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1.
Law Hum Behav ; 45(3): 243-255, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34351206

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Although researchers, policymakers, and practitioners recognize the importance of the public's perceptions of police, few studies have examined developmental trends in adolescents and young adults' views of police. HYPOTHESES: Hypothesis 1: Perceptions of police legitimacy would exhibit a U-shaped curve, declining in adolescence before improving in young adulthood. Hypothesis 2: At all ages, Black youth would report more negative perceptions of police legitimacy than Latino youth, who would report more negative perceptions than White youth. Hypothesis 3: Perceptions of police bias would be consistently associated with worse perceptions of police legitimacy. METHOD: Utilizing longitudinal data from the Crossroads Study, this study examined within-person trends in males' perceptions of police legitimacy from ages 13 to 22, as well as whether perceptions of police bias were associated with perceptions of police legitimacy. RESULTS: Perceptions of police legitimacy followed a U-shaped curve that declined during adolescence, reached its lowest point around age 18, and improved during the transition to young adulthood. Compared with White youth, Latino and Black youth had shallower curves in perceptions of police legitimacy that exhibited less improvement during the transition to adulthood. Further, perceptions of police bias were consistently associated with more negative perceptions of police legitimacy across races and ages. CONCLUSIONS: While perceptions of police legitimacy may decline during adolescence before improving during the transition to adulthood, perceptions of police bias are consistently negatively related to youth and young adults' perceptions of police legitimacy. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/psicologia , Hispano-Americanos/psicologia , Percepção , Polícia , Racismo/etnologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Humanos , Aplicação da Lei , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
2.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(7): e2117074, 2021 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34264327

RESUMO

Importance: Black and Latinx communities have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic, yet little work has sought to understand their perspectives. Objective: To explore the experiences of Black and Latinx communities during the pandemic to better understand their perspectives on COVID-19 mitigation behaviors (eg, mask wearing), testing, and vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this community-engaged qualitative study conducted with 18 community-based organizations and 4 health care organizations between November 19, 2020, and February 5, 2021, in New Jersey counties severely affected by the pandemic, group and individual interviews were used to purposively sample 111 Black and Latinx individuals. A total of 13 group interviews were organized by race/ethnicity and language: 4 English-speaking groups with Black participants (n = 34), 3 Spanish-speaking groups with Latinx participants (n = 24), and 4 English-speaking groups with Black and Latinx participants (n = 36). To understand the views of health care workers from these communities, 2 additional groups (n = 9) were convened and supplemented with individual interviews. Main Outcomes and Measures: Description of Black and Latinx participants' experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic and their perspectives on mitigation behaviors, testing, and vaccines. Results: The study included 111 participants (87 women [78.4%]; median age, 43 years [range, 18-93 years]). Participants described the devastating effects of the pandemic on themselves, loved ones, and their community. Their experiences were marked by fear, illness, loss, and separation. These experiences motivated intense information seeking, mitigation behaviors, and testing. Nevertheless, vaccine skepticism was high across all groups. Participants did not trust the vaccine development process and wanted clearer information. Black participants expressed that they did not want to be subjects of experiments. Conclusions and Relevance: The remaining unknowns about new vaccines need to be acknowledged and described for Black and Latinx communities to make informed decisions. Ultimately, scientists and public officials need to work transparently to address unanswered questions and work collaboratively with trusted community leaders and health professionals to foster partnered approaches, rather than focusing on marketing campaigns, to eliminate vaccine skepticism.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos , Atitude/etnologia , Vacinas contra COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Hispano-Americanos , Pandemias , Confiança , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , COVID-19/psicologia , Teste para COVID-19 , Feminino , Humanos , Comportamento de Busca de Informação , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , New Jersey , Pesquisa , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e2110918, 2021 05 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34009347

