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1.
Adv Exp Med Biol ; 1165: 443-454, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399978

RESUMO

Preclinical studies point to a key role for immune cells in hypertension via augmenting renal injury and/or hypertensive responses. Blood pressure elevation in rheumatologic patients is attenuated by anti-inflammatory therapies. Both the innate and adaptive immune systems contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension by modulating renal sodium balance, blood flow, and functions of the vasculature and epithelial cells in the kidney. Monocytes/macrophages and T lymphocytes are pivotal mediators of hypertensive responses, while dendritic cells and B lymphocytes can regulate blood pressure indirectly by promoting T lymphocytes activation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-17 (IL-17), and interferon-γ (IFN), amplify blood pressure elevation and/or renal injury. By contrast, interleukin-10 (IL-10) protects against renal and vascular function when produced by T helper 2 cells (Th2) and regulatory T cells (Treg). Thus, understanding the renal effects of cytokines in hypertension will provide targets for precise immunotherapies to inhibit targeted organ damage while preserving necessary immunity.


Assuntos
Citocinas/imunologia , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Rim/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T Reguladores , Células Th2
3.
J Nanobiotechnology ; 17(1): 87, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387604

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adoptive T cell-transfer (ATC) therapy is a highly promising cancer-treatment approach. However, in vivo-administered T cells tend to disperse, with only a small proportion reaching the tumour. To remedy this, magnetic targeting of T cells has been recently explored. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) functionalised with antibodies were attached to effector T cells and magnetically recruited to tumour sites under MRI guidance. In this study, we investigated whether 3-aminopropyl-triethoxysilane (APS)-coated MNPs directly attached to CD8+ T cell membranes could also magnetically target and accumulate tumour-specific CD8+ T cells in solid tumours using an external magnetic field (EMF). As it has been shown that T cells associated with APS-coated MNPs are retained in lymph nodes (LNs), and tumour-draining LNs are the most common sites of solid-tumour metastases, we further evaluated whether magnetic targeting of APS-MNP-loaded CD8+ T cells could cause them to accumulate in tumour-draining LNs. RESULTS: First, we show that antigen-specific CD8+ T cells preserve their antitumor activity in vitro when associated with APS-MNPs. Next, we demonstrate that the application of a magnetic field enhanced the retention of APS-MNP-loaded OT-I CD8+ T cells under flow conditions in vitro. Using a syngeneic mouse model, we found similar numbers of APS-MNP-loaded OT-I CD8+ T cells and OT-I CD8+ T cells infiltrating the tumour 14 days after cell transfer. However, when a magnet was placed near the tumour during the transfer of tumour-specific APS-MNP-loaded CD8+ T cells to improve tumour infiltration, a reduced percentage of tumour-specific T cells was found infiltrating the tumour 14 days after cell transfer, which was reflected in a smaller reduction in tumour size compared to tumour-specific CD8+ T cells transferred with or without MNPs in the absence of a magnetic field. Nonetheless, magnet placement near the tumour site during cell transfer induced infiltration of activated tumour-specific CD8+ T cells in tumour-draining LNs, which remained 14 days after cell transfer. CONCLUSIONS: The use of an EMF to improve targeting of tumour-specific T cells modified with APS-MNPs reduced the percentage of these cells infiltrating the tumour, but promoted the retention and the persistence of these cells in the tumour-draining LNs.


Assuntos
Transferência Adotiva , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/transplante , Linfonodos/patologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Nanopartículas de Magnetita/química , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Permeabilidade da Membrana Celular , Proliferação de Células , Sobrevivência Celular , Feminino , Linfonodos/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/patologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Transplante de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/patologia , Propilaminas/química , Silanos/química
4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190102, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31411311

