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1.
Int J Cancer ; 146(6): 1730-1740, 2020 03 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840816

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) has shown long-term survival benefits, but only in a small fraction of cancer patients. Recent studies suggest that improved vessel perfusion by ICB positively correlates with its therapeutic outcomes. However, the underlying mechanism of such a process remains unclear. Here, we show that anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA4) treatment-induced tumor vessel normalization was accompanied by an increased infiltration of eosinophils into breast tumors. Eosinophil accumulation was positively correlated with the responsiveness of a breast tumor to anti-CTLA4 therapy. Depletion of eosinophils subsequently negated vessel normalization, reduced antitumor immunity and attenuated tumor growth inhibition by anti-CTLA4 therapy. Moreover, intratumoral accumulation of eosinophils relied on T lymphocytes and interferon γ production. Together, these results suggest that eosinophils partially mediate the antitumor effects of CTLA4 blockade through vascular remodeling. Our findings uncover an unidentified role of eosinophils in anti-CTLA4 therapy, providing a potential new target to improve ICB therapy and to predict its efficacy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Eosinófilos/efeitos dos fármacos , Eosinófilos/metabolismo , Neoplasias/etiologia , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neovascularização Patológica/metabolismo , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Eosinófilos/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Imunidade , Imunomodulação/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunofenotipagem , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Depleção Linfocítica , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/imunologia , Linfócitos do Interstício Tumoral/metabolismo , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/patologia , Neovascularização Patológica/tratamento farmacológico , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/metabolismo
2.
Life Sci ; 242: 117191, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31863775

RESUMO

Melatonin is an indole neuroendocrine hormone that is mainly secreted by the pineal gland to regulate circadian rhythm, antioxidation, and immune regulation. Melatonin plays an important role in T cell-mediated immune responses against cancer, infections, and the development of many autoimmune diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of melatonin on T/B cell activation in pinealectomy mice. The improved pinealectomy procedure for mice presented in this study is a good animal model to be used in follow-up studies on melatonin. After pinealectomy, the tissue removed was identified as the pineal body using HE staining. The effects of melatonin supplementation on T cell activation and activation-related changes to the MAPK/NF-κ B pathways were analyzed by flow cytometry and real-time PCR. We found that expression levels of Th1, Th2 and Th17-related cytokines in peripheral blood were lower in mice that had undergone pinealectomy, compared with normal mice. After melatonin supplementation, cytokine levels rapidly increased within a short period of time, which resulted in the gradual recovery of cytokine expression levels. Moreover, activation of T/B cells in mice was weakened and decreased after pineal gland removal. Melatonin was found to inhibit the expression of TLR3, p38, JNK, and MAPK/NF-κ B within a short period (2 weeks) of melatonin replenishment. This inhibition gradually weakened with time, since the degree of inhibition is negatively related with the dosage of melatonin. In conclusion, melatonin may regulate the activation of T/B cells, playing a critical role in the regulation of immune balance.


Assuntos
Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunidade Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Melatonina/farmacologia , Pinealectomia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citometria de Fluxo , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Glândula Pineal/anatomia & histologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real
3.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 268, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31615568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term use of most immunosuppressants to treat allergic contact dermatitis (ACD) generates unavoidable severe side effects, warranting discovery or development of new immunosuppressants with good efficacy and low toxicity is urgently needed to treat this condition. Hispidulin, a flavonoid compound that can be delivered topically due to its favorable skin penetrability properties, has recently been reported to possess anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive properties. However, no studies have investigated the effect of hispidulin on Th1 cell activities in an ACD setting. METHODS: A contact hypersensitivity (CHS) mouse model was designed to simulate human ACD. The immunosuppressive effect of hispidulin was investigated via ear thickness, histologic changes (i.e., edema and spongiosis), and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) gene expression in 1-fluoro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (DNFB)-sensitized mice. Cytotoxicity, total number of CD4+ T cells, and percentage of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells were also investigated in vitro using isolated CD4+ T cells from murine spleens. RESULTS: Topically applied hispidulin effectively inhibited ear swelling (as measured by reduction in ear thickness), and reduced spongiosis, IFN-γ gene expression, and the number of infiltrated immune cells. The inhibitory effect of hispidulin was observed within 6 h after the challenge, and the observed effects were similar to those effectuated after dexamethasone administration. Hispidulin at a concentration up to 50 µM also suppressed IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells in a dose-dependent manner without inducing cell death, and without a change in total frequencies of CD4+ T cells among different concentration groups. CONCLUSION: The results of this study, therefore, suggest hispidulin as a novel compound for the treatment of ACD via the suppression of IFN-γ production in Th1 cells.


