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1.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 12(2): 61-68, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-190650

RESUMO

School coexistence/violence is often the subject of social alarm. There is no consensus on the prevalence of violent behavior in the classroom, but there does seem to be about its differences according to sex, socioeconomic level, or the importance of preventive interventions for its reduction. Models consider attitudes towards violence as an indicator of risk for its expression. The objectives of this study are to explore the psychometric properties of the revised version of Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia [Attitudes towards Violence Questionnaire] (CAHV-25) in primary and secondary education students, proposing a version of four scales and a total of 28 items, along with the exploration of their significance as a function of sex and academic cycle. A qualitative review of CAHV-25 and a psychometric study of the revised version in each of its original dimensions was carried out, obtaining the fit indicators of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. In addition, the scale was studied as a function of sex and educational stage se in school children (N = 600) of the Region of Murcia (Spain). The four dimensions show better psychometric properties in their revised version. Attitudes towards violence are more present in males and in secondary school. As conclusions, the proposed version optimizes the detection of attitudes towards violence in schoolchildren and suggests more specific school violence prevention programs


La convivencia/violencia escolar, a menudo, es objeto de alarma social. No parece existir consenso en la prevalencia de conductas violentas en las aulas, pero sí en sus diferencias según sexo, nivel socioeconómico o la importancia de las intervenciones preventivas para su disminución. Los modelos sitúan a las actitudes hacia la violencia como un indicador de riesgo para la manifestación de dichas conductas. Los objetivos del presente estudio son explorar las propiedades psicométricas de la versión ampliada del Cuestionario de Actitudes Hacia la Violencia (CAHV-25) en alumnos de Educación Primaria y Secundaria, proponiendo una versión dividida en cuatro escalas y 28 ítems en total, junto a la exploración de la significación según sexo y etapa académica. Se ha llevado a cabo una revisión cualitativa del cuestionario CAHV-25 y se realizó un estudio psicométrico de la misma para cada una de sus dimensiones originales obteniendo los indicadores de ajuste de Análisis Factorial Exploratorio y Confirmatorio en menores de Educación Primaria y Secundaria (N = 600) de la Región de Murcia (España). Los resultados indican que las cuatro dimensiones tienen mejores propiedades psicométricas en su versión revisada. Las actitudes hacia la violencia son mayores en varones y en Secundaria. Se concluye que la versión propuesta permite maximizar la detección de actitudes hacia la violencia en menores escolarizados, sirviendo de base para el planteamiento de posibles programas de prevención de violencia escolar más específicos


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudantes/psicologia , Violência/psicologia , Atitude , Análise Fatorial , Comportamento do Adolescente , Estudos Transversais , Prevalência , Psicometria
2.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2020: 584-587, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33018056

RESUMO

Sports activity is characterised by the influence of different factors, which relate to both psychological and emotional stress of athletes. As a consequence, mental and physical preparations are fundamental in pre-competition and competition activities. In fact, being able to manage the reactions to stressful events and high demanding conditions, and adapt the strategy depending on the ongoing situation and opponent's reactions allow the athletes to properly process the surrounding information, evaluate all the possible solutions, and finally take the right decision. In this regard, the Skin Conductance (SC), Heart Rate (HR), and Skin Temperature (ST) signals were recorded during a grappling tournament from ten athletes with the aim to investigate if physiological assessments could provide an objective measure of athletes' attitude. The results proved that individual training programs can be tailored accordingly to the neurophysiological state of the athletes, but also that their awareness about both mental and physical preparations and attitudes could be improved.