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Once in the pulmonary alveoli, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) enters into contact with alveolar macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs). DCs represent the link between the innate and adaptive immune system owing to their capacity to be both a sentinel and an orchestrator of the antigen-specific immune responses against Mtb. The effect that the virulence of Mtb has on the interaction between the bacilli and human DCs has not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of Mtb virulence on human monocyte-derived DCs. METHODS: We exposed human monocyte-derived DCs to Mtb clinical strains (isolated from an epidemiological Mtb diversity study in Mexico) bearing different degrees of virulence and evaluated the capacity of DCs to internalise the bacilli, control intracellular growth, engage cell death pathways, express markers for activation and antigen presentation, and expand to stimulate autologous CD4+ T cells proliferation. FINDINGS: In the case of the hypervirulent Mtb strain (Phenotype 1, strain 9005186, lineage 3), we report that DCs internalise and neutralise intracellular growth of the bacilli, undergo low rates of apoptosis, and contribute poorly to T-cell expansion, as compared to the H37Rv reference strain. In the case of the hypovirulent Mtb strain (Phenotype 4, strain 9985449, lineage 4), although DCs internalise and preclude proliferation of the bacilli, the DCs also display a high level of apoptosis, massive levels of apoptosis that prevent them from maintaining autologous CD4+ T cells in a co-culture system, as compared to H37Rv. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that variability in virulence among Mtb clinical strains affects the capacity of DCs to respond to pathogenic challenge and mount an immune response against it, highlighting important parallels to studies previously done in mouse models.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/virologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Linfócitos T Reguladores/parasitologia , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Transdução de Sinais , Virulência
5.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1359-1368, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332464

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting coinhibitory pathways in T cells possess efficacy in combating cancer. In addition to PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 antibodies which are already established in tumor immunotherapy, immune checkpoints such as LAG-3 or BTLA are emerging, which may have the potential to enhance T-cell responses alone or in combination with PD-1 blockers. CD4+ T cells play a central role in the immune system and contribute to productive immune responses in multiple ways. The effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors on this cell subset may thus critically influence therapeutic outcomes. Here, we have used in vitro responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model system to study the effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors on CD4+ T-cell responses. CFSE-labeled PBMCs of 65 donors were stimulated with TT in the presence of blocking antibodies to PD-L1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, or BTLA for 7 days. We found that the PD-L1 antibody greatly enhanced cytokine production and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation, whereas blocking antibodies to BTLA or LAG-3 did not augment responses to TT. Surprisingly, the presence of the therapeutic CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab resulted in a significant reduction of CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Stimulation experiments with an IgG4 variant of ipilimumab indicated that the inhibitory effect of ipilimumab was dependent on its IgG1 isotype. Our results indicate that the therapeutic CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab can impair CD4+ effector T-cell responses and that this activity is mediated by its Fc part and CD16-expressing cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia
6.
Ther Umsch ; 75(1): 33-37, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282835

RESUMO

The diagnosis of drug allergy is essentially based on a detailed anamnesis, involving the doctors who first treated the patient, and skin testing (prick, intradermal and epicutaneous / patch tests). In the allergological practice / clinic, provocation tests with the presumed trigger are only carried out if the indication is very clear (see articles in this issue on drug allergy children, allergies to betalactam and other antibiotics as well as analgesic intolerance). The provocation with a probably tolerable alternative is in the foreground. Unfortunately, the skin tests of certain drug groups have a low sensitivity even under optimal conditions, but very good specificity. Accordingly, positive skin tests are mostly relevant, but negative skin tests cannot rule out an allergy. In recent years, it has therefore proved successful to carry out supplementary laboratory tests in the clarification of drug allergies. The serological tests (IgE) are of little help. In contrast, the test forms based on the analysis of leukocytes (basophil activation test, BAT, and lymphocyte transformation test, LTT) have gained in importance and complement the diagnostic repertoire. In the combination of all test methods (skin test, LTT, BAT, sometimes provocation test) the trigger of a drug allergy can be defined in a good 70 % of cases and in most cases a safe therapeutic alternative can be found. In the following, we will discuss the importance of laboratory diagnostics in drug allergy.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade a Drogas , Testes Cutâneos , Antibacterianos , Criança , Hipersensibilidade a Drogas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , beta-Lactamas
7.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1379-1389, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338557