Assuntos
Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/tratamento farmacológico , Flavonas/administração & dosagem , Imunossupressores/administração & dosagem , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/genética , Dermatite Alérgica de Contato/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia
4.
Scand J Immunol ; 90(6): e12821, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589347

RESUMO

As a result of the cancer immunotherapy revolution, more than 2000 immuno-oncology agents are currently being tested or are in use to improve responses. Not unexpectedly, the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James P. Allison and Tasuku Honjo for their development of cancer therapy by the blockade of co-inhibitory signals. Unfortunately, manipulation of the co-inhibitory receptors has also resulted in a safety issue: widespread iatrogenic immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Autoimmunity is emerging as the nemesis of immunotherapy. Originally, it was assumed that CTLA-4 blockade selectively targets T cells relevant to the antitumour immune response. However, an uncontrolled pan T cell activation was induced compromising tolerance to healthy self-tissues. The irAEs are very similar to that of a chronic graft-versus-host-disease (GVHD) reaction following allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). We hypothesized that ipilimumab induced a graft-versus-malignancy (GVM) effect, which eradicated metastatic melanoma in a minority of patients, but also involved an auto-GVHD reaction that resulted in widespread autoimmunity in the majority. Therefore, we argued for a profound theoretical point against the consensus of experts. The task is not to desperately put the genie back in the bottle by immune-suppressive treatments, but instead to harness the autoimmune forces. In this way, the same goal could be achieved by an antibody as by the adoptive transfer of alloreactive donor lymphocytes, but without severe GVHD. The proof-of-principle of a low-dose-combination immune checkpoint therapy, consisting only of approved drugs and treatments, was demonstrated in 111 stage IV cancer patients.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Autoimunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Biomarcadores Tumorais/antagonistas & inibidores , Terapia de Alvo Molecular , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/imunologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/efeitos adversos , Antígeno CTLA-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/metabolismo , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Metástase Neoplásica , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Neoplasias/genética , Neoplasias/patologia , Uso Off-Label , Estudo de Prova de Conceito , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Immunology ; 158(2): 136-149, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31515801

RESUMO

Immune-checkpoint blockade antibodies have been approved for the treatment of cancer. However, poorly immunogenic tumours are less responsive to such therapies. Agonistic anti-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) activate only cell-surface TLR4; in contrast, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activates both TLR4 and intracellular inflammatory caspases. In this study, we investigated the adjuvant activity of an anti-TLR4 mAb in T-cell-mediated antitumour immunity. The anti-TLR4 mAb induced the activation of antigen-specific T-cells in adoptive transfer studies. The growth of ovalbumin (OVA)-expressing tumours was significantly suppressed by administration of OVA and the anti-TLR4 mAb in combination, but not individually. The antitumour effect of anti-PD-1 mAb was enhanced in mice administered with OVA plus the anti-TLR4 mAb. The OVA-specific IFN-γ-producing CD8 T-cells were induced by administration of OVA and the anti-TLR4 mAb. The suppression of tumour growth was diminished by depletion of CD8, but not CD4, T-cells. The inflammatory response to the anti-TLR4 mAb was of significantly lesser magnitude than that to LPS, as assessed by NF-κB activation and production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1ß. Administration of LPS (at a dose that elicited levels of proinflammatory cytokines comparable to those by the anti-TLR4 mAb) plus OVA induced no or less-marked activation of OVA-specific T-cells and failed to suppress tumour growth in mice. In conclusion, the agonistic anti-TLR4 mAb induces potent CD8 T-cell-dependent antitumour immunity and an inflammatory response of lesser magnitude than does LPS. The agonistic anti-TLR4 mAb has potential as an adjuvant for use in vaccines against cancer.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Melanoma Experimental/terapia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/terapia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/patologia , Imunização , Imunoterapia/métodos , Interferon gama/genética , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-1beta/genética , Interleucina-1beta/imunologia , Interleucina-6/genética , Interleucina-6/imunologia , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/genética , Melanoma Experimental/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/imunologia , Ovalbumina/administração & dosagem , Cultura Primária de Células , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/genética , Neoplasias Cutâneas/imunologia , Neoplasias Cutâneas/patologia , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th1/imunologia , Células Th1/patologia , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/genética , Receptor 4 Toll-Like/imunologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/imunologia
6.
Org Biomol Chem ; 17(40): 8992-9000, 2019 10 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31497838