Assuntos
Esportes , Dispositivos Eletrônicos Vestíveis , Animais , Atletas , Atitude , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos
3.
Wiad Lek ; 73(8): 1641-1649, 2020.
Artigo em Polonês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055326

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Introduction: Current information suggests the existence of two main transmission routes for SARS-CoV-2. This is the drip trajectory and contact transmission. The order to cover the mouth and nose in the public space has been introduced as one of the preventive measures to limit the spread of some virus-induced respiratory diseases, including COVID-19. Both medical and non-medical masks have become the most popular tool. Is there any evidence of their effectiveness? What can be the disadvantages of using them? The aim: To analyze social behaviour towards the order to cover the nose and mouth during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and to confront them with the results of research on the effectiveness of medical and non-medical masks. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Material and methods: The study involved a group of 2512 respondents from all over Poland. The research tool was an original questionnaire containing 24 questions. RESULTS: Results: 76.1% of the respondents declare that they always obey the current order. 83% use a material mask and 26.9% wear a surgical mask. 35.2% of respondents think that the order to cover their nose and mouth is not justified. CONCLUSION: Conclusions: The authors confronted the results of the questionnaire with the scientific research mentioned above. There is limited evidence to resolve the question - "Masks - protection or danger?" However, it is worth noting the small harmfulness and indirect evidence of benefits, which together have precedence over the lack of clear arguments supporting the use of masks by Polish society in times of epidemics.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Máscaras , Boca , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atitude , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Polônia
4.
CBE Life Sci Educ ; 19(3): es10, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32870082

RESUMO

To promote undergraduate education reform, teaching professional development (TPD) efforts aim to encourage instructors to adopt evidence-based practices. However, many instructors do not attend TPD. There may be many reasons for this, including low intrinsic motivation to participate in TPD. Psychologists have dealt with motivational barriers in educational contexts using psychosocial interventions, brief activities that draw on a rich history of psychological research to subtly alter key, self-reinforcing psychological processes to yield long-term intrinsic motivation and behavioral changes. Psychosocial interventions, for example, have been used to alter students' noncognitive attitudes and beliefs, such as attributions and mindset, which positively influence students' motivation and academic performance. Here, we propose that insights from research on psychosocial interventions may be leveraged to design interventions that will increase instructors' motivation to participate in TPD, thus enhancing existing pedagogical reform efforts. We discuss psychological principles and "best practices" underlying effective psychosocial interventions that could guide the development of interventions to increase instructors' motivation to attend TPD. We encourage new interdisciplinary research collaborations to explore the potential of these interventions, which could be a new approach to mitigating at least one barrier to undergraduate education reform.


Assuntos
Educação Profissionalizante , Motivação , Ensino/psicologia , Desempenho Acadêmico , Ansiedade/psicologia , Atitude , Humanos , Reforço Psicológico , Estudantes/psicologia
5.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 2): 244-253, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32970643

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The mental health of the human being and a higher level of the self-esteem have the positive effects on the peace surrounding, stability, success and the personal satisfaction of any individual. The fundamental opinion is that the dance has the affect on the body and the psychical health of the people. To explore if the dancers have their less-expressed psychical symptoms and higher self-esteem. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The examination was performed on the sample of 310 examinees, mostly of the young life age and who identified themselves as the dancers or non-dancers. For the requirements of the investigation there were used the socio-demographic question-form, the psychical symptoms estimation scale (RCL-90-R) and the Rosenberg self-esteem scale (RSES). RESULTS: The dancers show the smaller appearance of the psychical symptoms and that almost in all sub-scales, but their difference is not statistically significant. The statistically significant difference among the men and the women was recorded in the subscales of the somatisations, then the interpersonal vulnerability, the depression, the anxiety and the phobias. The dancers possess their higher self-esteem then the non-dancers, but statistically their difference is not significant. Comparing the results against the sex, the persons of the female sex possess the higher self-respect than the persons of the male sex. CONCLUSION: The dancers possess less of the psychical symptoms and their higher self-esteem than the non-dancers, but the difference within the results is not significant statistically.