RESUMO

Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) is the sixth most common cancer worldwide and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is overexpressed in greater than 90% of patient tumors. Cetuximab is a monoclonal antibody that binds to EGFR and can activate immune cells, such as natural killer (NK) cells, that express receptors for the Fc (constant region) of immunoglobulin G. IL-15 (interleukin-15) is a critical factor for the development, proliferation and activation of effector NK cells. A novel IL-15 compound known as ALT-803 that consists of genetically modified IL-15 plus the IL-15 receptor alpha protein (IL15Rα) fused to the Fc portion of IgG1 has recently been developed. We hypothesized that treatment with ALT-803 would increase NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity of cetuximab-coated head and neck squamous cells. CD56+ NK cells from normal healthy donors were treated overnight with ALT-803 and tested for their ability to lyse cetuximab-coated tumor cells. Cytotoxicity was greater following NK cell ALT-803 activation, as compared to controls. ALT-803-treated NK cells secreted significantly higher levels of IFN-γ than control conditions. Additionally, NK cells showed increased levels of phospho-ERK and phospho-STAT5 when co-cultured with cetuximab-coated tumors and ALT-803. Administration of both cetuximab and ALT-803 to mice harboring Cal27 SCCHN tumors resulted in significantly decreased tumor volume when compared to controls and compared to single-agent treatment alone. Overall, the present data suggest that cetuximab treatment in combination with ALT-803 in patients with EGFR-positive SCCHN may result in significant NK cell activation and have important anti-tumor activity.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/tratamento farmacológico , Cetuximab/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Proteínas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Receptores ErbB/imunologia , Receptores ErbB/metabolismo , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/imunologia , Humanos , Interferon gama/metabolismo , Interleucina-15/genética , Células Matadoras Naturais/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária , Camundongos , Proteínas/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-15/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Carga Tumoral , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(3): e12802, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269269

RESUMO

Glucose and nutrient uptake is essential in supporting T cell activation and is increased upon CD3/CD28 stimulation. As T cells from pleural effusions secondary to lung cancer show impaired function, we hypothesized that these cells might have altered expression of nutrient transporters. Here, we analysed by flow cytometry the expression of the transferrin receptor CD71, amino acid transporter CD98 and glucose transporter Glut1 and glucose uptake in pleural effusion-derived T cells from lung cancer patients, after stimulation via CD3/CD28 under normoxia or hypoxia (2% O2 ). We compared the response of T cells from pleural effusions secondary to lung cancer with that of T cells from nonmalignant effusions. In memory T cells from both groups, anti-CD3/CD28-stimulation under normoxia upregulated CD98 and CD71 expression (measured as median fluorescence intensity, MFI) in comparison with anti-CD3-stimulation. Costimulation under hypoxia tended to increase CD98 expression compared to CD3-stimulation in memory T cells from both groups. Remarkably, in the cancer group, memory T cells stimulated via CD3/CD28 under hypoxia failed to increase CD71 and Glut1 expression levels compared to the cells receiving anti-CD3 stimulation, a phenomenon that contrasted with the behaviour of memory T cells from nonmalignant effusions. Consequently, glucose uptake by memory T cells from the cancer group was not increased after CD3/CD28 stimulation under hypoxia, implying that their glycolytic metabolism is defective. As this process is required for inducing an antitumoural response, our study suggests that memory T cells are rendered dysfunctional and are unable to eliminate lung tumour cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD28/metabolismo , Complexo CD3/metabolismo , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Memória Imunológica/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Derrame Pleural/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Derrame Pleural/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo
9.
APMIS ; 127(9): 642-652, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31274210

RESUMO

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection always leads to chronic hepatitis via dysregulation of host immunity. Notch signaling also modulates the response of monocytes/macrophages. Thus, we aimed to investigate the regulatory role of Notch signaling to CD14+ monocytes. Forty patients with chronic hepatitis C and twenty normal controls (NC) were enrolled. CD14+ monocytes and CD4+ T cells were purified from peripheral bloods. Notch receptors' mRNA expression in CD14+ monocytes was semi-quantified by real-time PCR. Cytokine production by CD14+ monocytes in response to γ-secretase inhibitor (GSI) was investigated by ELISA. GSI-induced CD14+ monocytes activity to HCV clearance in Huh7.5 cells and to CD4+ T cell differentiation was also assessed in direct and indirect contact co-culture system. Notch1 mRNA relative level was approximately 10-fold elevated in CD14+ monocytes from chronic hepatitis C patients when compared with NC. GSI stimulation resulted in enhanced cytokines production by CD14+ monocytes from chronic hepatitis C patients. GSI-stimulated CD14+ monocytes from chronic hepatitis C patients induced suppression of HCV RNA replication in both direct and indirect contact co-culture system of CD14+ monocytes and HCVcc-infected Huh7.5 cells, and this process was accompanied by elevation of interferon-γ production but not increased target cell death. Moreover, GSI stimulation also enhanced CD14+ monocytes-induced Th1 and Th17 cells activation, and this process required direct cell-to-cell contact. Effective antiviral therapy down-regulated Notch1 mRNA expression and promoted cytokine production by CD14+ monocytes from chronic hepatitis C. Current data revealed an important immunoregulatory property of Notch signaling to CD14+ monocytes in chronic HCV infection.