RESUMO

Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are a subset of recently identified innate-like T lymphocytes that appear to play an important role in many pathologies ranging from viral and bacterial infection, to autoimmune disorders and cancer. MAIT cells are activated via the presentation of ligands by MR1 on antigen presenting cells to the MAIT T cell receptor (TCR), however few studies have explored the effects of systematic changes to the ligand structure on MR1 binding and MAIT cell activation. Herein, we report on the first study into the effects of changes to the sugar motif in the known MAIT cell agonists 7-hydroxy-6-methyl-8-d-ribityllumazine (RL-6-Me-7-OH) and 5-(2-oxopropylideneamino)-6-d-ribitylaminouracil (5-OP-RU). Tetramer staining of MAIT cells revealed that the absence of the 2'-hydroxy group on the sugar backbone of lumazines improved MR1-MAIT TCR binding, which could be rationalised using computational docking studies. Although none of the lumazines activated MAIT cells, all 5-OP-RU analogues showed significant MAIT cell activation, with several analogues exhibiting comparable activity to 5-OP-RU. Docking studies with the 5-OP-RU analogues revealed different interactions between the sugar backbone and MR1 and the MAIT TCR compared to those observed for the lumazines and confirmed the importance of the 2'-hydroxy group for ligand binding and activity. Taken together, this information will assist in the development of future potent agonists and antagonists of MAIT cells.


Assuntos
Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe I/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Menor/metabolismo , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/efeitos dos fármacos , Pteridinas/farmacologia , Ribitol/análogos & derivados , Uracila/análogos & derivados , Humanos , Ligantes , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Estrutura Molecular , Células T Invariáveis Associadas à Mucosa/metabolismo , Pteridinas/síntese química , Pteridinas/química , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T , Ribitol/síntese química , Ribitol/química , Ribitol/farmacologia , Uracila/síntese química , Uracila/química , Uracila/farmacologia
7.
J Exp Clin Cancer Res ; 38(1): 355, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412896

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) is overexpressed in multiple cancers, which is associated with poor prognosis. Herceptin and other agents targeting HER2 have potent antitumor efficacy in patients with HER2-positive cancers. However, the development of drug resistance adversely impacts the efficacy of these treatments. It is therefore urgent to develop new HER2-targeted therapies. Bispecific antibodies (BsAbs) could guide immune cells toward tumor cells, and produced remarkable effects in some cancers. METHODS: A BsAb named M802 that targets HER2 and CD3 was produced by introducing a salt bridge and knobs-into-holes (KIHs) packing into the structure. Flow cytometry was performed to determine its binding activity and cytotoxicity. CCK-8, Annexin V/PI staining, western blotting, and ELISA were utilized to study its effect on cell proliferation, apoptosis, the signaling pathways of tumor cells, and the secretion of cytokines by immune cells. Subcutaneous tumor mouse models were used to analyze the in vivo antitumor effects of M802. RESULTS: We generated a new format of BsAb, M802, consisting of a monovalent unit against HER2 and a single chain unit against CD3. Our in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that M802 recruited CD3-positive immune cells and was more cytotoxic than Herceptin in cells with high expression of HER2, low expression of HER2, and Herceptin resistance. Although M802 showed weaker effects than Herceptin on the PI3K/AKT and MAPK pathways, it was more cytotoxic due to its specific recognition of HER2 and its ability to recruit effector cells via its anti-CD3 moiety. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicated that M802 exhibited potent antitumor efficacy in vitro and in vivo. M802 retained the function of Herceptin in antitumor signaling pathways, and also recruited CD3-positive immune cells to eliminate HER2-positive tumor cells. Therefore, M802 might be a promising HER2 targeted agent.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Biespecíficos/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/farmacologia , Complexo CD3/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptor ErbB-2/antagonistas & inibidores , Animais , Anticorpos Biespecíficos/química , Antineoplásicos Imunológicos/química , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Apoptose/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/imunologia , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/metabolismo , Citotoxicidade Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Melanoma Experimental , Camundongos , Peso Molecular , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Análise Espectral , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
8.
Transplant Proc ; 51(6): 2136-2140, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31399190