Assuntos
Dança/psicologia , Autoimagem , Logro , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Ansiedade , Atitude , Dança/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Satisfação Pessoal , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
6.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e201, 2020 09 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873358

RESUMO

While most research focuses on the clinical treatment of COVID-19, fewer studies have investigated individuals' responses towards this novel infectious disease. This study aims to report the temporal changes in individuals' psychological wellbeing, perceived discrimination, sociopolitical perceptions and information-seeking behaviours among the general public in Hubei, China. Data were obtained from a two-wave survey of 1902 respondents aged 18-80 in Hubei province during the peak and mitigation stages of the outbreak. The results showed that the prevalence of psychological distress dropped from over 75% to around 15% throughout the study period, but perceived discrimination remained stable. Female, middle-aged, well-educated respondents and those employed in government/public institutions/state-owned enterprises tended to report more distress. While respondents' attention on COVID-19 information kept high and stable, their sources of information diversified across different sociodemographic groups. Over time, people obtained more social support from neighbourhoods than from their friends and relatives or non-government organisations. Over 80% of respondents were satisfied with the performance of the central government, which was notably higher than their ratings on the local government and neighbourhood/village committees. The findings of this research are informative for formulating effective intervention strategies to tackle various psychosocial problems during COVID-19.


Assuntos
Atitude , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , China/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias , Apoio Social , Adulto Jovem
7.
Nan Fang Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao ; 40(5): 733-740, 2020 May 30.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32897216

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To survey the residents for their understanding of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) in two hard hit provinces of China to facilitate the governmental decisions on strategies against the disease. METHODS: We invited the participants from Hubei and Henan Provinces of China for an internetbased survey starting from 12:00 on February 21, 2020 to 12:00 on February 23. The survey included the general conditions, KAP of COVID-19, psychological status and living conditions of the residents. RESULTS: The effective response rate of the questionnaire was 98.9%. The mean (P25, P75) age of the participants was 19 (16, 40) years, and 54.3% of them were students. Social media were the most important source of information concerning the pandemic of the respondents. The respondents had a high awareness of person-to-person transmission of the virus through the respiratory tract or droplets but showed a relatively low level of awareness of the population susceptible to COVID-19 and its specific symptoms. The results of multivariate analysis showed that women, undergraduate students (including college students) and higher degree holders had better knowledge of COVID-19 (P < 0.05); the proportion of respondents who expressed to have different levels of psychological stressed such as worry, anxiety and panic reached 77.2%; 16.7% of the responders considered psychological interventions necessary for their psychological conditions; 63.6% of the respondents confessed a bias against the people returning from Hubei and Henan provinces, while 22.4% worried that they might be biased because of their residence in Hubei and Henan. The rate of personal protective equipment shortage was as high as 69.4%; the rates of the responders who would "covering the mouth and nose when coughing or sneezing", "properly use masks in accordance with regulations", "maintain proper hand hygiene ", "avoid gatherings with relatives and friends" and "refrain from going to public places" were 92.4%, 95.9%, 93.5%, 88.8% and 93.1%, respectively. Women and groups with good knowledge of the disease reported better protective behaviors against the diseases (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The residents in Hubei and Henan Provinces have generally good KAP related to COVID-19, and the online platforms plays a positive role to in circulating epidemic-related information. It is essential to further increase the supply of the protective materials and pay more attention to the mental health of the residents during the pandemic, and psychological counseling and psychological protection should be provided if necessary.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Atitude , Feminino , Humanos
8.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239025, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915884

RESUMO

In order to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, much of the US was placed under social distancing guidelines during March 2020. We characterized risk perceptions and adherence to social distancing recommendations in March 2020 among US adults aged 18+ in an online survey with age and gender quotas to match the general US population (N = 713). We used multivariable logistic and linear regression to estimate associations between age (by generational cohort) and these outcomes. The median perceived risk of infection with COVID-19 within the next month was 32%, and 65% of individuals were practicing more social distancing than before the outbreak. Baby Boomers had lower perceived risk than Millennials (-10.6%, 95% CI: -16.2%, -5.0%), yet were more frequently social distancing (OR = 1.64; 95% CI: 1.05, 2.56). Public health outreach should focus on raising compliance with social distancing recommendations, especially among high risk groups. Efforts to address risk perceptions alone may be inadequate.


