative study interviewed female clinical instructors about their experiences, attitudes, and perceptions of teaching males. The results reveal a general acceptance of males, with hesitation and ambivalence from some clinical instructors. Further training for clinical instructors, education of the public, and recruitment of more males into education are suggested to improve male student outcomes.


Assuntos
Educação em Enfermagem , Estudantes de Enfermagem , Atitude , Docentes de Enfermagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Percepção
14.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255702, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375356

RESUMO

Like other disease outbreaks, the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the rapid generation and dissemination of misinformation and fake news. We investigated whether subscribers to a fact checking newsletter (n = 1397) were willing to share possible misinformation, and whether predictors of possible misinformation sharing are the same as for general samples. We also investigated predictors of willingness to have a COVID-19 vaccine and found that although vaccine acceptance was high on average, it decreased as a function of lower belief in science and higher conspiracy mentality. We found that 24% of participants had shared possible misinformation and that this was predicted by a lower belief in science. Like general samples, our participants were typically motivated to share possible misinformation due to interest in the information, or to seek a second opinion about claim veracity. However, even if information is shared in good faith and not for the purpose of deceiving or misleading others, the spread of misinformation is nevertheless highly problematic. Exposure to misinformation engenders faulty beliefs in others and undermines efforts to curtail the spread of COVID-19 by reducing adherence to social distancing measures and increasing vaccine hesitancy.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Comunicação , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Atitude , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/virologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19/administração & dosagem , Vacinas contra COVID-19/imunologia , Escolaridade , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Jornais como Assunto , Publicações Periódicas como Assunto , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0255598, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34375361

RESUMO

Humans typically create and maintain social bonds through interactions that occur at close social distances. The interpersonal distance of at least 1 m recommended as a relevant measure for COVID-19 contagion containment requires a significant change in everyday behavior. In a web-based experimental study conducted during the first pandemic wave (mid-April 2020), we asked 242 participants to regulate their preferred distance towards confederates who did or did not wear protective masks and gloves and whose COVID-19 test results were positive, negative, or unknown. Information concerning dispositional factors (perceived vulnerability to disease, moral attitudes, and prosocial tendencies) and situational factors (perceived severity of the situation in the country, frequency of physical and virtual social contacts, and attitudes toward quarantine) that may modulate compliance with safety prescriptions was also acquired. A Bayesian analysis approach was adopted. Individual differences did not modulate interpersonal distance. We found strong evidence in favor of a reduction of interpersonal distance towards individuals wearing protective equipment and who tested negative to COVID-19. Importantly, shorter interpersonal distances were maintained towards confederates wearing protective gear, even when their COVID-19 test result was unknown or positive. This protective equipment-related regulation of interpersonal distance may reflect an underestimation of perceived vulnerability to infection; this perception must be discouraged when pursuing individual and collective health-safety measures.


Assuntos
COVID-19/patologia , Máscaras , Distanciamento Físico , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , Quarentena , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Adulto Jovem
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 791: 148356, 2021 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34412388

RESUMO

The interaction between the Anthroposphere and the Biosphere has resulted in increasingly rapid biodiversity loss. This negative interaction is influenced by attitudes (feelings, actions, and perceptions) of humans towards certain species. Despite the importance of reptiles in food chains and ecosystem services, they are often negatively perceived, resulting in fear and persecution. In this scenario, Education for Sustainable Development (ESD) may contribute for students to develop positive attitudes towards nature and, in particular, towards reptile conservation. Some studies showed that watching wildlife movies improves attitudes of people towards wildlife. However, few information is available on the impact of engaging people in movie production in their attitudes on biodiversity. Here we present an exploratory case study and describe a project-based learning activity (PBL) implemented with Cabo Verdean high-school students and planned to improve their perceptions, feelings and actions towards reptiles in general, and the threatened endemic species C. vaillanti in particular. We asked students to write a script, shoot and produce a short film that could improve the attitudes of their community towards this endemic species. This movie was then presented to the community in a public event and subjected to a content analysis. To evaluate the impact of the activity on students, they were asked to fill in two questionnaires, before and after the activity. Our results showed significant increase of positive feelings of students about the reptiles, and increased perception of their importance, and of positive actions towards C. vaillanti from pre to post test. The movie content analyses and interviews showed that students learned about species biology, threats and reasons for its conservation, of which endemicity was the most frequently cited. Our findings support the value of engaging the public in PBL for EDS and the positive impacts of this engagement in public attitudes towards species conservation.