RESUMO

A regulatory T (Treg) cell/T helper 17 (Th17) cell imbalance is involved in many autoimmune diseases. Rapamycin (Rapa), a clinically used immunosuppressive drug, has been shown to inhibit Th17 cell differentiation but promote Treg cell generation. In this study, we aimed to study the mechanism of Rapa acting on Treg and Th17 cell differentiation. Purified mouse CD4+CD25- T cells were stimulated and polarized in vitro to generate Th17 or Treg cells in the presence or absence of Rapa. We first confirmed that Rapa inhibited the differentiation of Th17 cells and greatly promoted Treg cell generation in vitro. As metabolic pathways play a key role in T cell differentiation, we then detected the metabolic programs in Rapa-treated T cells. We found that Rapa blocked glycolysis in induced Th17 cells, evidenced by reduced glucose uptake, and inhibited expression of glucose transporter 1 and the rate-limiting enzyme HK2. In addition, the expression of c-Myc and of HIF-1α transcription factor, which regulate many genes involved in glycolysis, were inhibited by Rapa. Conversely, Rapa promoted fatty acid oxidation (FAO) metabolism in differentiated Treg cells, with the elevation of FAO product ß-hydroxybutyrate, and increased expression of ATGL and CPT1A, the key enzymes of FAO in differentiated Treg cells. The expression of phospho-AMPKα, the key signal in the regulation of FAO, was also promoted in Rapa-treated induced Treg cells. Together, these findings indicated that Rapa abrogated glycolysis in Th17 cells but facilitated FAO in induced Treg cells, which may underlie the mechanism by which Rapa regulates the Treg/Th17 balance.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Imunossupressores/farmacologia , Sirolimo/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Th17/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Diferenciação Celular/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Células Th17/imunologia
9.
Immunology ; 158(3): 171-193, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31424569

RESUMO

Activated T cells are pathological in various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases including Psoriasis, and also in graft rejection and graft-versus-host-disease. In these pathological conditions, selective silencing of activated T cells through physiological receptors they express remains a clinical challenge. In our previous studies we found that activation of dopamine receptors (DRs) in resting human T cells activates these cells, and induces by itself many beneficial T cell functions. In this study, we found that normal human T cells express all types of DRs, and that expression of D1R, D4R and D5R increases profoundly after T cell receptor (TCR) activation. Interestingly, DR agonists shift the membrane potential (Vm ) of both resting and activated human T cells, and induces instantaneous T cell depolarization within 15 seconds only. Thus, activation of DRs in T cells depolarize these immune cells, alike activation of DRs in neural cells. The skin of Psoriasis patients contains 20-fold more D1R+ T cells than healthy human skin. In line with that, 25-fold more D1R+ T cells are present in Psoriasis humanized mouse model. Highly selective D1-like receptor agonists, primarily Fenoldopam (Corlopam) - a D1-like receptor agonist and a drug used in hypertension, induced the following suppressive effects on activated T cells of Psoriasis patients: reduced chemotactic migration towards the chemokine SDF-1/CXCL12; reduced dramatically the secretion of eight cytokines: tumor necrosis factor-α, interferon-γ, interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), IL-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10; and reduced three T cell activation proteins/markers: CD69, CD28 and IL-2. Next, we invented a novel topical/dermal Fenoldopam formulation, allowing it to be spread on, and providing prolonged and regulated release in, diseased skin. Our novel topical/dermal Fenoldopam: reduced secretion of the eight cytokines by activated human T cells; reduced IL-1ß and IL-6 secretion by human lipopolysaccharide-inflamed skin; eliminated preferentially >90% of live and large/proliferating human T cells. Together, our findings show for the first time that both resting and activated T cells are depolarized instantaneously via DRs, and that targeting D1-like receptors in activated T cells and inflamed human skin by Fenoldopam, in Psoriasis, and potentially in other T cell-mediated diseases, could be therapeutic. Validation in vivo is required.


Assuntos
Fenoldopam/farmacologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Psoríase/imunologia , Receptores Dopaminérgicos/imunologia , Pele/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antígenos de Diferenciação de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Antígenos CD28/imunologia , Citocinas/imunologia , Feminino , Humanos , Lectinas Tipo C/imunologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Psoríase/patologia , Pele/patologia , Linfócitos T/patologia
10.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1361-1368, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31434170

RESUMO

Codium fragile is an edible seaweed in Asian countries that has been used as a thrombolytic, anticoagulant, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory agent. Ginseng has also been known to maintain immune homeostasis and to regulate the immune system via enhancing resistance to diseases and microorganisms. In this study, anionic macromolecules extracted from C. fragile (CFAM) were orally administered with red ginseng extract (100 mg/kg body weight) to cyclophosphamide-induced immunosuppressed male BALB/c mice to investigate the immune-enhancing cooperative effect of Codium fragile and red ginseng. Our results showed that supplementing CFAM with red ginseng extract significantly increased spleen index, T- and B-cell proliferation, NK cell activity, and splenic lymphocyte immuneassociated gene expression compared to those with red ginseng alone, even though a high concentration of CFAM with red ginseng decreased immune biomarkers. These results suggest that CFAM can be used as a co-stimulant to enhance health and immunity in immunosuppressed conditions.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Clorófitas/química , Substâncias Macromoleculares/farmacologia , Panax/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/química , Animais , Ânions/isolamento & purificação , Ânions/farmacologia , Ciclofosfamida/toxicidade , Quimioterapia Combinada , Imunossupressão , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Linfócitos/citologia , Linfócitos/imunologia , Substâncias Macromoleculares/isolamento & purificação , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Extratos Vegetais/química , Baço/imunologia
11.
J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 29(9): 1444-1452, 2019 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387341