Assuntos
Atitude , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Isolamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/métodos , Assunção de Riscos , Distância Social , Estados Unidos
9.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238973, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915908

RESUMO

New technological solutions play an important role in preventing the spread of Covid-19. Many countries have implemented tracking applications or other surveillance systems, which may raise concerns about privacy and civil rights violations but may be also perceived by citizens as a way to reduce threat and uncertainty. Our research examined whether feelings evoked by the pandemic (perceived threat and lack of control) as well as more stable ideological views predict the acceptance of such technologies. In two studies conducted in Poland, we found that perceived personal threat and lack of personal control were significantly positively related to the acceptance of surveillance technologies, but their predictive value was smaller than that of individual differences in authoritarianism and endorsement of liberty. Moreover, we found that the relationship between the acceptance of surveillance technologies and both perceived threat and lack of control was particularly strong among people high in authoritarianism. Our research shows that the negative feelings evoked by the unprecedented global crisis may inspire positive attitudes towards helpful but controversial surveillance technologies but that they do so to a lesser extent than ideological beliefs.


Assuntos
Atitude , Busca de Comunicante/métodos , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Aplicativos Móveis , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Quarentena/psicologia , Busca de Comunicante/instrumentação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Cultura , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Polônia , Ativismo Político , Privacidade
10.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238217, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881887

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) on the front lines against COVID-19 may face increased workload and stress. Understanding HCPs' risk for burnout is critical to supporting HCPs and maintaining the quality of healthcare during the pandemic. METHODS: To assess exposure, perceptions, workload, and possible burnout of HCPs during the COVID-19 pandemic we conducted a cross-sectional survey. The main outcomes and measures were HCPs' self-assessment of burnout, indicated by a single item measure of emotional exhaustion, and other experiences and attitudes associated with working during the COVID-19 pandemic. FINDINGS: A total of 2,707 HCPs from 60 countries participated in this study. Fifty-one percent of HCPs reported burnout. Burnout was associated with work impacting household activities (RR = 1·57, 95% CI = 1·39-1·78, P<0·001), feeling pushed beyond training (RR = 1·32, 95% CI = 1·20-1·47, P<0·001), exposure to COVID-19 patients (RR = 1·18, 95% CI = 1·05-1·32, P = 0·005), and making life prioritizing decisions (RR = 1·16, 95% CI = 1·02-1·31, P = 0·03). Adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) was protective against burnout (RR = 0·88, 95% CI = 0·79-0·97, P = 0·01). Burnout was higher in high-income countries (HICs) compared to low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) (RR = 1·18; 95% CI = 1·02-1·36, P = 0·018). INTERPRETATION: Burnout is present at higher than previously reported rates among HCPs working during the COVID-19 pandemic and is related to high workload, job stress, and time pressure, and limited organizational support. Current and future burnout among HCPs could be mitigated by actions from healthcare institutions and other governmental and non-governmental stakeholders aimed at potentially modifiable factors, including providing additional training, organizational support, and support for family, PPE, and mental health resources.


Assuntos
Esgotamento Profissional/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Atitude , Esgotamento Profissional/psicologia , Países Desenvolvidos/estatística & dados numéricos , Países em Desenvolvimento/estatística & dados numéricos , Emoções , Pessoal de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Inquéritos e Questionários
11.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 388-393, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955220