Assuntos
Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Lagartos , Animais , Atitude , Ecossistema , Humanos , Filmes Cinematográficos
17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444533

RESUMO

Suicide represents a very important issue in public health. For approaching attitudes toward suicide, we have developed an instrument that, following previous recommendations, assesses specific thoughts related to the perception of suicide utility in the press. First of all, we will test the psychometric properties of the scale we created ad hoc for assessing suicide utility perception. After that, we expect to find that the suicide utility perception in the press will have a statistically significant impact on positive attitudes toward terminally ill patients' suicide (Hypothesis 1). In addition, this relationship will be mediated by suicide legitimation (Hypothesis 2). This mediation will be moderated by depressive symptomatology (Hypothesis 3). The sample was composed of 66 Spanish participants. Suicide legitimation was significantly related to the positive evaluation of terminally ill people's euthanasia. Finally, when the levels of depression's psychological concomitants increased, the support for terminally ill people's euthanasia increased as well. Implications and limitations have been discussed.


Assuntos
Suicídio Assistido , Suicídio , Atitude , Humanos , Percepção , Projetos Piloto , Doente Terminal
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(16)2021 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34450903

RESUMO

Our homes are becoming increasingly sensorized and smarter. However, they are also becoming increasingly complex, making accessing them and their advantages difficult. Assistants have the potential for improving the accessibility of smart homes, by providing everyone with an integrated, natural, and multimodal way of interacting with the home's ecosystem. To demonstrate this potential and contribute to more environmentally friendly homes, in the scope of the project Smart Green Homes, a home assistant highly integrated with an ICT (Information and communications technology) home infrastructure was developed, deployed in a demonstrator, and evaluated by seventy users. The users' global impression of our home assistant is in general positive, with 61% of the participants rating it as good or excellent overall and 51% being likely or very likely to recommend it to others. Moreover, most think that the assistant enhances interaction with the smart home's multiple devices and is easy to use by everyone. These results show that a home assistant providing an integrated view of a smart home, through natural, multimodal, and adaptive interaction, is a suitable solution for enhancing the accessibility of smart homes and thus contributing to a better living ambient for all of their inhabitants.


Assuntos
Atitude , Ecossistema , Humanos
19.
Sr Care Pharm ; 36(9): 444-454, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34452654

RESUMO

Introduction Major barriers in deprescribing are the ambivalence of patients, resistance to change, and poor acceptance of alternative treatments. Objective To investigate older patients' beliefs, understanding and knowledge, satisfaction with medicine use, health outcome priorities, their attitude toward deprescribing, and to identify associated patient factors. Methods This multi-center cross-sectional, semistructured survey study involved older outpatients (70 years of age and older) with polypharmacy. The survey comprised three validated questionnaires: Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire, Patients' Attitudes Towards Deprescribing questionnaire, and the Health Outcome Prioritization tool, with additional questions about understanding and satisfaction. The association between questionnaire outcomes and patient characteristics was investigated. Results Fifty participants were included; they used an average of 9 (+/- SD 2.7) medicines. For most participants (82%), the necessity of using medicines outweighed their concerns. Participants could name 35% of their medicines and 43% of the indications. Overall, 76% were satisfied with the effect of their medicines, but 94% would be willing to stop their medication if advised by their doctor. Maintaining independence (46%) and reducing pain (31%) were the most important health outcome priorities reported by the patients; staying alive had the lowest priority (51%). Participants with higher levels of educational attainment had better knowledge and had more concerns about harmful effects. Conclusions Patients are open to deprescribing but would probably not initiate the conversation themselves because they are generally very satisfied with their medicines. Knowledge about their medicines and their indications is poor. If doctors initiate deprescribing, patients are probably willing to follow their advice. Patients' life priorities should be discussed in deprescribing conversations.


Assuntos
Desprescrições , Atitude , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Percepção , Polimedicação
20.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0256241, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34388215

RESUMO

The importance of researching public support for preventive policies have been amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a representative sample of the Hungarian population, we investigated the support for commonly used preventive measures (social distancing, hand hygiene and wearing masks) comparing two different policy tools (nudges and regulations). Because of the high risk and unfamiliarity of the pandemic, the respondents' risk perception and experience with the disease was also assessed. All preventive measures were generally supported and, contrary to the findings of previous nudge research, there was no clear pattern whether regulations or nudges are preferred. People with higher level of risk perception supported both types of policies more but slightly favoured the regulations. Those who had contact with the disease (either themselves or a close friend or family member contracting COVID-19) reported a higher level of risk perception. When the person themselves was afflicted, this higher levels of risk perception did not translate to a higher level of support, moreover, it even decreased support for the regulations according to regression analysis. In case of a loved one contracting the disease, there was an increased support for both types of measures, but that is explained by the higher risk perception.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/psicologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Opinião Pública , Adolescente , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Hungria , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Assunção de Riscos
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