RESUMO

Importance: Curbing COVID-19 transmission is currently the greatest global public health challenge. Consumer digital tools used to collect data, such as the Apple-Google digital contact tracing program, offer opportunities to reduce COVID-19 transmission but introduce privacy concerns. Objective: To assess uses of consumer digital information for COVID-19 control that US adults find acceptable and the factors associated with higher or lower approval of use of this information. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cross-sectional survey study obtained data from a nationally representative sample of 6284 US adults recruited by email from the web-based Ipsos KnowledgePanel in July 2020. Respondents evaluated scenarios reflecting uses of digital data for COVID-19 control (case identification, digital contact tracing, policy setting, and enforcement of quarantines). Main Outcomes and Measures: Levels of support for use of personal digital data in 9 scenarios to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 infection, rated on a Likert scale, ranging from 1 (strongly disagree) to 5 (strongly agree). Multivariable linear regression models were fitted for each scenario and included factors hypothesized to be associated with views about digital data use for COVID-19 mitigation measures. Black and Hispanic survey respondents were oversampled; thus, poststratification weights were used so that results are representative of the general US population. Results: Of 6284 individuals invited to participate in the study, 3547 responded, for a completion rate of 56%. A total of 1762 participants (52%) were female, 715 (21%) identified as Black, 790 (23%) identified as Hispanic, and 1224 (36%) were 60 years or older; mean (SD) age was 51.7 (16.6) years. Approval of scenarios was low, ranging from 28% to 43% (52%-67% when neutral responses were included). Differences were found based on digital data source (smartphone vs social media: coefficient, 0.29 [95% CI, 0.23-0.35]; P < .001; smart thermometer vs social media: coefficient, 0.09 [95% CI, 0.03-0.16]; P = .004). County COVID-19 rates (coefficient, -0.02; 95% CI, -0.16 to 0.13 for quartile 4 compared with quartile 1) and prior family diagnosis of COVID-19 (coefficient, 0.00; 95% CI, -0.25 to 0.25) were not associated with support. Compared with self-described liberal individuals, conservative (coefficient, -0.81; 95% CI, -0.96 to -0.66; P < .001) and moderate (coefficient, -0.52; 95% CI, -0.67 to -0.38; P < .001) individuals were less likely to support the scenarios. Similarly, large political differences were observed in support of the Apple-Google digital contact tracing program, with less support from conservative (coefficient, -0.99; 95% CI, -1.11 to -0.87; P < .001) and moderate (coefficient, -0.59; 95% CI, -0.69 to -0.48; P < .001) individuals compared with liberal individuals. Respondents from racial/ethnic minority groups were more supportive of the scenarios than were White, non-Hispanic respondents. For example, compared with White respondents, Black respondents were more supportive of the Apple-Google contact tracing program (coefficient, 0.20; 95% CI, 0.07-0.32; P = .002). Conclusions and Relevance: In this survey study of US adults, many were averse to their information being used on digital platforms to mitigate transmission of COVID-19. These findings suggest that in current and future pandemics, public health departments should use multiple strategies to gain public trust and accelerate adoption of tools such as digital contact tracing applications.


Assuntos
Atitude , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Busca de Comunicante , Tecnologia Digital , Pandemias , Privacidade , Opinião Pública , Adulto , Idoso , Atitude/etnologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Estudos Transversais , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Grupos Minoritários , Política , SARS-CoV-2 , Smartphone , Mídias Sociais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Telemedicina , Estados Unidos
4.
Anthropol Med ; 28(1): 109-121, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33880983

RESUMO

Affect has not been entirely established as a casual explanation in social science. The classic academic accounts of millennial movements emphasise both a period of 'unease' in the ambient atmosphere or 'of tension' at the actual start, and then a periodic culmination of fear or extreme emotion as the movement gains a following and the prophecy accelerates so much so, that 'apocalyptic expectation' equates with 'anxiety'. In the instance examined here, a new Caribbean religion, there may well have been identified anxieties around the time of the founder's visions, but once established the group have little strong emotion, negative or otherwise, although always facing the imminent end of all things.


Assuntos
Ansiedade/etnologia , Atitude/etnologia , Cristianismo/psicologia , Religião e Psicologia , Antropologia Médica , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Humanos
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(49): 1848-1852, 2020 Dec 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33301437

RESUMO

In light of the disproportionate risk of hospitalization and death attributable to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among racial and ethnic minority groups, parental attitudes and concerns regarding school reopening were assessed by race and ethnicity using data from three online CARAVAN omnibus surveys conducted during July 8-12, 2020, by ENGINE Insights.* Survey participants included 858 parents who had children and adolescents in kindergarten through grade 12 (school-aged children) living in their household. Overall, 56.5% of parents strongly or somewhat agreed that school should reopen this fall, with some differences by race/ethnicity: compared with 62.3% of non-Hispanic White (White) parents, 46.0% of non-Hispanic Black or African American (Black) parents (p = 0.007) and 50.2% of Hispanic parents (p = 0.014) agreed that school should reopen this fall. Fewer White parents (62.5%) than Hispanic (79.5%, p = 0.026) and non-Hispanic parents of other racial/ethnic groups (66.9%, p = 0.041) were supportive of a mask mandate for students and staff members. Understanding parental attitudes and concerns is critical to informing communication and messaging around COVID-19 mitigation. Families' concerns also highlight the need for flexible education plans and equitable resource provision so that youth education is not compromised.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pais/psicologia , Retorno à Escola , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
6.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242044, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206679