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Adverse pregnancy outcomes are less common among physically active women, and children born to such mothers are less likely to be at risk for macrosomia, obesity and metabolic diseases in the future. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the study were to establish physical activity (PA) patterns among pregnant women in the third trimester, and to determine the attitudes of prenatal care providers to maternal PA during pregnancy. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was conducted in 2017 using surveys from the Polish Pregnancy-related Assessment Monitoring System program (Pol-PrAMS). The study included 3,451 postpartum women. The Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to investigate their PA. This part of Pol-PrAMS study was completed by 2,744 postpartum women who were subjected to statistical analysis. RESULTS: Sedentary or light physical activity comprised 75% of the overall PA in the third trimester of pregnancy (mean values of energy expenditure: 67 and 93.3 MET-h/week, respectively). Household or caregiving activities accounted for almost 50% of all activities and were the most common PA types (mean energy expenditure: 105 MET-h/week). Restriction of PA in pregnancy was reported by over 60% of the women, most often due to concerns over proper foetal development. Over 85% of prenatal care providers either did not address the issue of PA with the future mothers at all, or recommended PA restriction. CONCLUSIONS: Sedentary and light-intensity PA are the two predominant types of physical activity in the third trimester. The most energy-consuming tasks involve household and caregiving activities. Restriction of activity was reported by the majority of the respondents. Prenatal care providers either did not address the matter of PA in pregnancy or recommended PA restriction.


Assuntos
Atitude , Exercício Físico , Pessoal de Saúde/psicologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/fisiologia , Terceiro Trimestre da Gravidez/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Polônia , Gravidez , Adulto Jovem
12.
Ann Agric Environ Med ; 27(3): 401-406, 2020 Sep 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955222

RESUMO

When faced with a chronic disease such as rheumatoid arthritis, the patient attempts to cope with the stressful situation by applying coping strategies. The main aim of rheumatoid treatment is not only improving health but also increasing the quality of life. The research objective was to determine the relationship among socio demographic factors, duration of the disease and its associated ailments, attitude to the disease, self-assessment of one's knowledge of RA, and the application of coping strategies in stressful situations by women with rheumatoid arthritis. The study involved 193 patients of the Clinic of Rheumatology and Systemic Connective Tissue Diseases, and the Rheumatology Unit of the Specialist Outpatient Clinic of the Independent Public Teaching Hospital No. 4 in Lublin, from November 2016 - June 2017. The Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced Inventory (COPE) Questionnaire and an author's Original Questionnaire were used in the study. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's range test were applied for statistical analysis. A p-value<0.05 defined the statistical differences. Analysis was performed using the commercial SPSS Statistics 19 software (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA). The respondents usually use instrumental social support (11.5±1.7), focus on and vent emotions (11.4±1.9), use emotional social support (11.4±1.8), employ active coping (11.4±2.1) and positive reinterpretation and growth (11.2±1.8), and least often rely on their sense of humour (5.5±1.4) or use alcohol or drugs (5±1.1). The factors which determine the types of strategy used are age, education, the duration of the disease, ailments experienced, and attitude towards the disease. Those respondents who declared a greater knowledge of RA more often applied positive reinterpretation and growth, and more rarely used alcohol or drugs. In the treatment and rehabilitation processes it is important to reinforce in the patient positive expectations for the treatment, seek advantages and benefits in one's present health status, and educate patients about the disease, its therapy and appropriate coping strategies.


Assuntos
Adaptação Psicológica , Artrite Reumatoide/psicologia , Atitude , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Autoavaliação
14.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 645, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32873242