Assuntos
Hepatite C Crônica/imunologia , Monócitos/imunologia , Receptor Notch1/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia , Adulto , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Técnicas de Cocultura , Regulação para Baixo/imunologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1303-1315, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278476

RESUMO

Our previous work has demonstrated the high efficiency of CD8+ natural killer T (NKT)-like cells in killing antigen-bearing dendritic cells. To evaluate their role in the tumor microenvironment, we performed in vitro and in vivo antitumor experiments to investigate whether CD8+NKT-like cells could kill Yac-1 and B16 cells like NK cells and kill EL4-OVA8 cells in an antigen-specific manner like cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs). Unlike NK1.1-CTLs, CD8+NKT-like cells also exhibit the capability to kill myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in an antigen-specific manner, indicative of their potential role in clearing tumor antigen-bearing MDSCs to improve the antitumor microenvironment. In vitro blocking experiments showed that granzyme B inhibitor efficiently suppressed the cytotoxicity of CD8+NKT-like cells against tumor cells and MDSCs, while Fas ligand (FasL) or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) inhibition failed to produce similar effects. Transcriptomic and phenotypic analyses of CD8+NKT-like cells, NK cells, and NK1.1-CTLs indicated that CD8+NKT-like cells expressed both T-cell activation markers and NK cell markers, thus bearing features of both the activated T cells and NK cells. Taken together, CD8+NKT-like cells could exert NK- and CTL-like antitumor effects through the elimination of both tumor cells and MDSCs in a granzyme B-dependent manner.


Assuntos
Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Células Supressoras Mieloides/imunologia , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Neoplasias Experimentais/terapia , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/imunologia , Animais , Antígenos CD8/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica , Feminino , Granzimas/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neoplasias Experimentais/imunologia , Transcriptoma , Microambiente Tumoral
11.
Parasit Vectors ; 12(1): 341, 2019 Jul 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31296257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides is a widespread tick species in China and other South East Asian countries, where it is the vector of many pathogens. The objective of this study was to study the role of serpin (serine protease inhibitor) during the tick-host interaction. METHODS: The differentiation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BMDC) was induced in vitro, and the effect of RHS2 on the maturation of DCs was evaluated. The effects of RHS2 on T cell activation and cytotoxic T lymphocytes' (CTLs) activity were analyzed by flow cytometry. Antibody subtypes after immunization of mice with RHS2 and OVA were determined. RESULTS: RHS2 can inhibit the differentiation of bone marrow-derived cells into DCs and promote their differentiation into macrophages. RHS2 can inhibit the maturation of DCs and the expression of CD80, CD86 and MHCII. The number of CD3+CD4+ and CD3+CD8+ T cells secreting IFN-γ, IL-2 and TNF-α was decreased, and the number of CD3+CD4+ T cells secreting IL-4 was increased, indicating that RHS2 can inhibit the activation of CD4 T cells and CD8 T cells, leading to inhibition of Th1 immune response. RHS2 inhibits the elimination of target cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes. After immunization of mice with RHS2 and OVA, serum IgG2b was significantly reduced and IgM was increased. CONCLUSIONS: The results show that RHS2 has an inhibitory effect on the host immune response. Ticks have evolved various ways to circumvent adaptive immunity. Their serpin inhibits BMDC differentiation to reduce immune responses.


Assuntos
Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Imunomodulação , Ativação Linfocitária , Rhipicephalus/química , Serpinas/imunologia , Animais , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Serpinas/genética
12.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1331-1340, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31317218

RESUMO

Expression of inhibitors of apoptosis protein (IAP) family members is associated with poor prognosis in cancer patients. Immunity to ML-IAP (livin) and survivin has been well studied in patients with a variety of tumors. XIAP, the most potent inhibitor of apoptosis, is widely expressed in melanoma. To better define its potential role as an immunogenic target, cellular and humoral responses to XIAP were investigated in patients with advanced melanoma. An overlapping peptide library covering the full length of the XIAP protein was used to screen T cell responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from stage-IV melanoma patients treated with or without anti-CTLA4 (ipilimumab). The screen identified an array of peptides that predominantly induced CD4+ T cell responses. XIAP epitope-specific CD4+ T cells revealed proliferative responses to melanoma cells that express XIAP. Humoral responses to XIAP were also explored. Cellular and humoral responses to XIAP were associated with beneficial clinical outcomes after ipilimumab-based treatment, supporting XIAP as a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Melanoma/imunologia , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Proteínas Inibidoras de Apoptose Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Células Cultivadas , ELISPOT , Humanos , Imunidade Humoral , Ativação Linfocitária , Melanoma/tratamento farmacológico , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(17): 5188-5190, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31266831