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To examine the potential moderating effects of explicit racial attitudes and implicit racial attitudes on the relationship between percent of Black county residents and COVID-19 cases and deaths. METHODS: We collected data from a variety of publicly available sources for 817 counties in the US. (26% of all counties). Cumulative COVID-19 deaths and cases from January 22 to August 31, 2020 were the dependent variables; explicit racial attitudes and implicit racial attitudes served as the moderators; subjective poor or fair health, food insecurity, percent uninsured, percent unemployed, median family income, percent women, percent of Asian county resident, percent of Hispanic county residents, and percent of people 65 or older were controls. RESULTS: The percent of Black county residents was positively associated with COVID-19 cases and deaths at the county level. The relationship between percent of Black residents and COVID-19 cases was moderated by explicit racial attitudes and implicit racial attitudes. CONCLUSIONS: Implicit racial attitudes can take on a shared property at the community level and effectively explain racial disparities. COVID-19 cases are highest when both the percent of Black county residents and implicit racial attitudes are high.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , COVID-19/etnologia , COVID-19/mortalidade , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/estatística & dados numéricos , Afro-Americanos/psicologia , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Gerontol B Psychol Sci Soc Sci ; 75(6): 1125-1129, 2020 06 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484890

RESUMO

With global aging, it is crucial to understand how older adults and the process of aging are viewed by members of society. These attitudes can often influence how older adults are treated. Since the Journal of Gerontology was founded, we have gained increasing insights into attitudes toward aging, with several notable research developments, including clearer conceptualization of different types of aging attitudes (e.g., life-domain-specific attitudes and self-perceptions of aging), a wider variety of measurements, better understanding of how different social determinants shape aging attitudes, and more sophisticated investigations of cultural variance and invariance in aging attitudes. In this article, we highlight these major shifts in the field of aging attitudes in the past 75 years, discuss the contributions of these developments, and point to potential future directions.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Atitude/etnologia , Autoimagem , Percepção Social , Idoso , Envelhecimento/etnologia , Envelhecimento/psicologia , Formação de Conceito , Cultura , Transição Epidemiológica , Humanos , Percepção Social/etnologia , Percepção Social/psicologia , Estereotipagem
8.
N Z Med J ; 133(1515): 79-88, 2020 05 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438379

RESUMO

AIMS: Personal cannabis use is common across New Zealand, and an upcoming referendum will enable the public to vote on whether this should be legalised. The present research aimed to examine the attitudes of midlife New Zealand adults on cannabis use and legalisation, and to identify potential predictors of those attitudes. METHODS: At age 40, 899 participants drawn from the Christchurch Health and Development Study were interviewed about the perceived harmfulness of cannabis use, opinions on legalisation for recreational use and supply, and the use of cannabis for medicinal purposes. In addition, a range of potential predictors of legislative attitudes were examined. RESULTS: We identified a wide range of attitudes across the cohort, however the majority tended to hold a neutral view. More than 80% of the cohort expressed support for medicinal cannabis, while 47.8% supported decriminalisation, and 26.8% expressed support for legalisation for recreational use. The strongest predictors of support for legalisation were prior use of cannabis and other drugs, while additional positive predictors included a history of depression, Maori ancestry, parental drug use, novelty seeking and higher educational attainment. Predictors of more negative attitudes were also identified, and included female gender and having dependent children. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide insight into cannabis-related views within the New Zealand context, and may help to predict voting behaviour during the 2020 Cannabis Referendum.