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: During the outbreak of cutaneous leishmaniasis in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq that started in 2015, the course of the disease and the treatment were not consistent with the available literature. Physicians, particularly dermatologists, faced challenges with treating the cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions with high rates of treatment failure and resistance to treatment. We used Q-methodology to understand the range and diversities of opinions and the practical experiences of dermatologists about the treatment difficulties of cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: This Q-methodology study was carried out in Erbil, Kurdistan Region of Iraq, and involved 37 dermatologists. A set of 40 statements related to different aspects of difficulties and uncertainties of treating cutaneous leishmaniasis was prepared. The dermatologists were requested to distribute the 40 statements into a scaled grid of nine piles from least agree to most agree. We applied by-person factor analysis using PQMethod 2.35 for the data analysis. RESULTS: The analysis revealed two different viewpoints about the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis and a consensus viewpoint. The first viewpoint emphasized the use of sodium stibogluconate-based combination therapy, concerns with treatment failure, and lack of compliance with the treatment. The second viewpoint emphasized the lack of standard treatment and advances in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. There was a consensus between both groups of respondents about many aspects of the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis, including considering sodium stibogluconate the first drug of choice for cutaneous leishmaniasis treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed a diversity of viewpoints and uncertainties about the effectiveness of the available treatment modalities and treatment difficulties and failure. Interrupted supply and poor quality of the available drugs and lack of a standard and advanced treatment are the main problems facing the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis. More research is required to determine the best treatment modalities for the different types of cutaneous leishmaniasis. There is a need for the development of treatment guidelines specific to the Iraqi context with a particular focus on the treatment of the resistant and atypical cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis.


Assuntos
Gluconato de Antimônio e Sódio/uso terapêutico , Atitude , Consenso , Dermatologistas/psicologia , Leishmania , Leishmaniose Cutânea/tratamento farmacológico , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Adulto , Terapia Combinada , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Iraque/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Falha de Tratamento
15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32899478

RESUMO

This paper is dedicated to the higher education institutions shifting towards distance learning processes due to the global pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 in 2020. The paper covers the pandemic situation in Poland generally, analyzing governmental ordinances and tracking the gradual extension of restrictions for educational institutions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of Experience, Enjoyment, Computer Anxiety, and Self-Efficacy on students' acceptance of shifting education to distance learning. The study tested and used the adapted General Extended Technology Acceptance Model for E-Learning (GETAMEL) in the context of coronavirus pandemic. The partial least squares method of structural equation modeling was employed to test the proposed research model. The study utilizes an online survey to obtain data from 1692 Polish undergraduate and graduate students in both full- and part-time study. The dataset was analyzed using SmartPLS 3 software. Results showed that the best predictor of student's acceptance of shifting education to distance learning is Enjoyment, followed by Self-Efficacy. Both Perceived Ease of Use and Perceived Usefulness predict student's Attitude Towards Using and Intention to Use the distance learning. The findings improve understanding regarding the acceptance of distance learning and this work is therefore of particular interest to teachers and practitioners of education.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Educação a Distância , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Estudantes , Atitude , Betacoronavirus , Humanos , Pandemias , Prazer , Polônia/epidemiologia , Autoeficácia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238359, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986731

RESUMO

Based on the characteristics of expressway driving behavior, a punishment avoidance variable is introduced in this study to modify the theory of planned behavior (TPB), and the analysis model of expressway speeding behavior is improved and verified through survey data. The mechanism of the effects of attitude to behavior, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and punishment avoidance on expressway speeding behavior is analyzed. The results show that drivers lack a correct understanding of expressway speeding behavior and that punishment avoidance has a significant effect on expressway speeding behavior. Younger drivers (25-34), men, High income earners, and those who received more penalty points are considered prone to speeding. The study provides valuable contributions to the development of the Chinese version of the expressway speeding analysis model.


Assuntos
Aceleração , Condução de Veículo/psicologia , Condução de Veículo/estatística & dados numéricos , Teoria Psicológica , Punição , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude , China , Humanos , Intenção , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sociológicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
17.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0236792, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32881859