RESUMO

The conventional prophylactic vaccines for human papillomavirus (HPV) efficiently prevent infection with high-risk HPV types, but they do not promote therapeutic effects against cervical cancer. Previously, we developed HPV16 E7-expressing Lactobacillus casei (L. casei-E7) as a therapeutic vaccine candidate for cervical cancer, which induces antitumor therapeutic effects in a TC-1 murine cancer model. To improve the therapeutic effect of L. casei-E7, we performed co-treatment with poly-gamma-glutamic acid (γ-PGA), a safe and edible biomaterial naturally secreted by Bacillus subtilis. We investigated their synergistic effect to improve antitumor efficacy in a murine cancer model. The treatment with γ-PGA did not show in vitro cytotoxicity against TC-1 tumor cells; however, an enhanced innate immune response including activation of dendritic cells was observed. Mice co-administered with γ-PGA and L. casei-E7 showed significantly suppressed growth of TC-1 tumor cells and an increased survival rate in TC-1 mouse models compared to those of mice vaccinated with L. casei-E7 alone. The administration of γ-PGA markedly enhanced the activation of natural killer (NK) cells but did not increase the E7-specific cytolytic activity of CD8+ T lymphocytes in mice vaccinated with L. casei-E7. Overall, our results suggest that oral administration of γ-PGA induces a synergistic antitumor effect in combination with L. casei-E7.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Vacinas Anticâncer/administração & dosagem , Lactobacillus casei/genética , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/genética , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/administração & dosagem , Ácido Poliglutâmico/análogos & derivados , Neoplasias do Colo do Útero/prevenção & controle , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Administração Oral , Animais , Vacinas Anticâncer/genética , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Sobrevivência Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Feminino , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas E7 de Papillomavirus/imunologia , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/genética , Vacinas contra Papillomavirus/imunologia , Ácido Poliglutâmico/administração & dosagem , Ácido Poliglutâmico/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , Ensaios Antitumorais Modelo de Xenoenxerto
12.
Immunology ; 158(2): 94-103, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31323138

RESUMO

Transgenic rice seeds that contain genetically modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2, the two major allergens of Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar; JC), have been developed as immunotherapeutic candidates for JC pollinosis. Because the transgenic rice (TG-rice) seeds express allergens containing whole amino acid sequences of Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in the endosperm tissue (edible part of rice grain), they can potentially target all Cry j 1- and Cry j 2-specific T-cells. However, it was unknown whether antigenicity of Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 could be completely preserved in TG-rice seeds. We verified the antigenicity of TG-rice seeds to T-cells through the analysis of the proliferative responses of T-cells in Cry j 1- or Cry j 2-immunized mice or T-cell lines to TG-rice seed extract. First, four mouse strains were immunized with Cry j 1 or Cry j 2. T-cells in the immunized mice proliferated on treatment with TG-rice seed extract, but not non-transgenic wild-type rice (WT-rice) seed extract. Furthermore, T-cell lines were established from the spleen cells of the immunized mice. Each T-cell line resulted in a proliferative response to TG-rice seed extract, but not to WT-rice seed extract, suggesting that TG-rice seeds certainly express T-cell epitopes corresponding to T-cell lines. Considering the modified amino acid sequences of Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in TG-rice seeds, the expression of specific T-cell epitopes suggested that TG-rice seeds express all possible T-cell epitope repertoires of Cry j 1 and Cry j 2.