RESUMO

A key mechanism of resistance to chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells (CAR-T) is loss or downregulation of target antigens. Low antigen expression on cancer cells prevents full CAR-T-cell activation and persistence. Pharmacologic modulation of target antigen expression offers a novel therapeutic strategy to drive more potent and durable responses.See related article by Ramakrishna et al., p. 5329.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Adotiva , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ativação Linfocitária , Linfócitos T/imunologia
14.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2935, 2019 07 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270335

RESUMO

Trace elements play important roles in human health, but little is known about their functions in humoral immunity. Here, we show an important role for iron in inducing cyclin E and B cell proliferation. We find that iron-deficient individuals exhibit a significantly reduced antibody response to the measles vaccine when compared to iron-normal controls. Mice with iron deficiency also exhibit attenuated T-dependent or T-independent antigen-specific antibody responses. We show that iron is essential for B cell proliferation; both iron deficiency and α-ketoglutarate inhibition could suppress cyclin E1 induction and S phase entry of B cells upon activation. Finally, we demonstrate that three demethylases, KDM2B, KDM3B and KDM4C, are responsible for histone 3 lysine 9 (H3K9) demethylation at the cyclin E1 promoter, cyclin E1 induction and B cell proliferation. Thus, our data reveal a crucial role of H3K9 demethylation in B cell proliferation, and the importance of iron in humoral immunity.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proliferação de Células , Histonas/química , Histonas/imunologia , Imunidade Humoral , Lisina/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos B/química , Linfócitos B/citologia , Ciclo Celular , Células Cultivadas , Ciclina E/genética , Ciclina E/imunologia , Desmetilação , Proteínas F-Box/genética , Proteínas F-Box/imunologia , Histonas/genética , Ferro/metabolismo , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/genética , Histona Desmetilases com o Domínio Jumonji/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária , Lisina/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas Oncogênicas/genética , Proteínas Oncogênicas/imunologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Linfócitos T/citologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia
15.
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi ; 41(7): 501-507, 2019 Jul 23.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31357836

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of myeloid and plasmacytoid dendritic cell combined vaccines loaded with heat-treated Lewis lung cancer cell lysates for treatment of lung cancer in mice. Methods: Bone marrow cells were induced by the recombinant mouse fms-like tyrosine kinase receptor 3 ligand (rmFlt3-L) in vitro, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) were separated by magnetic beads. The mDC, pDC, and mDC∶pDC=1∶1 were stimulated with heat-treated Lewis lung cancer cell lysates, respectively. The effects of each group on stimulating of lymphocyte proliferation and inducing of T cell to kill tumor cells in vitro were compared. The alternations of the immunophenotypes of CD80, CD86, CD40 and major histocompatibility complex Ⅱ (MHC-Ⅱ) were detected by flow cytometry. The secretion of cytokines including interlukin-12 (IL-12), interlukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results: The lymphocyte proliferation in mice stimulated with mDC+ pDC group loaded with heat-treated Lewis lung cancer cell lysates was 10.80±0.66, significantly higher than 8.63±0.65 of mDC group and 7.10±0.46 pDC group under the same culture conditions, respectively (P<0.05). When the ratio of effector cells: target cells (E∶T) was 10∶1, the killing rate of the mDC+ pDC group loaded with heat-treated tumor cell lysate was 31.68%±2.93%, significantly higher than 17.44%±0.97% of mDC group and 10.29%±1.33% of pDC group, respectively (P<0.05). When the ratio of E∶T was 20∶1, the killing rate of the mDC+ pDC group loaded with heat-treated tumor cell lysate was 54.77%±3.28%, significantly higher than 35.25%±1.51% of mDC group and 15.52%±0.73% of pDC group, respectively (P<0.05). When the ratio of E∶T was 40∶1, the killing rate of the mDC+ pDC group loaded with heat-treated tumor cell lysate was 73.01%±0.91%, significantly higher than 51.36%±0.58% of mDC group and 22.65%±1.28% of pDC group, respectively (P<0.05). With the rate of E∶T increased, the killing rate also increased. The mean fluorescence intensities of surface molecules including CD80, CD86, CD40 and MHC-Ⅱ of mDC: pDC=1 group pulsed with heat-treated Lewis lung cancer cell lysates were higher than those of mDC group and pDC group. The IL-6 cytokine concentrations of mDC+ pDC group, mDC group and pDC group loaded with heat-treated Lewis lung cancer cell lysates were (586.67±52.52) pg/ml, (323.33±67.14) pg/ml and (166.67±16.07) pg/ml, respectively. The concentrations of IL-12 in each group were (2 568.75±119.24) pg/ml, (2 156.25±120.55) pg/ml and (672.92±31.46) pg/ml, respectively. The concentrations of TNF-α in each group were (789.33±48.08) pg/ml, (584.89±116.49) pg/ml and (291.56±40.73) pg/ml, respectively. The concentrations of IL-6, IL-12 and TNF-α secreted by mDC+ pDC group were much higher than those of mDC group and pDC group under the same culture conditions (P<0.05). Conclusions: The mDCs and pDCs combined vaccines pulsed with heat-treated Lewis lung cancer cell lysates have synergistic effects on inducing of T lymphocyte proliferation and killing tumor cells in vitro. This synergistic anti-tumor effect is related with up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules and increased secretion of cytokines.