Assuntos
Atitude , Cannabis , Fumar Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Maconha Medicinal/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Atitude/etnologia , Cannabis/efeitos adversos , Estudos de Coortes , Escolaridade , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Fumar Maconha/efeitos adversos , Maconha Medicinal/efeitos adversos , Nova Zelândia , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Pais , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
9.
J Couns Psychol ; 67(3): 288-302, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32237883

RESUMO

Scholars have proposed 2 separable dimensions of racial colorblind ideology: the first is centered on "not seeing color" (i.e., color evasion), and the second is centered on denying racism (i.e., power evasion). Yet, to date, there is no psychometric evidence for this distinction. In this article, we aim to fill this gap by establishing the presence of and characterizing differences between these 2 dimensions using both variable-centered and person-centered approaches. Study 1A (n = 707) provides exploratory factor analytic evidence supporting the separability of power and color evasion. Study 1B (n = 710) provides confirmatory evidence of this factor structure and evidence of discriminant validity. In Study 1B, 3 latent profiles based on power and color evasion were identified: acknowledgers (low color evasion, low power evasion), evaders (high color evasion, average power evasion), and deniers (average color evasion, average power evasion), which differed on relevant variables (e.g., modern racism, support for affirmative-action). In Study 2 (n = 546), these profiles were replicated and extended by examining differences in attitudes and desire to engage in campus diversity activities. Implications for racial colorblind ideology theory and practical applications are discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Assuntos
Aprendizagem da Esquiva/fisiologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/psicologia , Negação em Psicologia , Racismo/psicologia , Inquéritos e Questionários , Atitude/etnologia , Grupos de Populações Continentais/etnologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/métodos , Racismo/etnologia , Estudantes/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Public Health Genomics ; 23(1-2): 59-68, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289795

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Most genetics studies lack the diversity necessary to ensure that all groups benefit from genetic research. OBJECTIVES: To explore facilitators and barriers to genetic research participation. METHODS: We conducted a survey on genetics in research and healthcare from November 15, 2017 to February 28, 2018 among adult Kaiser Permanente (KP) members who had been invited to participate in the KP biobank (KP Research Bank). We used logistic regression to calculate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) comparing the willingness to participate in genetic research under different return of results scenarios and genetic discrimination concerns between groups, according to their demographic characteristics. RESULTS: A total of 57,331 KP members were invited to participate, and 10,369 completed the survey (18% response rate). Respondents were 65% female, 44% non-Hispanic White (NH White), 22% Asian/Native Hawaiian or other Pacific Islander (Asian/PI), 19% non-Hispanic Black (NH Black), and 16% Hispanic. Respondents willing to participate in genetic research ranged from 22% with no results returned to 87% if health-related genetic results were returned. We also found variation by race/ethnicity; when no results were to be returned, Asian/PIs, Hispanics, and NH Blacks were less likely to want to participate than NH Whites (p < 0.05). However, when results were returned, disparities in the willingness to participate disappeared for NH Blacks and Hispanics. Genetic discrimination concerns were more prevalent in Asian/PIs, Hispanics, and NH Blacks than in NH Whites (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Policies that prohibit the return of results and do not address genetic discrimination concerns may contribute to a greater underrepresentation of diverse groups in genetic research.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Grupos Étnicos , Pesquisa em Genética/ética , Participação do Paciente , Sujeitos da Pesquisa , Inquéritos e Questionários/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/ética , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Participação do Paciente/psicologia , Participação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulação de Políticas , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/psicologia , Sujeitos da Pesquisa/estatística & dados numéricos , Estados Unidos
11.
Enferm. glob ; 19(58): 198-211, abr. 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-195555

RESUMO

OBJETIVO: Determinar la violencia de género sufrida y ejercida en función de la cultura, edad y nivel educativo. METODOLOGÍA: Estudio transversal descriptivo con una muestra de 130 sujetos seleccionados aleatoriamente mediante el muestreo no probabilístico por cuotas en los países de España y Perú, siendo 53 hombres y 77 mujeres, sobre los que se aplicó un test de valoración de relaciones violentas de pareja, llamado el "semáforo de la violencia". RESULTADOS: Se encontraron asociaciones significativas según países en los ítems relacionados con el control de la vestimenta y de las salidas, el castigo mediante indiferencia, los celos, la sobreprotección y el control a través del móvil. Por otra parte, la educación formal genera una disminución de la violencia de género sufrida en mujeres. Respecto a la edad, los varones entre 25 y 30 años muestran un aumento significativo en la violencia verbal y la coacción sexual que ejercen. CONCLUSIÓN: Las normas culturales y tradicionales pueden afectar a las relaciones violentas de pareja. Por lo que han de ser tenidas en cuenta al educar en igualdad para elaborar nuevos constructos sociales, haciendo énfasis en las mujeres con baja educación formal por ser más vulnerables de sufrir violencia de género y en los hombres del grupo etario que más la ejerce