Assuntos
Alérgenos/farmacologia , Antígenos de Plantas/imunologia , Epitopos de Linfócito T/imunologia , Oryza/química , Proteínas de Plantas/imunologia , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/imunologia , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Alérgenos/genética , Alérgenos/imunologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Antígenos de Plantas/química , Antígenos de Plantas/genética , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Cryptomeria/genética , Cryptomeria/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitopos de Linfócito T/química , Epitopos de Linfócito T/genética , Expressão Gênica , Imunização , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos , Oryza/genética , Oryza/imunologia , Mapeamento de Peptídeos , Extratos Vegetais/imunologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Pólen/genética , Pólen/imunologia , Cultura Primária de Células , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/induzido quimicamente , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia , Sementes/química , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/imunologia , Baço/patologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Transgenes
13.
J Neuroinflammation ; 16(1): 149, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31324254

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Unrestrained activation of Th1 and Th17 cells is associated with the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). While inactivation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), a GTPase that regulates mitochondrial fission, can reduce EAE severity by protecting myelin from demyelination, its effect on immune responses in EAE has not yet been studied. METHODS: We investigated the effect of Mdivi-1, a small molecule inhibitor of Drp1, on EAE. Clinical scores, inflammation, demyelination and Drp1 activation in the central nervous system (CNS), and T cell responses in both CNS and periphery were determined. RESULTS: Mdivi-1 effectively suppressed EAE severity by reducing demyelination and cellular infiltration in the CNS. Mdivi-1 treatment decreased the phosphorylation of Drp1 (ser616) on CD4+ T cells, reduced the numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells, and increased Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the CNS. Moreover, Mdivi-1 treatment effectively inhibited IFN-γ+, IL-17+, and GM-CSF+ CD4+ T cells, while it induced CD4+ Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in splenocytes by flow cytometry. CONCLUSIONS: Together, our results demonstrate that Mdivi-1 has therapeutic potential in EAE by modulating the balance between Th1/Th17 and regulatory T cells.


Assuntos
Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/imunologia , Encefalomielite Autoimune Experimental/patologia , Quinazolinonas/farmacologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Feminino , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Dinâmica Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Ligação a RNA/antagonistas & inibidores , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(14)2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31330988

RESUMO

Statins inhibiting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase are the standard treatment for hypercholesterolemia in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), mediated by inflammatory reactions within vessel walls. Several studies highlighted the pleiotropic effects of statins beyond their lipid-lowering properties. However, few studies investigated the effects of statins on T cell activation. This study evaluated the immunomodulatory capacities of three common statins, pitavastatin, atorvastatin, and rosuvastatin, in activated human T cells. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) results demonstrated stronger inhibitory effects of pitavastatin on the cytokine production of T cells activated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) plus ionomycin, including interleukin (IL)-2, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). Molecular investigations revealed that pitavastatin reduced both activating protein-1 (AP-1) DNA binding and transcriptional activities. Further exploration showed the selectively inhibitory effect of pitavastatin on the signaling pathways of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Our findings suggested that pitavastatin might provide additional benefits for treating hypercholesterolemia and ASCVD through its potent immunomodulatory effects on the suppression of ERK/p38/AP-1 signaling in human T cells.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Fator de Transcrição AP-1/metabolismo , Aterosclerose/etiologia , Aterosclerose/metabolismo , Citocinas/biossíntese , Citocinas/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Inflamação/etiologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Mediadores da Inflamação/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Modelos Biológicos , Ésteres de Forbol , Linfócitos T/imunologia
15.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3258, 2019 07 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332204

RESUMO

CD160 and BTLA both bind to herpes virus entry mediator. Although a negative regulatory function of BTLA in natural killer T (NKT) cell activation has been reported, whether CD160 is also involved is unclear. By analyzing CD160-/- mice and mixed bone marrow chimeras, we show that CD160 is not essential for NKT cell development. However, CD160-/- mice exhibit severe liver injury after in vivo challenge with α-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer). Moreover, CD160-/- mice are more susceptible to Concanavalin A challenge, and display elevated serum AST and ALT levels, hyperactivation of NKT cells, and enhanced IFN-γ, TNF, and IL-4 production. Lastly, inhibition of BTLA by anti-BTLA mAb aggravates α-GalCer-induced hepatic injury in CD160-/- mice, suggesting that both CD160 and BTLA serve as non-overlapping negative regulators of NKT cells. Our data thus implicate CD160 as a co-inhibitory receptor that delivers antigen-dependent signals in NKT cells to dampen cytokine production during early innate immune activation.