Assuntos
Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/prevenção & controle , Ativação Linfocitária , Animais , Camundongos , Vacinas Combinadas
16.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2678, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213601

RESUMO

Myeloid cells contribute to tumor progression, but how the constellation of receptors they express regulates their functions within the tumor microenvironment (TME) is unclear. We demonstrate that Fcmr (Toso), the putative receptor for soluble IgM, modulates myeloid cell responses to cancer. In a syngeneic melanoma model, Fcmr ablation in myeloid cells suppressed tumor growth and extended mouse survival. Fcmr deficiency increased myeloid cell population density in this malignancy and enhanced anti-tumor immunity. Single-cell RNA sequencing of Fcmr-deficient tumor-associated mononuclear phagocytes revealed a unique subset with enhanced antigen processing/presenting properties. Conversely, Fcmr activity negatively regulated the activation and migratory capacity of myeloid cells in vivo, and T cell activation by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells in vitro. Therapeutic targeting of Fcmr during oncogenesis decreased tumor growth when used as a single agent or in combination with anti-PD-1. Thus, Fcmr regulates myeloid cell activation within the TME and may be a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacologia , Proteínas de Transporte/metabolismo , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Monócitos/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Animais , Apresentação do Antígeno/efeitos dos fármacos , Apresentação do Antígeno/imunologia , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Carcinogênese/efeitos dos fármacos , Carcinogênese/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Transporte/genética , Proteínas de Transporte/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Movimento Celular/imunologia , Feminino , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Melanoma Experimental/mortalidade , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Proteínas de Membrana/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Proteínas de Membrana/imunologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Monócitos/metabolismo , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/metabolismo , Neoplasias Cutâneas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutâneas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2681, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213606

RESUMO

Although chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapies have demonstrated considerable success in treating hematologic malignancies, they have simultaneously been plagued by a cytokine release syndrome (CRS) that can harm or even kill the cancer patient. We describe a CAR T cell strategy in which CAR T cell activation and cancer cell killing can be sensitively regulated by adjusting the dose of a low molecular weight adapter that must bridge between the CAR T cell and cancer cell to initiate tumor eradication. By controlling the concentration and dosing schedule of adapter administration, we document two methods that can rapidly terminate (<3 h) a pre-existing CRS-like toxicity and two unrelated methods that can pre-emptively prevent a CRS-like toxicity that would have otherwise occurred. Because all four methods concurrently enhance CAR T cell potency, we conclude that proper use of bispecific adapters could potentially avoid a life-threatening CRS while enhancing CAR T cell tumoricidal activity.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/prevenção & controle , Imunoterapia Adotiva/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias/terapia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Animais , Engenharia Celular/métodos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Citocinas/imunologia , Fluoresceína/metabolismo , Receptores de Folato com Âncoras de GPI/metabolismo , Ácido Fólico/metabolismo , Humanos , Doenças do Sistema Imunitário/etiologia , Imunoterapia Adotiva/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores de Antígenos Quiméricos/metabolismo , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/imunologia , Anticorpos de Cadeia Única/metabolismo , Síndrome , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/transplante , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
18.
Vet Immunol Immunopathol ; 212: 38-42, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213250