OBJECTIVE: To examine intimate partner violence in relation to culture, age and educational level of those involved. METHODOLOGY: A descriptive cross-sectional study involving a sample of 130 subjects, randomly selected through non-probabilistic sampling by quotas, in Spain and Peru (53 men and 77 women). An evaluation of violent intimate partner relationships was undertaken using a tool known as the "Traffic Light of Gender Violence". RESULTS: Significant association was found between countries and the items related to the control of dress and outings, punishment by indifference, jealousy, overprotection and control by means of the mobile phone. On the other hand, formal education generates a decrease in gender violence suffered in women. With regard to age, males between 25 and 30 years of age show a significant increase in verbal violence and sexual coercion. CONCLUSION: Cultural and traditional rules can affect intimate partner violence. Therefore, they should be considered when educating for equality in order to elaborate new social constructs, focusing particularly on women with low levels of formal education (because they are more vulnerable to gender violence) and on men of the age group that tends to use it more


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Violência por Parceiro Íntimo/estatística & dados numéricos , Comparação Transcultural , Mulheres Maltratadas/estatística & dados numéricos , Atitude/etnologia , Espanha/epidemiologia , Peru/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Violência contra a Mulher , Sexismo/estatística & dados numéricos
12.
Nutrients ; 12(3)2020 Feb 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32121384

RESUMO

The growing number of women, who are characterized by restrictive and bulimic behaviours towards their own body is observed especially in countries influenced by Westernalization. However, there is a lack of cross-cultural studies in this area. The main aim of the present study was to examine the psychological and socio-cultural risk factors for eating disorders in Polish and Japanese women. A cross-sectional research study was conducted among 18- to 29-year old Polish (n = 89) and Japanese (n = 97) women. The variables were measured using the Sociocultural Attitudes Towards Appearance Scale SATAQ-3, and the Eating Disorders Inventory EDI-3. The descriptive and comparative statistics, Spearman's rho, and the stepwise regression analysis were used. The global internalization of socio-cultural standards of body image proved to be a significant predictor of Body Dissatisfaction among Polish and Japanese women. The main analysis showed a significant relation between the Drive for Thinness and Interoceptive Deficits in the group of Japanese women, as well as a correlation between Drive for Thinness and Asceticism in the group of Polish women. The obtained results could improve the prevention aimed the dysfunctional eating behaviours. However, the cultural nuances need to be considered in understanding the risk factors for eating disorders.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Transtorno da Evitação ou Restrição da Ingestão de Alimentos , Insatisfação Corporal/psicologia , Bulimia/etnologia , Magreza/etnologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Bulimia/diagnóstico , Bulimia/psicologia , Comparação Transcultural , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Polônia/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Psicometria , Fatores de Risco , Magreza/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
13.
J Autism Dev Disord ; 50(10): 3777-3789, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32124142

RESUMO

The literature on tools of attitudes towards ASD was limited. This study is the first to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the multidimensional attitudes scale toward persons with disabilities (MAS) in a sample of Chinese college students (N = 1002, 32.10% males). Confirmatory factor analysis supported the G-MAS-R model's 4-factor structure: calm, negative affect, positive cognitions and behavioral avoidance. The results suggest that the Chinese version of the MAS has satisfactory internal consistency. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the MAS scores were significantly correlated with the Social Distance Scale and Autism Stigma and Knowledge Questionnaire scores. Overall, the findings indicate that the MAS is appropriate for assessing attitudes toward people with ASD in a Chinese context.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/etnologia , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/etnologia , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/psicologia , Pessoas com Deficiência/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais/normas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Psicometria/normas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estigma Social , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Adulto Jovem
14.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 188, 2020 Feb 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32028917