Assuntos
Antígenos CD/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Células T Matadoras Naturais/metabolismo , Receptores Imunológicos/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos CD/genética , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/etiologia , Doença Hepática Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/genética , Concanavalina A/administração & dosagem , Concanavalina A/toxicidade , Citocinas/metabolismo , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/metabolismo , Galactosilceramidas/administração & dosagem , Galactosilceramidas/toxicidade , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Células T Matadoras Naturais/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/genética , Membro 14 de Receptores do Fator de Necrose Tumoral/metabolismo , Análise de Sobrevida
16.
EBioMedicine ; 45: 328-340, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300344

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: TLR9 agonists are being developed as immunotherapy against malignancies and infections. TLR9 is primarily expressed in B cells and plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs). TLR9 signalling may be critically important for B cell activity in lymph nodes but little is known about the in vivo impact of TLR9 agonism on human lymph node B cells. As a pre-defined sub-study within our clinical trial investigating TLR9 agonist MGN1703 (lefitolimod) treatment in the context of developing HIV cure strategies (NCT02443935), we assessed TLR9 agonist-mediated effects in lymph nodes. METHODS: Participants received MGN1703 for 24 weeks concurrent with antiretroviral therapy. Seven participants completed the sub-study including lymph node resection at baseline and after 24 weeks of treatment. A variety of tissue-based immunologic and virologic parameters were assessed. FINDINGS: MGN1703 dosing increased B cell differentiation; activated pDCs, NK cells, and T cells; and induced a robust interferon response in lymph nodes. Expression of Activation-Induced cytidine Deaminase, an essential regulator of B cell diversification and somatic hypermutation, was highly elevated. During MGN1703 treatment IgG production increased and antibody glycosylation patterns were changed. INTERPRETATION: Our data present novel evidence that the TLR9 agonist MGN1703 modulates human lymph node B cells in vivo. These findings warrant further considerations in the development of TLR9 agonists as immunotherapy against cancers and infectious diseases. FUND: This work was supported by Aarhus University Research Foundation, the Danish Council for Independent Research and the NovoNordisk Foundation. Mologen AG provided study drug free of charge.


Assuntos
Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , DNA/administração & dosagem , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Receptor Toll-Like 9/genética , Adulto , Linfócitos B/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Glicosilação/efeitos dos fármacos , Infecções por HIV/genética , Infecções por HIV/virologia , HIV-1/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Interferon-alfa/genética , Linfonodos , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor Toll-Like 9/agonistas
17.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3000, 2019 07 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31278254

RESUMO

Tumor-driven immune suppression is a major barrier to successful immunotherapy in ovarian carcinomas (OvCa). Among various mechanisms responsible for immune suppression, arginase-1 (ARG1)-carrying small extracellular vesicles (EVs) emerge as important contributors to tumor growth and tumor escape from the host immune system. Here, we report that small EVs found in the ascites and plasma of OvCa patients contain ARG1. EVs suppress proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in vitro and in vivo in OvCa mouse models. In mice, ARG1-containing EVs are transported to draining lymph nodes, taken up by dendritic cells and inhibit antigen-specific T-cell proliferation. Increased expression of ARG1 in mouse OvCa cells is associated with accelerated tumor progression that can be blocked by an arginase inhibitor. Altogether, our studies show that tumor cells use EVs as vehicles to carry over long distances and deliver to immune cells a metabolic checkpoint molecule - ARG1, mitigating anti-tumor immune responses.


Assuntos
Arginase/metabolismo , Vesículas Extracelulares/imunologia , Neoplasias Ovarianas/imunologia , Evasão Tumoral/imunologia , Animais , Arginase/antagonistas & inibidores , Arginase/imunologia , Ascite/imunologia , Ascite/patologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD8-Positivos/metabolismo , Comunicação Celular/imunologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral/transplante , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos de Coortes , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Vesículas Extracelulares/metabolismo , Feminino , Humanos , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/sangue , Neoplasias Ovarianas/mortalidade , Neoplasias Ovarianas/patologia
18.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284478

RESUMO

Dihydroartemisinin (DHA) is a derivative of the herb Artemisia annua L. that has prominent immunomodulatory activity; however, its underlying mechanism remains elusive. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition characterized as an autoimmune disorder that includes dysfunctions in the T helper (Th)/T regulatory cell (Treg) balance, which normally plays pivotal roles in immune homeostasis. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of DHA to ameliorate IBD by restoring the Th/Treg cell balance. To this end, we established mouse models of colitis induced by oxazolone (OXA) and 2,4,6-trinitro-benzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). We then treated mice with DHA at 4, 8, or 16 mg/kg/day. DHA treatment ameliorated colitis signs and reduced lymphocyte infiltration and tissue fibrosis. Moreover, DHA decreased the numbers of Th1 and Th17 cells and Th9 and Th22 cells in TNBS- or OXA-induced colitis, respectively, and increased Tregs in both models. DHA (0.8 mg/mL) also inhibited activated CD4+ T lymphocytes, which was accompanied by apoptosis induction. Moreover, it promoted heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) production in vitro and in vivo, concomitant with CD4+ T cell apoptosis and restoration of the Th/Treg balance, and these effects were blocked by treatment with the HO-1 inhibitor Sn-protoporphyrin IX. Overall, these results suggest that DHA is a novel and valuable candidate for IBD therapy or Th/Treg immunoregulation.