RESUMO

Food allergen-specific sublingual immunotherapy (FA-SLIT) is a novel, safe and effective approach in dogs with adverse food reactions (AFR) to reduce their clinical symptoms. However, little is known about the specific immune components which mediate this reduction in clinical symptoms. In humans, regulatory T cells seem to play an important role in this desensitisation process. Here, we investigated changes in peripheral T cell responses of dogs with AFR upon FA-SLIT. Five dogs received a dose escalation of FA-SLIT over a six-month period. An oral food challenge was performed at the beginning and end of the study to assess the efficacy of the FA-SLIT. Using in vitro allergen-recall assays, we assessed the proliferation of T cell subsets before and at the end of the treatment. FA-SLIT significantly increased the percentage of proliferating CD4-CD8- double-negative (DN) T cells, while the percentage of allergen-specific CD4-CD8+ and CD4+CD8+ double-positive (DP) T cells decreased upon treatment. These findings indicate that sublingual immunotherapy in dogs activates DN T cells, which might be important for the desensitisation of dogs with adverse food reactions. However, further research is needed to corroborate these findings and to further elucidate the mechanism of action of FA-SLIT in dogs with AFR.


Assuntos
Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/imunologia , Hipersensibilidade Alimentar/terapia , Imunoterapia Sublingual , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Dessensibilização Imunológica/métodos , Cães , Imunoglobulina E/sangue , Imunoglobulina E/imunologia , Interleucina-10/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária
19.
Nat Immunol ; 20(7): 793-801, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213715

RESUMO

Unlike other cells in the body, immune cells have to be able to enter and adapt to life within diverse tissues. Immune cells develop within dedicated immune system organs, such as the bone marrow, thymus and lymphoid tissues, but also inhabit other tissues, wherein they not only provide defense against infection and malignancies but also contribute to homeostatic tissue function. Because different tissues have widely divergent metabolic rates and fuel requirements, this raises interesting questions about the adaptation of immune cells in specific tissues. When immune cells take up residence in different tissues, they develop a transcriptional signature that reflects adaptation to life and function within that tissue. Genes encoding metabolic-pathway proteins are strongly represented within these signatures, reflective of the importance of metabolic adaptation to tissue residence. In this Review, we discuss the available data on the metabolic adaptation of immune cells to life in different tissue sites, within the broader framework of how functional adaptation versus maladaptation in the niche can affect tissue homeostasis.


Assuntos
Adaptação Biológica , Metabolismo Energético , Sistema Imunitário/citologia , Sistema Imunitário/fisiologia , Especificidade de Órgãos/imunologia , Animais , Biomarcadores , Homeostase , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno/imunologia , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Ativação de Macrófagos/genética , Ativação de Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/imunologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais
20.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2688, 2019 06 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217437

RESUMO

Neoantigens (nAgs) are promising tumor antigens for cancer vaccination with the potential of inducing robust and selective T cell responses. Genetic vaccines based on Adenoviruses derived from non-human Great Apes (GAd) elicit strong and effective T cell-mediated immunity in humans. Here, we investigate for the first time the potency and efficacy of a novel GAd encoding multiple neoantigens. Prophylactic or early therapeutic vaccination with GAd efficiently control tumor growth in mice. In contrast, combination of the vaccine with checkpoint inhibitors is required to eradicate large tumors. Gene expression profile of tumors in regression shows abundance of activated tumor infiltrating T cells with a more diversified TCR repertoire in animals treated with GAd and anti-PD1 compared to anti-PD1. Data suggest that effectiveness of vaccination in the presence of high tumor burden correlates with the breadth of nAgs-specific T cells and requires concomitant reversal of tumor suppression by checkpoint blockade.


Assuntos
Adenoviridae/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Anticâncer/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias/terapia , Vacinas Virais/uso terapêutico , Adenoviridae/genética , Animais , Antígenos de Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Terapia Combinada/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Humanos , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Camundongos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Resultado do Tratamento , Carga Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Carga Tumoral/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/genética , Vacinas Sintéticas/imunologia , Vacinas Sintéticas/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Virais/genética , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
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