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Partner concurrency, (having sexual partnerships overlapping in time), especially when condoms are not used, can facilitate sexually transmitted infections (STI) transmission. In Britain, STI diagnoses rates and the reporting of concurrency are higher among black Caribbeans than other ethnic groups. We explored attitudes towards, drivers, characteristics, and contexts of concurrent partnerships, and their implications for STI risk among black Caribbeans in England. METHODS: Purposive sampling, by sex and age-groups, was used to recruit participants (overall n = 59) from five sexual health clinics and community settings in London and Birmingham, England. Audio-recorded four focus group discussions (n = 28 participants), and in-depth interviews (n = 31) were conducted (June 2014-December 2015). Transcribed data were thematically analysed using Framework Analysis. RESULTS: 'Main plus' and 'non-main' concurrency were identified in this population. Main plus concurrency involves an individual having a main partner with whom s/he has a "relationship" with, and the individual and/or their partner secretly or explicitly have other non-main partners. In contrast, non-main concurrency entails having multiple, non-committed partners overlapping in time, where concurrency is usually taken as a given, making disclosure to partners irrelevant. While main partnerships were usually long-term, non-main partnerships ranged in duration from a single event through to encounters lasting several months/years. Condomless sex was common with ex/long-term/married/cohabiting partners; whereas condoms were typically used with non-main partners. However, condom use declined with partnership duration and familiarity with partners. Awareness of partners' concurrency facilitated condom use, STI-testing, and partner notification. While unresolved feelings, or sharing children with ex-partners, usually facilitated main plus concurrency; non-main concurrency was common among young, and single people. Gender norms, notions of masculinity, and sexual desires influenced concurrency. Black Caribbean popular music, social media, peer pressure, and relationship norms among black Caribbeans were also perceived to encourage concurrency, especially among men and young people. CONCLUSIONS: Concurrency among black Caribbeans is shaped by a complex interaction between emotional/psychological, interpersonal, sociocultural, and structural factors. Concurrency type, its duration, and awareness influence sexual health choices, and thus STI risk in this population. Collecting these data during clinic consultations could facilitate offering partner notification methods tailored to concurrency type. Gender- and age-specific, culturally-sensitive interventions addressing STI risks associated with concurrency are needed.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Comportamento Sexual/etnologia , Parceiros Sexuais/psicologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/prevenção & controle , Adolescente , Adulto , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Inglaterra , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
15.
Int J Psychol ; 55(5): 732-742, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32080847

RESUMO

Diversity training is a popular strategy to reduce prejudice within educational settings. However, in practice, diversity training rarely relies on social-psychological theory, and research on its effectiveness in real-world settings is scarce. Previous research regarding diversity training has particularly neglected an important theoretical concept: privilege as the counterpart of discrimination. Therefore, we developed a diversity training aiming to increase awareness of ingroup privilege, using an intersectional approach to teach participants the complex interaction between privilege and oppression. We randomly allocated students of educational science (N = 112) to a repeated-measures (pre-test, post-test, follow-up) control-group design. Compared with the control group, training participants showed a significant increase in awareness of ingroup privilege 1 week after the training, whereas there was no change in awareness of discrimination. Furthermore, increased awareness of ingroup privilege 1 week after the training mediated improved outgroup attitudes (i.e., more positive outgroup feelings towards immigrants and refugees, reduced subtle prejudice towards immigrants and reduced homonegativity) 2 weeks after the training.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Identificação Social , Populações Vulneráveis/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
16.
Child Dev ; 91(4): 1375-1394, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31562645

RESUMO

Many political movements across the world today define citizenship in exclusionary ethnic or religious terms. This study extends research on ethnic-national associations in adults to children, adding to the relatively sparse literature on the development of national associations in children and in nonwestern contexts. Explicit and implicit religious-national associations were examined in a sample of 160 nine- to sixteen-year-olds (79 Hindu; 81 Muslim) in Gujarat, India. Results suggest that while Hindu children show a strong Indian = Hindu association by age 9, Muslim children appear to be buffered from this association. Furthermore, this association uniquely predicts variance in children's attitudes about social policy and their concept of nationality, above and beyond their age, religion, and intergroup attitudes.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Hinduísmo , Islamismo , Autoimagem , Adolescente , Criança , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Índia , Masculino , Religião
17.
Int J Psychol ; 55(2): 305-314, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761535