Assuntos
Apoptose , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Heme Oxigenase-1/biossíntese , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/tratamento farmacológico , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/imunologia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/imunologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/imunologia , Animais , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Artemisininas/farmacologia , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Colite/tratamento farmacológico , Colite/imunologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Indução Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Doenças Inflamatórias Intestinais/enzimologia , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Camundongos , Oxazolona , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/citologia , Linfócitos T Auxiliares-Indutores/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Reguladores/citologia , Linfócitos T Reguladores/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácido Trinitrobenzenossulfônico
19.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2019: 8616154, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31281230

RESUMO

BCG, the only registered vaccine against Mycobacterial Tuberculosis (TB) infection, has been questioned for its protective efficacy for decades. Although lots of efforts were made to improve the BCG antigenicity, few studies were devoted to understand the role of host factors in the variability of the BCG protection. Using the IL-10KO mice and pulmonary tuberculosis infection model, we have addressed the role of IL-10 in the BCG vaccination efficacy. The data showed that IL-10-deficient dendritic cells (DCs) could promote the immune responses through upregulation of the surface costimulatory molecule expression and play an orchestra role through activating CD4+T cell. IL-10-deficient mice had higher IFN γ, TNF α, and IL-6 production after BCG vaccination, which was consistent with the higher proportion of IFN γ +CD3+, IFN γ +CD4+, and IFN γ +CD8+ T cells in the spleen. Particularly, the BCG-vaccinated IL-10KO mice showed less inflammation after TB challenge compared to WT mice, which was supported by the promoted Th1 and Tc, as well as the downregulated Treg responses in IL-10 deficiency. In a conclusion, we demonstrated the negative relationship between Th1/Tc responses with IL-10 production. IL-10 deficiency restored the type 1 immune response through DC activation, which provided better protection against TB infection. Hence, our study offers the first experimental evidence that, contrary to the modulation of BCG, host immunity plays a critical role in the BCG protective efficacy against TB.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Células Dendríticas/metabolismo , Interleucina-10/farmacologia , Células Th1/metabolismo , Administração Intranasal , Animais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/metabolismo , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Inflamação/metabolismo , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/efeitos dos fármacos , Linfócitos T Citotóxicos/metabolismo , Células Th1/efeitos dos fármacos
20.
Cancer Immunol Immunother ; 68(8): 1359-1368, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31332464

RESUMO

Immune checkpoint inhibitors targeting coinhibitory pathways in T cells possess efficacy in combating cancer. In addition to PD-1/PD-L1 and CTLA-4 antibodies which are already established in tumor immunotherapy, immune checkpoints such as LAG-3 or BTLA are emerging, which may have the potential to enhance T-cell responses alone or in combination with PD-1 blockers. CD4+ T cells play a central role in the immune system and contribute to productive immune responses in multiple ways. The effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors on this cell subset may thus critically influence therapeutic outcomes. Here, we have used in vitro responses to tetanus toxoid (TT) as a model system to study the effects of immune checkpoint inhibitors on CD4+ T-cell responses. CFSE-labeled PBMCs of 65 donors were stimulated with TT in the presence of blocking antibodies to PD-L1, CTLA-4, LAG-3, or BTLA for 7 days. We found that the PD-L1 antibody greatly enhanced cytokine production and antigen-specific CD4+ T-cell proliferation, whereas blocking antibodies to BTLA or LAG-3 did not augment responses to TT. Surprisingly, the presence of the therapeutic CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab resulted in a significant reduction of CD4+ T-cell proliferation and cytokine production. Stimulation experiments with an IgG4 variant of ipilimumab indicated that the inhibitory effect of ipilimumab was dependent on its IgG1 isotype. Our results indicate that the therapeutic CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab can impair CD4+ effector T-cell responses and that this activity is mediated by its Fc part and CD16-expressing cells.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Antineoplásicos/farmacologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/imunologia , Vacinas Anticâncer/imunologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Ipilimumab/farmacologia , Neoplasias/terapia , Anticorpos Monoclonais/uso terapêutico , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Antígeno B7-H1/imunologia , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/efeitos dos fármacos , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Fragmentos Fc das Imunoglobulinas/metabolismo , Ipilimumab/uso terapêutico , Ativação Linfocitária/efeitos dos fármacos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Receptores Imunológicos/imunologia , Toxoide Tetânico/imunologia
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