RESUMO

Based on Attachment Theory, the Barlett and Gentile Cyberbullying Model and General Aggression Model, the present study explored the relationship between childhood psychological maltreatment and cyberbullying perpetration attitudes among undergraduates, as well as the mediating roles of empathy and immorality. Using a stratified cluster random sampling method, 626 college students were tested. Structural equation modeling was used for multiple mediation analysis. Results: (1) The positive rate of childhood psychological maltreatment, referring to sustained and repeated experiencing at least one kind of psychological maltreatment, was reported by accounted for 33.87% of participants; (2) a significant positive correlation existed between childhood psychological maltreatment, immorality, and cyberbullying perpetration attitudes. However, these variables were negatively correlated with empathy (cognitive and affective empathy); and (3) there were three mediating paths: childhood psychological maltreatment was linked to cyberbullying perpetration attitudes of male college students through the mediating roles of cognitive empathy and immorality and the chain-mediating role of cognitive empathy and immorality. Conclusions: Greater experience of childhood psychological maltreatment predicted more favorable attitudes toward cyberbullying perpetration among male college students, mediated by cognitive empathy and immorality. These findings may assist parents and educators by providing effective intervention for cyberbullying perpetration attitudes.


Assuntos
Atitude , Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Cyberbullying/psicologia , Adolescente , Viés , Criança , Cognição , Empatia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
18.
Waste Manag ; 118: 416-425, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949811

RESUMO

Production and use of pharmaceuticals in the United States is high and continues to grow. This, combined with poor wastewater removal rates for drugs in excreted waste, and improper pharmaceutical disposal leads to the presence of pharmaceuticals in fresh- and marine waters and wildlife. In the United States, safe drug take-back boxes, or dropboxes, were established in pharmacies after federal legislation passed in 2014, allowing for year-round safe collection of leftover pharmaceuticals. The overarching objective of this work was to identify opportunities for improving access to proper pharmaceutical disposal. We assessed consumer behavior regarding drug disposal choices and knowledge of dropboxes at pharmacies, investigated pharmacist attitudes toward and recommendations about leftover drug disposal, and compared responses at locations with and without dropboxes. We also explored obstacles to dropbox adoption and usage. We found that customer awareness of dropboxes as well as knowledge about risks of improper disposal are low, however awareness was greater at pharmacies with dropboxes. Additionally, pharmacists at dropbox locations were more consistent in their messaging to customers, more likely to recommend proper disposal methods, and more supportive of drug take-back programs. Through a focus group, we learned that further consumer education would overwhelm the capacity of the existing dropboxes. Based on our findings, we recommend solutions to improper disposal focus on legislation mandating dropboxes at pharmacies and pressure on the pharmaceutical industry to fund proper disposal of unused pharmaceuticals.


Assuntos
Eliminação de Resíduos de Serviços de Saúde , Preparações Farmacêuticas , Farmacêuticos , Atitude , Humanos , Estados Unidos
19.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(9): e22767, 2020 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924948