RESUMO

Our study examined the effects of mortality salience (MS) on attitudes toward state control in different domains in Russia. Using the theory of Conservatism as Motivated Social Cognition (CMSC) and the Terror Management Theory (TMT), we put forward two alternative hypotheses. Based on the CMSC, MS would enhance the approval of state control in different spheres, while, in line with TMT, the MS effect would be dependent on pre-existing views. The participants in the study were 450 Russian students who completed a questionnaire to measure attitudes toward state control in six spheres of life (the economy, the mass media, political parties, social organisations, science and education). After a week, they were randomly assigned one of three conditions-MS, frightening, and a neutral condition-and again completed the questionnaire on political attitudes. Our results showed that MS mostly provokes "control shifting," confirming the CMSC's hypothesis. However, a separate analysis conducted among people with different pre-existing political attitudes has revealed that "control shifting" is more pronounced for freedom-oriented participants. We discuss these findings in line with alternative views on the nature of the MS effect and specifics of socio-political context.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Comportamento Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mortalidade , Federação Russa , Adulto Jovem
18.
Inform Health Soc Care ; 45(1): 31-42, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30444166

RESUMO

Visual representations of data have increasingly included color-encodings to help engage participants in health research. However, there is limited information on the way in which participants interpret color or on the influence of embedded cultural interpretations of color on survey responses. This study examines the interpretation of color-encodings used to indicate survey response options and their impact on participants' responses. Using a descriptive, cross-sectional design, interviews were conducted with 30 older Hmong adults from one Midwestern city in the United States. A survey data collection method was developed using: (a) an Audio-Computer-Assisted Self-Interviewing tool with (b) text-based and color-encoded response options and (c) assistance from a familiar helper. We analyzed the responses using directed content analysis. Findings reveal that some colors (red, black, and white) have strong cultural connotations; such colors were strongly correlated with specific emotions, while others (green, blue, purple, and pink) had no cultural meaning. Early in the survey, some older Hmong were distracted by response options indicated in red and black, influencing their response choices. However, with repeated instructions from the helpers, all participants overcame the color-related distractions and completed the survey. The findings highlight the importance of using colors cautiously and purposively in visualization development.


Assuntos
Americanos Asiáticos/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Recursos Audiovisuais , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos/métodos , Idoso , Cor , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Letramento em Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Meio-Oeste dos Estados Unidos , Interface Usuário-Computador
19.
Appetite ; 147: 104563, 2020 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863844

RESUMO

The decrease in food enjoyment is a major factor why patients suffer from depression when having anosmia, or total loss of smell. While we have some knowledge about how food preferences and attitudes change with dysosmia, these findings are limited because other factors such as culture are not factored in. It is likely that the culture in which an anosmic patient identifies with will influence how their smell loss impacts their relationship with food. This study examined the current attitudes within the United States and Germany towards foods, focusing on the comparison between anosmic patients (N = 53) and those with a healthy sense of smell (N = 121). A survey was used to collect free responses for liking on a variety of foods (N = 15) that were also rated for their overall liking. Additionally, individuals rated and ranked their liking for sensory attributes in relation to their enjoyment of food. Free responses were classified into categories and subcategories, the frequency of those responses were then compared across groups. The patient population of each culture gave lower importance to aroma and flavor; however, the U.S.A. patient population showed a larger decrease from their healthy counterparts. Furthermore, anosmic patients from the U.S.A. showed less overall liking towards the food stimuli compared to their healthy counterparts, while no such effect observed among the German population. Reasons to enjoy a food were largely explained by the culture, and patients within a culture took on different compensation strategies which we use to explain their effectiveness.


Assuntos
Anosmia/etnologia , Anosmia/psicologia , Atitude/etnologia , Cultura , Preferências Alimentares/etnologia , Preferências Alimentares/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Comparação Transcultural , Feminino , Alimentos , Alemanha/etnologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Odorantes/análise , Prazer , Olfato , Paladar , Estados Unidos/etnologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Int J Offender Ther Comp Criminol ; 64(5): 498-521, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31874583

RESUMO

Numerous studies in the United States, as well as a smaller number of studies in other Westernized countries, have linked racial and ethnic attitudes to support for more punitive forms of crime control. The current study explores this relationship in Israel by assessing whether the degree to which Israeli Jews typify crime as an Israeli Arab phenomenon and/or resent Israeli Arabs is related to support for punitive criminal justice policies. The findings suggest that ethnic typification and resentment are related to general punitive attitudes, whereas ethnic apathy and resentment are related to greater support for the death penalty. Also, the relationship between ethnic typification and punitiveness is stronger among those who are less resentful.


Assuntos
Atitude/etnologia , Direito Penal , Grupos Étnicos/psicologia , Grupos Minoritários , Políticas de Controle Social/legislação & jurisprudência , Adulto , Árabes , Feminino , Humanos , Israel/etnologia , Judeus/psicologia , Masculino
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