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The perceived threat of a contagious virus may lead people to be distrustful of immigrants and out-groups. Since the COVID-19 outbreak, the salient politicized discourses of blaming Chinese people for spreading the virus have fueled over 2000 reports of anti-Asian racial incidents and hate crimes in the United States. OBJECTIVE: The study aims to investigate the relationships between news consumption, trust, intergroup contact, and prejudicial attitudes toward Asians and Asian Americans residing in the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. We compare how traditional news, social media use, and biased news exposure cultivate racial attitudes, and the moderating role of media use and trust on prejudice against Asians is examined. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was completed in May 2020. A total of 430 US adults (mean age 36.75, SD 11.49 years; n=258, 60% male) participated in an online survey through Amazon's Mechanical Turk platform. Respondents answered questions related to traditional news exposure, social media use, perceived trust, and their top three news channels for staying informed about the novel coronavirus. In addition, intergroup contact and racial attitudes toward Asians were assessed. We performed hierarchical regression analyses to test the associations. Moderation effects were estimated using simple slopes testing with a 95% bootstrap confidence interval approach. RESULTS: Participants who identified as conservatives (ß=.08, P=.02), had a personal infection history (ß=.10, P=.004), and interacted with Asian people frequently in their daily lives (ß=.46, P<.001) reported more negative attitudes toward Asians after controlling for sociodemographic variables. Relying more on traditional news media (ß=.08, P=.04) and higher levels of trust in social media (ß=.13, P=.007) were positively associated with prejudice against Asians. In contrast, consuming news from left-leaning outlets (ß=-.15, P=.001) and neutral outlets (ß=-.13, P=.003) was linked to less prejudicial attitudes toward Asians. Among those who had high trust in social media, exposure had a negative relationship with prejudice. At high levels of trust in digital websites and apps, frequent use was related to less unfavorable attitudes toward Asians. CONCLUSIONS: Experiencing racial prejudice among the Asian population during a challenging pandemic can cause poor psychological outcomes and exacerbate health disparities. The results suggest that conservative ideology, personal infection history, frequency of intergroup contact, traditional news exposure, and trust in social media emerge as positive predictors of prejudice against Asians and Asian Americans, whereas people who get COVID-19 news from left-leaning and balanced outlets show less prejudice. For those who have more trust in social media and digital news, frequent use of these two sources is associated with lower levels of prejudice. Our findings highlight the need to reshape traditional news discourses and use social media and mobile news apps to develop credible messages for combating racial prejudice against Asians.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos , Atitude , Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Relações Interpessoais , Meios de Comunicação de Massa/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Racismo/estatística & dados numéricos , Mídias Sociais/estatística & dados numéricos , Confiança , Adulto , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Racismo/psicologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
20.
An. psicol ; 36(2): 210-219, mayo 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-192057

RESUMO

Sexting is a recent phenomenon in which people send and receive photos, videos and/or text messages of sexual nature via smartphones or similar devices. Similar to other developed countries, it is becoming an increasingly popular practice among teenagers in Spain. Provided it has appeared very recently, scarce research has focused on examining in-depth factors involved in its initiation and maintenance. Therefore, the two main aims of this study were to determine its prevalence and to analyse the explanatory variables of the sexting behaviours. The sample consisted of 784 Spanish adolescents (52% boys and 48% girls) between 12 and 18 years of age (M = 14.44; SD = 1.61). The results showed that 24.4% have practised sexting at some time, with an average of 2.32 people (SD = 2.70). The regression analysis revealed that positive attitudes towards sexting, level of impulsivity, age, being male and having a partner are variables that predict engagement in sexting. These results are very important for designing and implementing preventive strategies that emphasise the responsible use of ICTs and social networks


El sexting es un fenómeno que consiste en el envío y la recepción de fotos, videos y/o mensajes de texto de naturaleza sexual a través de smartphones. Como en todos los demás países desarrollados, se está convirtiendo en una práctica cada vez más popular entre los adolescentes de España. Al tratarse de un fenómeno muy reciente todavía no existen muchos trabajos que hayan estudiado con profundidad su entidad y sus factores implicados. Por tanto, los dos objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar la prevalencia y analizar las variables explicativas del inicio y del mantenimiento de las conductas de sexting. La muestra estuvo formada por 784 adolescentes españoles (52% chicos y 48% chicas) con edades comprendidas entre los 12 y los 18 años (M = 14.44; DT = 1.61). Los resultados indican que el 24.4% ha practicado sexting en alguna ocasión, realizando esta conducta con una media de 2.32 personas (DT = 2.70). El análisis de regresión reveló que las actitudes positivas hacia el sexting, el nivel de impulsividad, la edad, ser hombre y el mantener una relación de pareja son variables que predicen la práctica del sexting. Estos resultados son muy importantes en la elaboración e implementación de estrategias preventivas que enfaticen el uso responsable de las TICS y las redes sociales


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Criança , Adolescente , Parceiros Sexuais , Envio de Mensagens de Texto , Comportamento Sexual/psicologia , Atitude , Motivação , Psicometria/instrumentação , Análise de Regressão , Escalas de Graduação Psiquiátrica/normas , Inquéritos e Questionários , Comportamento do Adolescente/psicologia
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